THE Questions WHEN should I teaching grammar? Every day? At the beginning of the lesson? HOW should I teach grammar? Deductive lesson (rule example) Inductive lesson (example rule) Should I use L1 or L2 to teach grammar?
Definition & Principles Input Processing Input processing is an approach to grammar instruction that guides learners to process what they see or hear. This approach helps learners connect language forms with their intended meanings. Learners must DO something with the input they see or hear.
Traditional approach Traditional approach: input developing system output focused practice a) Learners see or hear input. b) They think about it … (?) c) They practice during output.
Input processing approach IP approach : input developing system output focused practice a) Learners see or hear input. b) They DO something with what they see or hear. c) They produce the word or structure.
Traditional / Input processing: A review 1) Traditional approach: input developing system output focused practice 2) IP approach : input developing system output focused practice
NOTE For BOTH the traditional approach and the input processing approach teaching grammar includes three main phases: 1) providing input 2) fostering learners’ developing language system 3) encouraging output
Structure: verbs with “ing” Topic: leisure activities Going to the movies Shopping at the mall Eating pizza at Mafiosa’s Watching TV Talking to friends Riding a bike Dancing at a club Hiking at Radnor Lake Park Reading a book Sleeping late
Four kinds of IP activities: 1) Binary options 2) Matching 3) Selecting alternatives 4) Supplying information **Reminder: Students are listening OR reading and DOING something with what they hear/see. They are NOT speaking.
1. Binary options Indicate if you think the statements are TRUE or FALSE: TRUEFALSE I like eating pizza.__________ I enjoy going to the movies.__________ I do not like hiking.__________ I hate watching TV.__________ I really like reading books. __________ I do not like riding a bike.__________ I like hiking.__________ I love dancing.__________ (ORAL or WRITTEN input?)
2. Matching What do you like? I like … books. movies. music. nature. pizza. jokes. new clothes. (ORAL or WRITTEN?) I like … hiking. shopping. eating. laughing. reading. dancing. watching TV.
3. Selecting alternatives When I have free time I enjoy ___ watching TV. ___ reading a book. ___ talking to friends. When I am hungry I prefer ___ going out to a restaurant. ___ cooking dinner at home. ___ getting fast food. When I go out with my friends we like ___ going to the movies. ___ sitting in a bar. ___ dancing in a club. (ORAL or WRITTEN?)
4. Supplying information Fill in the blanks below and be prepared to share the information. Name ____________________ I like eating _______________________________. I love drinking _____________________________. I enjoy watching ___________________________. I prefer reading _____________________________. I do not like going _____________________________.
Elicit the rule State the rule clearly You can add “ing” to verbs. You can state preferences before the “ing” verb: I like going / I hate eating / I prefer dancing “ing” verbs are preceded by a helping verb: to be (I am reading) to like (I like shopping)
Guiding principles for input processing: Use both oral and written input. Focus on meaning before form. Have learners DO something with input. Design activities that require both discrete (one answer) and open-ended (personal opinion) answers. Have learners state the rule as final phase of the lesson.
References Farley, Andrew. 2004. Structured Input: Grammar Instruction for the Acquisition-Oriented Classroom. New York: McGraw Hill. Lee, James and Bill VanPatten. 2003. Making Communicative Language Teaching Happen (2 nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. Wong, Wynne. 2004. Input Enhancement: From Theory and Research to the Classroom. New York: McGraw Hill.
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.