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如何指導小論文寫作 陳其芬 國立高雄第一科技大學 應用英語系副教授 99 年度高職外語群科教師專業知能研習講座 April 1, 2010 台南高商 How to Guide Students in Writing a Research Paper.

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Presentation on theme: "如何指導小論文寫作 陳其芬 國立高雄第一科技大學 應用英語系副教授 99 年度高職外語群科教師專業知能研習講座 April 1, 2010 台南高商 How to Guide Students in Writing a Research Paper."— Presentation transcript:

1 如何指導小論文寫作 陳其芬 國立高雄第一科技大學 應用英語系副教授 99 年度高職外語群科教師專業知能研習講座 April 1, 2010 台南高商 How to Guide Students in Writing a Research Paper

2 2 Questions for teachers: 你曾經寫過論文式的報告嗎 ? 你認為什麼是小論文 ? 為什麼要訓練學生寫小論文 ? * 你覺得指導小論文的困難是什麼 ?

3 3 TRUTH truth, truth, truth, truth, truth… vs. Do you believe there is one single “correct” answer or there are many answers that can be all true? One BIG TRUTH or many small truths?

4 4 *Challenges for project-based learning 1.forms of projects 2.time management for both teachers and students 3.class size, grouping of students 4.topic selection 5.teacher’s role 6.teaching methods 7.project evaluation (formative & summative) 8.students’ language problems …?

5 5 *Forms of Projects a research study a booklet or newspaper a piece of creative writing a presentation with powerpoint slides a drama a reader’s theater a video a website …?

6 6 *Teacher’s Role The teacher is a –coach, –facilitator, –guide, –advisor, –mentor… But the teacher is NOT a –director, –designer, –manager, –producer of the project

7 7 Month 1: Orientation and basic inquiry skills building - select a topic & develop a project idea Month 2:Project design and data collection - develop a workable plan - collect data Month 3:Information searching & critical thinking skills building - search, evaluate, organize, analyze, synthesize information Month 4:Drafting & revising / Practicing & rehearsing Month 5:Presentation of the project & final reflection *Example of Time Management

8 8 *Formative evaluation Evaluation can be done by teachers, peers, or oneself. Students write weekly learning journals or blogs: reflecting on work, checking progress, and identifying areas of strength and weakness. Students sharing their progress and difficulties in class. Use portfolio evaluation.

9 9 Outline 1.Before starting a research project 2.Choosing a topic 3.Finding information 4.Evaluating sources 5.Working with sources 6.Writing a research paper 7.Conclusion

10 10 1. Before starting a research project You need to know 1)what research is 2)what readers (judges) expect to read 3)how much time you have

11 11 1-1 What is research? Research is a systematic inquiry, consisting of –researchable questions –data –analysis & interpretation of data “Research is not only about reporting on what others have already said; it is about joining the conversation, discovering, clarifying, refuting, extending, or adding to the body of knowledge in a field.” (p. 2) Ruszkiewicz, J., Walker, J. R., & Pemberton, M. A. (2003). Bookmarks: A Guide to Research and Writing. Longman.

12 12 Writing a research paper requires Critical literacy skills: searching, selecting, evaluating, synthesizing, applying information Argumentation writing skills: making points clearly, appropriately, and persuasively Two key requirements: providing evidence + making logical sense 1-1 What is research?

13 13 * 摘自全國高級中學小論文寫作比賽評審要點 一、小論文四大基本架構為: 「壹、前言」、「貳、正文」、「參、結論」、「肆、引註資料」, 未遵循此架構者不接受,請給一分淘汰。 二、評分重點: 1 、前言:是否述及研究動機、研究目的、研究方法、論文架構與範圍等。 2 、正文:各標題之安排是否合乎邏輯,內容是否完整、是否分層次論述。 3 、結論:是否提出自己的觀點或發現。 4 、引註資料來源是否只有網站或能善用圖書館各項資源 ( 例如 : 圖書、期刊 、報紙、資料庫 …) 。參考資料至少三篇,但引用篇幅不得超過 1/3 。 三、未按照寫作格式要求標準之作品,總分請扣一分。 [ 註 : 滿分為五分 ] 1-2 What do readers/judges expect to read?

14 14 1-2 What do readers/judges expect to read? 作品以全英文方式撰寫。 內容架構: - Abstract (摘要) - Table of Contents (目錄) 1) Introduction (前言) 2) Methods (研究方法) 3) Findings/Discussion (結果/討論) 4) Conclusion (結論) - References (參考書目) 評分標準: 內容 40% 創意 20% 語文表達 30% 格式及 標點符號 10% * 摘自 99 年高職外語群專題製作競賽參賽辦法

15 15 1.Introduction –background of the topic –motivation for the study –research questions/purpose of the study –significance of the study Q: Do we need literature review in a research paper? (See the example: Reaching the Veil of Death Makers)Reaching the Veil of Death Makers 1-2 What do readers/judges expect to read?

16 16 2.Methods (research design, context, data collection, data analysis) –From what sources did you find the information to answer your research questions? (e.g., online and library references, interview, and responses to the questionnaire) –How did you conduct the interview and who were your interviewees? –How did you design and administer the questionnaire? –Who filled out the questionnaire? –How did you analyze all the data sources? 1-2 What do readers/judges expect to read?

17 17 3.Findings/Discussion –What did you find by doing this research? –How do you interpret your findings? What do you learn from your findings? 4.Conclusion –Summary of your findings –Contributions of this research –Limitations of the study and recommendations for further research 1-2 What do readers/judges expect to read?

18 18 1-3 How much time do you have? Know when the due date is. Develop a manageable research plan. Create a schedule for your research project. 1. choosing a topic  2. finding information  3. evaluating and organizing information  4. drafting your paper  5. revising your paper  6. producing the final paper

19 19 2. Choosing a topic 3 Principles: Choose a research topic that –you want to do (interest & enthusiasm) –you can do (ability & doability), and –is worth doing (significance).

20 20 2-1 How to choose a topic Browsing previous research topics Brainstorming Exploring a broad subject Focusing a specific subject Examining recent hot issues

21 21 2-2 Considering the topic as a research question 1.Questions of fact 2.Questions of definition 3.Questions of value (strengths & weaknesses) 4.Questions of causality 5.Questions of consequence / impact

22 22 2-3 Examples of research topics From general to specific: Technology and life  How has Facebook changed the way we communicate? Do we need surveillance cameras on every corner? Marketing strategies  Is the image of women in TV commercials appropriate? Weight loss  Can diet pills help people lose weight? Analysis of characters in fairytales  Gender bias in three popular fairytales

23 23 3. Finding information Using library sources Conducting electronic searches Writing email to request information from professional organizations or experts

24 24 3-1 Conducting electronic searches Using more than one search engine Reading the URL carefully Refining your search

25 25 Reading the URL carefully What kind of information source do you think is more reliable for your topic? Is the domain extension appropriate for the content? What agency/institution "published" the page? 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 台灣光華雜誌 Sinorama 英文版 2. 行政院新聞局英文網站 (Government Information Office) 3.The Purdue Online Writing Lab 4.Wikipedia (English version)

26 26 Refining your research (1) Using advanced search functions

27 27 Refining your research (2) Broaden or narrow your search by combing words or phrases using the Boolean operators: AND, OR, and NOT. An asterisk (*) at the end of a word stem provides for all variants on the word stem. Example: educat* will retrieve educate, educating, education, educational, educator, educators, etc. Use parentheses to clarify relationships between search terms. Example: (television or mass media) and women This search looks for both "television and women" and "mass media and women." Use quotation marks (“xxx xxx”) around a phrase to find an exact match. It means all the words in the phrase cannot be separated.

28 28 3.2 Writing emails to request information Writing emails to request information from professional organizations or experts –formal address term –self-introduction –purpose / request –reasons –thanking –signature

29 29 4. Evaluating sources 1.Relevancy: How relevant is the source to your topic? 2.Currency: Is the source up-to-date? 3.Authority: Is the source reliable? What are the author’s credentials? 4.Purpose: Why is this information published? 5.Validity: How valid is the information? What evidence does the information provide? 6.Objectivity: Does the source give a balanced or a one- sided biased view? 7.Comprehensiveness: Does the source provide an adequate, comprehensive information?

30 30 5. Working with sources 1.Classify the information you find (importance, types of sources, key information, etc.). 2.Distinguish facts from opinions. 3.Take careful notes (date, author, key points, quotations, citations). 4.Select direct quotations strategically. 5.Avoid plagiarism. Always give credit to the originator of the idea for quotations and paraphrases (This shows you’ve done your research and tells readers where to find further information). 6.Whenever possible, use primary sources. 7.Summarize sources to highlight key concepts. 8.Consider whether you need to revise your purpose or refine your claim.

31 31 6. Writing a research paper 1.Develop your thesis statement. 2.Create a blueprint for your project. –thesis –background information & definition –claims –evidence –conclusion 3.Choose a pattern of organization. –cause and effect –problem and solution –strengths and weaknesses –Comparison and contrast

32 32 6. Writing a research paper 4.Write a strong introduction –Begin with a question or a series of question. –Begin by quoting a key source. –Begin by showing that your topic has long been neglected, misunderstood, or misrepresented. –Begin with a story. –Begin with your thesis/purpose. 5.Write a strong conclusion. –Summarize the main points you have made. –Make recommendations or suggestions. –Link the end to the beginning. –Place your argument in a larger context. –Avoid adding new points.

33 33 6. Writing a research paper 6.Make connections and use transitions (1) –Addition: also, again, as well as, besides, coupled with, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly –Consequence: accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, for this purpose, hence, so then, subsequently, therefore, thus –Generalizing: as a rule, as usual, for the most part, in general, generally speaking, ordinarily, usually –Exemplifying: chiefly, especially, in particular, particularly, markedly, namely, including, specifically –Illustration: for example, for instance, for one thing, as an illustration, illustrated with, as an example, in this case, such as

34 34 6. Writing a research paper 6.Make connections and use transitions (2) –Emphasis: above all, chiefly, with attention to, especially, particularly, singularly –Similarity: comparatively, coupled with, correspondingly, identically, likewise, similar to, moreover, together with –Exception: aside from, barring, besides, except, excepting, excluding, exclusive of, other than, outside of –Restatement: in essence, in other words, namely, that is, that is to say, in short, in brief, to put it differently –Contrast and Comparison: in contrast, on the contrary, conversely, instead, rather, on one hand, on the other hand, yet, but, however, nevertheless, by the same token, likewise, similarly

35 35 6. Writing a research paper 6.Make connections and use transitions (3) –Sequence: at first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, in the beginning, at the same time, meanwhile, simultaneously, in the meantime, for the time being, for now, the next step, in time, in turn, later on, next, then, soon,later, earlier, afterward, finally, at last, in the end –Summarizing: after all, all in all, all things considered, briefly, by and large, in any case, in any event, in brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in summary, to sum up, to summarize, in the final analysis

36 36 6. Writing a research paper 7.Write effectively and professionally. –Find language that addresses readers intelligently. –Give specific details. –State ideas positively. –Write concisely and avoid redundancy. –Show and don’t tell. Avoid vague evaluative terms (e.g., adjectives and adverbs). –Avoid vague qualifiers (e.g., quite, pretty, very, sort of, kind of, so, such…). –Use words/phrases showing possibility and tentativeness (e.g., probably, likely, possibly, tend to, seem, appear…). Avoid absolute terms (e.g., always, never, everything, every time…).

37 37 6. Writing a research paper 8.Revise your draft from a reader’s perspective. –Review your purpose. –Check the focus. –Evaluate the organization of your paper. –Eliminate unnecessary material. –Check the logic. –Clarify meaning. –Test your conclusion against your introduction.

38 38 6. Writing a research paper 9.Producing the final paper. Make your format right: Spelling punctuation cover page Margins Spacing page numbers fonts and point size tables and graphs documentation style (APA/MLA)

39 39 1. Chose a topic 2. Find information 5. Write a research paper 4. Work with sources Doing Research 7. Conclusion 3. Evaluate sources Critical Literacy Skills Argumentation Writing Skills

40 40 7. Conclusion Humans are natural investigators. We are doing research all the time. The issue is not whether we need to do research, but how well we want to do it. The success of doing research depends on both our attitudes and skills. Two key requirements for doing research: providing evidence + making logical sense

41 41 Questions & Comments Your questions and comments are welcome. If knowledge is worth having, it is worth sharing. ~ Deborah Cameron 陳其芬 Dr. Chi-Fen Emily Chen 國立高雄第一科技大學 應用英語系副教授 Website: Email:

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