Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-2 PART II: Introduction nEverly and Benson’s Disorders of Arousal Model: The most comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms of the stress-disease process nPotential stressors trigger limbic system arousal (can become Limbic Hypersensitivity Phenomenon, or LHP) nLimbic arousal triggers neurological, neuronendocrine, & endocrine stress axes nOverstimulation of those axes triggers stress arousal (can become arousal disorder)
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-3 PART II: Introduction (cont’d) nEverly and Lating (2002) used Everly and Benson’s model to identify the three key elements of arousal that characterize the stress response and are precursors to stress-related disease development uIncreased neurotransmitter arousal and activity uIncreased neuromuscular arousal uIncreased negative cognitive arousal
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-4 PART II: Introduction (cont’d) nLinked together, these three key elements initiate and sustain the stress response nA comprehensive model for coping with stress needs strategies to break this chain and start the relaxation response nThe stress management strategies of the Five Rs of Coping with Stress Model combat one or more of the three levels of arousal identified by Everly and Lating
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-5 PART II: Introduction (cont’d) nThe Five Rs of Coping with Stress Model uRethink uReduce uRelax uRelease uReorganize nA synergistic effect occurs when all five work together simultaneously
Akira Kaede/Getty Images Chapter 7 Rethinking the Big Picture
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-7 Rethinking Your Perspective on the World nMost of our stress is determined by the way we view uthe world in general upotential stressors in particular nOften, our appraisal of potential stressors and the emotions aroused by them is inaccurate (based on a distorted world view or faulty thinking)
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-8 Rethinking Your Perspective on the World nYour perspective: your big picture of how the world and people in it should be nThere are many ways to change one’s perspective for the purpose of reducing stress
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-9 Knowing What You Value nOur values are the mirror of our personalities nValues clarification: a three- part process uPrizing beliefs and behaviors uChoosing beliefs and behaviors uActing on beliefs
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-10 Whose Life Is It Anyway? nMost people are caught up in living someone else’s life nBeing out of control is being less hardy and stress resistant nPulling one’s own strings uHaving an internal locus of control uResisting being swayed by others uMaking your own plans and decisions, based on a rational assessment of issues uNot buying into illogical assumptions about potential stressors
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-11 Purposeful Living and Your Own Goal Setting nPurposeful living: having a purpose that meshes with who you are, your values, and your daily life criteria nGoals should be realistic uSmall uManageable uAchievable nGoals should have measurable objectives
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-12 Expecting and Embracing Change n“The only constant in life is change.” nUnderstanding that life is constantly changing will help us accept change and rethink it as a potential stressor nTo thrive (not merely survive), we must adapt to change or be left behind nHardy people embrace change, adapt to it, and thrive under changing circumstances (Kobassa et al.)
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-13 Putting Things in Proper Perspective nRealize you are not the center of the universe (Naikan Philosophy). nAccept the fact that you cannot plan for and control everything nAppreciate the humor in life nOne must develop three humor skills (Metcalf & Felible)
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-14 Embracing the Absurdity of Difficult Situations nHumor skill #1: Accepting absurdity/ Radical acceptance. uThis will let you escape from the center of the universe nHumor skill #2: Take yourself lightly but your work problem seriously. uIt exemplifies grace and modesty uIt is characterized by a humble attitude and a proper perspective n Humor skill #3: Having a sense of joy in being alive. uNear death experiences can change perspectives.
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-15 Putting Humor Into Your Life nHumor helps us go with the flow nIts root is umor, Latin for fluid, like water. nIt is physiologically impossible to be laughing and stressed at the same time
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-16 Reducing Stress by Enjoying Life More nMany have forgotten that we need and deserve to have fun nMost other cultures take midday breaks or longer vacations nWork has become the end rather than the means
Akira Kaede/Getty Images 7-17 Changing Perspective by Slowing the Pace of Your Life nThe pace of life affects the quality of life uLiving life too fast doesn’t allow one time to enjoy it uStop (or at least slow down) and smell the roses u8 week classes?