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Urban Infrastructure Investment Mechanisms, Possibilities, and Special Financing Vehicles Infrastructure Development Finance Company Ltd.

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Presentation on theme: "Urban Infrastructure Investment Mechanisms, Possibilities, and Special Financing Vehicles Infrastructure Development Finance Company Ltd."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urban Infrastructure Investment Mechanisms, Possibilities, and Special Financing Vehicles Infrastructure Development Finance Company Ltd.

2 2 Structure  Background  Current financing mechanisms  Strengths and weaknesses of current mechanisms  New possibilities: –Pooled Finance initiatives, Viability Gap Funding, Urban Funds  Bringing private capital into Urban Infra

3 Background

4 4 Galloping Urbanization  Urban Population was 26% in 1991 likely to increase to 36% in 2011 –Rate of urban population growth likely to be almost thrice that of total population growth  Urbanization picks up after reaching 25% according to international experience  Economic reforms and globalization will make cities primary wealth creators

5 5 India ’ s economic growth has been led by urban areas  India has become increasingly urban –1981: 23 per cent, 1991: 26%, 2001: 29 per cent  Economic growth led by urban areas : industrial and service sectors accounted for –1981 : 62 % of GDP –2001: > 75% of GDP  More urbanized states recorded high growth rates –Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Delhi-Haryana  At the local level, larger cities in faster growing states have grown rapidly –Chennai, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Bangalore

6 6 Demand Supply Gap Annual investment needs in Urban Infrastructure are about Rs. 400 billion* as against an availability of Rs. 50 billion, (excluding new mass transit and township development projects) *give or take a few hundred billion!

7 7 Urban Infrastructure…  Needing large investments in… –Urban Transport –WatSan –Desalination –Reuse of “pre-loved” water –Solid Waste collection, transportation & disposal –Almost all States looking at SEZ development (main developer as well as component developers) with private sector participation –Investments are being actively sought even for the ‘traditional’ industrial area developments which now include Biotech parks, hardware parks, and so on

8 8 74 th Constitutional Amendment  Introduces fundamental changes in system of urban governance –provides for regular and fair conduct of elections through State Election Commissions –provides a framework for assignment of appropriate civic functions (as per 12th Schedule of Constitution) –States required to constitute State Finance Commissions to improve municipal finances

9 Current Financing Mechanisms

10 10 Government Funding  Virtually the entire investment, construction, operating, and maintenance is by government –Direct budgetary devolution (tax-payer money) –Debt raised against government guarantees, (and “letters of comfort”) –Financing primarily by HUDCO and LIC

11 11 Local Authority Funding  After the 74 th Amendment, there is increasingly, funding generated by the ULB –Escrowing revenues such as property tax, entry tax/ octroi –Selling/ securitizing land

12 12 Multilateral/ Bilateral Funding  World Bank, ADB, DFID… –Based on reform agenda –Fairly detailed appraisals done –Sectoral or project-wise –Generally addresses needs of urban poor  However, for commercial loans, based on Government of India Guarantees as security…

13 13 Private Sector Interest?  Urban Infrastructure, has not yet found investor interest in the absence of clear directions on various aspects - Risk, social/ political, Regulatory, cost recovery mechanisms, etc.  Various attempts are being made to convert Urban Service (water, waste-water, Solid waste, etc) into ‘Bankable projects’ –This is likely to open a new area for investments –And a new breed of ‘Operating’ companies to provide these services

14 Strength & Weakness …Of current Financing Mechanisms

15 15 Strengths…  Fairly simple financing mechanism, from budget or Government secured lending  Quick – if political will is there  Suits a “basket of projects” approach, since there is no need for detailed diligence.  Lenders are also OK, since the money is lent against the surrogate credit assessment of the State

16 16 Weakness…  Practically no diligence on the project financials –Viability, user-charge recovery, and such minor issues are non-critical, high gestation period for loan sanction  Financial requirements are increasing way beyond direct budgetary/ guarantee capacity  State budget deficits and statutory guarantee limits constraining State Gov. funding capacity  No impetus to reform

17 Future Possibilities & Some Progress Stories

18 18 Beginnings well made…  May not be complete “success stories”, but: –Tamil Nadu  Tirupur, Alandur, TNUDF Pooled Finance –Municipal Bond issues  Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Nashik –Sukhthankar Committee, Maharashtra –Urban infrastructure funds – IFCG, Feedback U- Fund and MUIF –BATF in Bangalore –Water O&M PSPs (attempts!) in Pune, Goa, Bangalore, Hyderabad

19 19 Pooled Finance  TNUDF sponsored issue, successful in Tamil Nadu –USAID (DCA) guarantee for 50% of principal  Karnataka (KUIDFC) pursuing similar issue  Government of India’s proposed PFDF, also a pointer in this direction –Yet to take off  Issues of listing Trust-financed Bonds (SEBI), would have to be addressed to ensure a market for these instruments

20 20 Pooled Finance… (2) Proportion of Pooled ULB Finances Government Budgetary Support Debt Service Ratio of 1.3 to 1.5 PFDF/ Government Bond Service Fund State Intercept USAID Guarantee Rated Bond Instrument

21 21 Viability Gap Funding  Proposed by Government of India –To “Prop-up” marginally viable projects –Established and clear guidelines for allocation  Problem may be in the lack of developed and structured projects, that are eligible to claim this assistance  Also will take time to disseminate info/ capability to the ULB level

22 22 Capital Market Access  Bond issues of Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, BMP, Nashik etc., have not led to large-scale replication –Issues of market appetite, end-use –Limited number of ULBs which can access financing on a standalone basis –Pooled Finance seems a more appropriate structure for small ULBs

23 23 Access to domestic institutions For the Local Body  Reluctance of Local bodies to accept FI conditions typically stipulated to mitigate project risks –ULBs have option of (a) FIs assistance (cash flow basis; with conditions) Vs (b) MLA funding/ Govt. Institutions ( GoI/ State guaranteed; soft push, if any) –ULB prefers the latter to the former (obvious!) For the Domestic Institution  Guaranteed lending (state/ central) is no more risk- free, from regulatory considerations

24 24 Earmarked Urban Funds  The CCF, URIF, PFDF, IFCG and MUIF were envisaged by GoI/ State Govt., 3 years ago –Did not take off very well  Too small a corpus, too long a wish-list of reform interventions sought  Proposal to consolidate the existing Central Govt. funds (Mega City, IDSMT, etc.), to make them better oriented to the proposed end-use

25 Bringing Private Capital ---into Urban Infrastructure

26 26 Large-scale Interventions  Possibility in the short/ medium term subject to –De-linking of City projects from State Government finances through direct assistance by Central Government –Closer MoUD – State Govt. – City Government’s interaction in project preparation, financing and implementation issues  However, specific projects/ basket of projects are amenable for PPP forms –Aggressive application of viability gap finance, annuity financing and dedicated city funds to enable early financial closure (such as road development funds)

27 Conclusions & Way Forward

28 28 Reasons to be optimistic  Realization of need for improvement of Urban Services, and concurrently, the finance needed for doing so  Various precedents are being tried and tested, and experience is maturing –But yet a long way to go

29 29 Conducive Macro- economic Policies Investment in Infrastructure Projects with Private Participation by Region, 1991-2001, $ Billion. Source : World Bank WP 5, 2003

30 30  Fiscal policy –Tax policy –Widening of tax bases –User charges –Policy of fiscal transfers – decentralization of powers and finances Fiscal Policies

31 31  Making Local Governments Credit Worthy –Make property taxes more buoyant –Make subventions from higher levels less discretionary –Decentralize more services –Freeing Property markets (ULCRA, DDA and even in China’s SEZs)  Making Urban Infrastructure Projects Commercially viable –There is a need for many borrowers, investors and intermediaries –Urban infrastructure projects will require credit enhancement Capacity Building For ULBs

32 32  Capacity building of ULB’s  Institutional, administrative and managerial  Financial Capacity & Independence  Reasonable and equitable USER CHARGE collection  Property tax reform  Key State-level financial intermediaries help  TNUDF, KUIDFC  Financial Regulatory Issues:  ULB lending is on par with commercial lending, for accounting, prudential norms, and provisioning  Efficient Service Provision – PSP as appropriate Core Issues In Financing Urban Infrastructure

33 33  Who are the lenders? –Banks and other Domestic FIs, Multilateral and Bilateral Institutions, Mutual Funds, Insurance Funds, Provident Funds, Individuals  What does Government do? –Policy/ Regulatory Frameworks –Equity for Project Agencies –Guarantee Mechanisms –Funds/ Programs for capacity building –Fuel Bond Markets : Govt. borrowings –Fiscal incentives Developing Capital Markets for Urban Infrastructure

34 34 Conclusions  Cities have coped reasonably well in the past –But under stress now: Challenges faced by huge investment and O&M requirements –No reason why the problem cannot be addressed in the future  Clear policy and regulatory frameworks needed  Local capacities must be strengthened  Decentralization to be actually implemented  Mobilize and leverage all resources possible  including private investment/ PPPs

35 Thank You

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