Presentation on theme: "RETHINKING OLD AGE Tengku Aizan Hamid, PhD Director Institute Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia."— Presentation transcript:
RETHINKING OLD AGE Tengku Aizan Hamid, PhD Director Institute Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, Selangor Malaysia Tengku Aizan Hamid, PhD Director Institute Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, Selangor Malaysia
Outline of talk Comparative demography Definition of age What is active ageing What is productive ageing Barriers to active and productive ageing Promotion of active and productive ageing Conclusion
Human survival curves What are the limits of human longevity and life expectancy
Number of Older Persons (60+) in the World by Continent,
Speed of population ageing in selected countries Number of years to shift older population from 7% to 14% Sources: (1) United Nations The Aging of Population and its Economic and Social Implication Population Studies No.26, New York, 1956 (Before 1940); (2) United Nations World Population Prospects 1990 Population Studies No. 120, New York, 1991 (After 1940), Tengku Aizan et al 2005
Distribution of Older Persons, 2000 Source: United Nations (2002) World Population Ageing 1950 – 2050 United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (2004) ESCAP Population Data Sheet Total number of Older Persons in ASEAN countries 37,314,5 thousand Ranking (N) #1 Indonesia #2Vietnam #3Thailand
Proportion of Older Persons, 2000 Source: United Nations (2002) World Population Ageing 1950 – 2050 United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (2004) ESCAP Population Data Sheet Percentage of Older Persons in ASEAN countries 7.1 Percent Ranking (%) #1 Singapore #2Thailand #3Indonesia
Ageing Index of ASEAN Countries, 2000 Source: United Nations Population Database (2004 Revision)
Older Population in ASEAN is increasing
Media Seminar on Active and Productive Ageing December, 2005 Reinassance Hotel, Kota Bharu Proportion of Population Aged 65+, 60+, 50+ and 0 -14, Malaysia, Tengku Aizan et al 2005
Year 2000Year 2035 Malaysia’s Age Pyramid Year 2000 and 2035
APEC/ASEAN Population and GDP, 2001
Imagine all the OLD PEOPLE…… OLD PEOPLE…… Song by: John Lenon (Imagine) Media Seminar on Active and Productive Ageing December, 2005 Reinassance Hotel, Kota Bharu
Cohort Time Culture - Shapes the way in which we age because it influences all of the other determinants. Experience of Old Age Differs
Biological Loss of reproductive ability Grey hair? Physical decline? Psychological Awareness that body no longer moves smoothly without effort Social Becoming grandparent? Retirement? Death of parents? Loss of independence? Benchmarks of old age
Burdensome Rigid Slow Ageism ………….. Stereotyping Old Age
Hence, the need to rethink old age
Active ageing…. ….. is the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance Quality of Life as people age (WHO, 2002). ….. is the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance Quality of Life as people age (WHO, 2002).
The word ACTIVE refers to continuing participation in social, economic, cultural, spiritual and civic affairs, not just the ability to be physically active or to participate in the labor force (WHO, 2002)
Capacity of the an older person to continue to work in a paid or voluntary capacity Also refers to behaviours that are inner directed, personally meaningful, and satisfying to the older person, whether or not they can be categorised as paid or volunteer services and regardless of whether others benefit directly from them. Media Seminar on Active and Productive Ageing December, 2005 Reinassance Hotel, Kota Bharu Productive Ageing Kaye et al 2003
Based on the recognition of the human rights of older people and the United Nations Principles of independence, participation, dignity, care and sell-fulfillment. The Active Ageing Approach
It shifts strategic planning away from a ‘needs-based’ approach (which assumes that older people are passive targets) to a right-based approach (recognizes the rights of people to equality of opportunity and treatment in all aspects of life). The Active Ageing Approach
Active ageing as a life long process Barriers along the life course needs to be addressed In our context, what really is the accepted or universal definition of active ageing Active ageing as successful ageing? Active ageing as healthy ageing? Barriers along the life course needs to be addressed In our context, what really is the accepted or universal definition of active ageing Active ageing as successful ageing? Active ageing as healthy ageing?
A Life Course Approach to Active Aging Early Life Growth and Development Adult Life Maintaining highest possible level of function Adult Life Maintaining independence and preventing disability Disability threshold* Rehabilitation and ensuring the quality of life Age Functional Capacity Range of function in individual
Disabled and disability-free expectancy at age 65 Australia Austria Canada France Netherlands Switzerland United Kingdom United States Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996). Global aging into the 21st Century. Washington, DC.
The Determinants of Active Ageing ACTIVE AGING CULTURE GENDER Economic determinants Social determinants Behavioural determinants Health & social service Physical environment Personal determinants
Principles of active ageing Activity :-meaningful and contribute to well being of older persons Encompass all older people Frail, dependent included Preventive concept Ill-health, disability, dependency,loss of skills Activity :-meaningful and contribute to well being of older persons Encompass all older people Frail, dependent included Preventive concept Ill-health, disability, dependency,loss of skills
Principles of active ageing Maintenance of intergenerational solidarity Embody both rights and obligations Participative and empowering Respect national and cultural diversity Maintenance of intergenerational solidarity Embody both rights and obligations Participative and empowering Respect national and cultural diversity (Walker, 2002)
Physical Environment Age friendly Accessible and affordable public transportation services Security (Criminal & Hazard etc) Age friendly Accessible and affordable public transportation services Security (Criminal & Hazard etc)
Social Support Opportunities for education and lifelong learning Empowerment Supportive neighbourhood Protection from violence and abuse Social Environment
Economic Environment Although life expectancy has increased dramatically, but the employment opportunity for the elderly is very limited Income Social protection
Country, year Malaysia, NIL Singapore, Indonesia, NIL Philippine, NIL72.6NIL41.4 Brunei, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Lao People's Dem RepNIL Estimates and Projections of the economically active population. International Labor Organization
Technological Environment Extended life span Assistive technology Access to information
Physical fitness, mental health, social well being and independent economic status are necessary to lead active and contented life as age advances ” (Dhar, 2000).
Promotiing of Active and Productive Ageing
Key to active and productive ageing………… Your health
Promoting Health & Preventing Disease & Injury Engaging With Life Optimizing Mental/ Cognitive& Physical Function Managing Chronic Conditions Healthy Aging SecurityFairness Autonomy Population Health Population Approach Health Determinants DignityParticipation Source: Alberta’s Health Aging & Seniors Wellness Strategic Framework (2002). Alberta Health and Wellness & Alberta Seniors, Edmonton, p2 Alberta Rose Model
ACTIVE & PRODUCTIVE AGEING Individual/ Civil Society Government Private
Individual/ Civil Society Preparation Social participation Self help groups Formal services Preparation Social participation Self help groups Formal services
Gender Culture F. Quality of Life C. Internal Resources/Disposition of Successful Ageing E. External Resources D. Proactive Adaptation A. Temporal & Spatial Context B. Cumulative Stress Exposure HopefulnessSelf-EsteemAltruism Life SatisfactionCoping Disposition Affective States Meaning in Life Maintenance of Valued Activities & Relationship Financial ResourcesSocial Resources Emergent Resources Access to Technology Access to Healthcare Long Term Events Recent Events Chronic Illness Social Losses Person-Environment Incongruence Temporal context of History & Biography Spatial context Of demography & community Traditional Preventive Adaptation Health Promotion Planning Ahead Helping Others Traditional Corrective Adaptation Marshalling Support Environmental Modification Role Substitution Emergent Adaptation Preventive & Corrective Technology Use Health Care Consumerism Self Improvement Adapted: Kahana, kahana& Kercher, 2003 F. QOL Outcomes Path 1 Path 9 Path 6a Path3 Path2a Path 2b Path 5 Path 4 Path 8 Path 7
Public Regulatory role Promotion Incentives Facilitate
Policy statement of the National Policy for Older Persons To create a society of elderly people who are contented and possess a high sense of self worth and dignity, by optimizing their self potential and ensuring that they enjoy every opportunity as well as care and protection of members of their family, society and nation.
Private Sectors Be sensitive to changing social need Corporate responsibility Continual commitment Creating conducive environment for employment and services
LEISURE WORK EDUCATION OLD MIDDLE YOUNG Age Differentiated Age Age Integrated EDUCATION WORK LEISURE Types of Social Structures Source: Riley, 1994
Media Role In Promoting Active & Productive Ageing Media Seminar on Active and Productive Ageing December, 2005 Reinassance Hotel, Kota Bharu Promoting positive image of ageing Older people & the ageing process – negative interpretations – through our language, newspapers, films and television screens. Older people – dependent, frail, senile or lonely Reality – many older people lead active and healthy lives
CONCLUSION Ageing needs REBRANDING Remove barriers to active and productive ageing Promote active and productive ageing Change in attitudes Structural lag Cultural lag Individual aged Legislation Social protection Partnerships Role of NGO’s Media as vehicle for change
The future aged will be us… What’s your vision of your aged self?
Just because I am an old rambutan tree doesn’t mean I grow old rambutans