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RETHINKING OLD AGE Tengku Aizan Hamid, PhD Director Institute Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.

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Presentation on theme: "RETHINKING OLD AGE Tengku Aizan Hamid, PhD Director Institute Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia."— Presentation transcript:

1 RETHINKING OLD AGE Tengku Aizan Hamid, PhD (aizan@putra.upm.edu.my) Director Institute Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia Tengku Aizan Hamid, PhD (aizan@putra.upm.edu.my) Director Institute Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia

2 Outline of talk  Comparative demography  Definition of age  What is active ageing  What is productive ageing  Barriers to active and productive ageing  Promotion of active and productive ageing  Conclusion

3 Comparative demography

4 Human survival curves What are the limits of human longevity and life expectancy

5 Number of Older Persons (60+) in the World by Continent, 1970 - 2020

6

7 Speed of population ageing in selected countries Number of years to shift older population from 7% to 14% Sources: (1) United Nations The Aging of Population and its Economic and Social Implication Population Studies No.26, New York, 1956 (Before 1940); (2) United Nations World Population Prospects 1990 Population Studies No. 120, New York, 1991 (After 1940), Tengku Aizan et al 2005

8 Distribution of Older Persons, 2000 Source: United Nations (2002) World Population Ageing 1950 – 2050 United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (2004) ESCAP Population Data Sheet Total number of Older Persons in ASEAN countries 37,314,5 thousand Ranking (N) #1 Indonesia #2Vietnam #3Thailand

9 Proportion of Older Persons, 2000 Source: United Nations (2002) World Population Ageing 1950 – 2050 United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (2004) ESCAP Population Data Sheet Percentage of Older Persons in ASEAN countries 7.1 Percent Ranking (%) #1 Singapore #2Thailand #3Indonesia

10 Ageing Index of ASEAN Countries, 2000 Source: United Nations Population Database (2004 Revision)

11 Older Population in ASEAN is increasing

12 Media Seminar on Active and Productive Ageing 17-18 December, 2005 Reinassance Hotel, Kota Bharu Proportion of Population Aged 65+, 60+, 50+ and 0 -14, Malaysia, 1970-2050 Tengku Aizan et al 2005

13 Year 2000Year 2035 Malaysia’s Age Pyramid Year 2000 and 2035

14 APEC/ASEAN Population and GDP, 2001

15 Imagine all the OLD PEOPLE…… OLD PEOPLE…… Song by: John Lenon (Imagine) Media Seminar on Active and Productive Ageing 17-18 December, 2005 Reinassance Hotel, Kota Bharu

16  Cohort  Time  Culture - Shapes the way in which we age because it influences all of the other determinants. Experience of Old Age Differs

17  Biological  Loss of reproductive ability  Grey hair?  Physical decline?  Psychological  Awareness that body no longer moves smoothly without effort  Social  Becoming grandparent?  Retirement?  Death of parents?  Loss of independence? Benchmarks of old age

18  Burdensome  Rigid  Slow  Ageism  ………….. Stereotyping Old Age

19 Hence, the need to rethink old age

20 Active ageing…. ….. is the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance Quality of Life as people age (WHO, 2002). ….. is the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance Quality of Life as people age (WHO, 2002).

21 The word ACTIVE refers to continuing participation in social, economic, cultural, spiritual and civic affairs, not just the ability to be physically active or to participate in the labor force (WHO, 2002)

22 Capacity of the an older person to continue to work in a paid or voluntary capacity Also refers to behaviours that are inner directed, personally meaningful, and satisfying to the older person, whether or not they can be categorised as paid or volunteer services and regardless of whether others benefit directly from them. Media Seminar on Active and Productive Ageing 17-18 December, 2005 Reinassance Hotel, Kota Bharu Productive Ageing Kaye et al 2003

23  Based on the recognition of the human rights of older people and the United Nations Principles of independence, participation, dignity, care and sell-fulfillment. The Active Ageing Approach

24  It shifts strategic planning away from a ‘needs-based’ approach (which assumes that older people are passive targets) to a right-based approach (recognizes the rights of people to equality of opportunity and treatment in all aspects of life). The Active Ageing Approach

25 Active ageing as a life long process  Barriers along the life course needs to be addressed  In our context, what really is the accepted or universal definition of active ageing  Active ageing as successful ageing?  Active ageing as healthy ageing?  Barriers along the life course needs to be addressed  In our context, what really is the accepted or universal definition of active ageing  Active ageing as successful ageing?  Active ageing as healthy ageing?

26 A Life Course Approach to Active Aging Early Life Growth and Development Adult Life Maintaining highest possible level of function Adult Life Maintaining independence and preventing disability Disability threshold* Rehabilitation and ensuring the quality of life Age Functional Capacity Range of function in individual

27 Disabled and disability-free expectancy at age 65 Australia Austria Canada France Netherlands Switzerland United Kingdom United States Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996). Global aging into the 21st Century. Washington, DC.

28 The Determinants of Active Ageing ACTIVE AGING CULTURE GENDER Economic determinants Social determinants Behavioural determinants Health & social service Physical environment Personal determinants

29 Principles of active ageing  Activity :-meaningful and contribute to well being of older persons  Encompass all older people  Frail, dependent included  Preventive concept  Ill-health, disability, dependency,loss of skills  Activity :-meaningful and contribute to well being of older persons  Encompass all older people  Frail, dependent included  Preventive concept  Ill-health, disability, dependency,loss of skills

30 Principles of active ageing  Maintenance of intergenerational solidarity  Embody both rights and obligations  Participative and empowering  Respect national and cultural diversity  Maintenance of intergenerational solidarity  Embody both rights and obligations  Participative and empowering  Respect national and cultural diversity (Walker, 2002)

31 Physical Environment  Age friendly  Accessible and affordable public transportation services  Security (Criminal & Hazard etc)  Age friendly  Accessible and affordable public transportation services  Security (Criminal & Hazard etc)

32  Social Support  Opportunities for education and lifelong learning  Empowerment  Supportive neighbourhood  Protection from violence and abuse Social Environment

33 Economic Environment  Although life expectancy has increased dramatically, but the employment opportunity for the elderly is very limited  Income  Social protection

34 Country, year 45-5050-5455-6061-6565+ Malaysia, 200074.267.652.242.2NIL Singapore, 200077.369.151.731.717.8 Indonesia, 199980.778.170.949.8NIL Philippine, 200480.7NIL72.6NIL41.4 Brunei,72.874.670.560.238.4 Myanmar, 198362.761.5605338.4 Cambodia, 199890.588.183.972.462.1 Vietnam, 198982.374.66243.518.7 Thailand, 200489.480.739 Lao People's Dem RepNIL Estimates and Projections of the economically active population. International Labor Organization http://ww.ilo.org

35 Technological Environment  Extended life span  Assistive technology  Access to information

36 Physical fitness, mental health, social well being and independent economic status are necessary to lead active and contented life as age advances ” (Dhar, 2000).

37 Promotiing of Active and Productive Ageing

38 Key to active and productive ageing………… Your health

39 Promoting Health & Preventing Disease & Injury Engaging With Life Optimizing Mental/ Cognitive& Physical Function Managing Chronic Conditions Healthy Aging SecurityFairness Autonomy Population Health Population Approach Health Determinants DignityParticipation Source: Alberta’s Health Aging & Seniors Wellness Strategic Framework 2002- 2012. (2002). Alberta Health and Wellness & Alberta Seniors, Edmonton, p2 Alberta Rose Model

40 ACTIVE & PRODUCTIVE AGEING Individual/ Civil Society Government Private

41 Individual/ Civil Society  Preparation  Social participation  Self help groups  Formal services  Preparation  Social participation  Self help groups  Formal services

42 Gender Culture F. Quality of Life C. Internal Resources/Disposition of Successful Ageing E. External Resources D. Proactive Adaptation A. Temporal & Spatial Context B. Cumulative Stress Exposure HopefulnessSelf-EsteemAltruism Life SatisfactionCoping Disposition Affective States Meaning in Life Maintenance of Valued Activities & Relationship Financial ResourcesSocial Resources Emergent Resources Access to Technology Access to Healthcare Long Term Events Recent Events Chronic Illness Social Losses Person-Environment Incongruence Temporal context of History & Biography Spatial context Of demography & community Traditional Preventive Adaptation Health Promotion Planning Ahead Helping Others Traditional Corrective Adaptation Marshalling Support Environmental Modification Role Substitution Emergent Adaptation Preventive & Corrective Technology Use Health Care Consumerism Self Improvement Adapted: Kahana, kahana& Kercher, 2003 F. QOL Outcomes Path 1 Path 9 Path 6a Path3 Path2a Path 2b Path 5 Path 4 Path 8 Path 7

43 Public  Regulatory role  Promotion  Incentives  Facilitate

44 Policy statement of the National Policy for Older Persons To create a society of elderly people who are contented and possess a high sense of self worth and dignity, by optimizing their self potential and ensuring that they enjoy every opportunity as well as care and protection of members of their family, society and nation.

45 Private Sectors  Be sensitive to changing social need  Corporate responsibility  Continual commitment  Creating conducive environment for employment and services

46 LEISURE WORK EDUCATION OLD MIDDLE YOUNG Age Differentiated Age Age Integrated EDUCATION WORK LEISURE Types of Social Structures Source: Riley, 1994

47 Media Role In Promoting Active & Productive Ageing Media Seminar on Active and Productive Ageing 17-18 December, 2005 Reinassance Hotel, Kota Bharu Promoting positive image of ageing Older people & the ageing process – negative interpretations – through our language, newspapers, films and television screens. Older people – dependent, frail, senile or lonely Reality – many older people lead active and healthy lives

48 CONCLUSION  Ageing needs REBRANDING  Remove barriers to active and productive ageing  Promote active and productive ageing  Change in attitudes  Structural lag  Cultural lag  Individual aged  Legislation  Social protection  Partnerships  Role of NGO’s  Media as vehicle for change

49 The future aged will be us…  What’s your vision of your aged self?

50 Just because I am an old rambutan tree doesn’t mean I grow old rambutans

51 For Your Kind Attention


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