What is Plagiarism? Using another person’s thoughts as if these were your own thoughts is committing plagiarism. Stating information with authority, as if the information were your own ideas is committing plagiarism. Citing an original source or owner of the written work or a design of another individual’s work without permission is also committing plagiarism(Dawson, 2004).
Why is Plagiarism Increasing Globally? Increasing the use of technology in educational and other settings. Seeking a quick, but unethical, solution to writing tasks. Noting that more individuals have access to the use of technology in their own home environment. Observing that too many individuals do not have the mastery of research or a standard language and the written word globally.
Copyright Laws and Issues Addressing the individual ownership of materials or information. Viewing copyright laws were not an issue until after the 1700. Presenting copyright laws in England was in 1710. Presenting copyright laws in the United State was during the 1790. Practicing using others’ work was and still is somewhat the norm in some countries, especially Asia and Europe. Attempting to respect, at least, verbally and in written form of copyright laws have been more of a practice from the west (Hansen, 2003).
Cultural Views of Plagiarism Citing that the largest ethnic groups that participate in plagiarism are generally Asians and some Europeans (Introna et al, 2002). Indicating that ESOL and EFL individuals in the US.A. and the U.K. are found to participate in plagiarism a lot. Thinking that quoting authors directly without using the author’s name is showing a level of respect (McDonnell, 2003). There is a level of disrespect if you alter or change the author’s work in some cultures.
Trends and Issues for Discussion Applying different standards related to academic vs non-academic plagiarism. Acknowledging that another individual’s design of a product or written paper. Communicating views about plagiarism among professors at universities and colleges may differ. Trends and Issues for Discussion
Global Cultural Views Suggesting that the research implies that many Asians do not always view the value of intellectual individual rights and ownership; therefore, that is not plagiarism. Suggesting that in research studies globally - many Asians, Africans, Middle East Individuals and First Nation cultures believe that written author’s work belongs to society compared to an individual author (McDonnell, 2003).
Prevention Strategies for Plagiarism Teaching and informing individuals about the seriousness of copyright infringement laws are real and if disrespected could lead to legally matters. Informing all candidates or individuals about how to and the need to produce original writings of quality. Presenting papers that are of quality by your own efforts. Reviewing formatting style and work expectations based on standards and rubrics. Citing references appropriately using APA, MLA and/or Chicago style. Indicating the preferred references being cited in research.
Devices to Detect Plagiarism Using service identified as plagiarism.com for corporation, individuals or institutions. Using service identified as ithenticate.org for companies, corporations, and publishers. Using service identified as writecheck or turnitin.com for individuals’ academic papers Using service identified as turnitinadmission.com for academic institutions, universities and colleges. Using service identified as docop.com for corporations, college professors and websites.
Value of Plagiarism Tools Detector Offering individuals the opportunity to self-check ones own work before submission to second party. Holding individuals responsible for their own learning and responsibilities. Serving as an instructional tool not a tool for punishment of individual’s work. Improving the quality of academic work as an intended expectation. Helping to instill character and ethics in individuals in higher education institutions and universities.
The Price of Using Plagiarism Detectors Seeking the use of these plagiarism detectors is at a fee i.e. writecheck, turnitinadmission, checkforplagiarism, safeassign. Seeking the use of some plagiarism detectors is free or both are i.e. doccop, plagiarism, plagiarismdetect, scanmyessay, duplichecker, grammarly. If there is a free service, the service has limited free use. Some services will allow a user to input information or data for three to four times for free; thereafter, there is a charge by the service.
Plagiarism Across Spectrums Citing real world notions about plagiarism include the intellectual field and the institutional field for the work environment. Citing real world application of plagiarism can raise its head in the ghostwriters, bureaucratic and respected authorship environment. Writing for politicians, famous individuals or entrepreneurs. Writing stories for newspaper columns, books, public speaking speeches at graduation and citations without being authorized to do so, could all constitute plagiarism (Martin, 1994).
Plagiarism Across Spectrums continued Announcing an outcome result in laboratory research on humans or animals. Pretending to have participated in major research projects. Presenting another person’s paper or student’s work at an international conference claiming that it is your research constitutes plagiarism. Seeing high level officials signing documents claiming that this is their work, but the work was written by a subordinate within the organization.
Is there Real Clarity in the World Citing Plagiarism? Creating and citing literature to justify what is plagiarism is not always clear to individuals. Citing an image of a person, place or thing could be considered a copy or not, but if an extra copy is made that is considered plagiarism? Looking through a cloud of information related to plagiarism can be confusing to some individuals.
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act Disclosing confidential information about an individual to third parties without their families' permission or individual’s permission is an infringement of the individual’s rights and privacy. Arguing that sending papers through a plagiarism detector without the permission of the individual is a violation of the individual’s rights Archiving individual students’ papers complies with FERPA, since the statute only applies at two points: when the student’s document is transmitted to a data-base and when the document is released from the database and when a match is found with another submission. Looking at papers with plagiarism detection tools is considered a non-violation of an individual’s paper if the name of the individual is not recorded on the paper. Rationale 1: if there is not a name on the paper, this paper is not considered a part of the individual’s record; however, there are two schools of thought regarding this action, since the paper has not yet been graded. Rationale 2: the paper does not divulge personal identifying information about the individual. Reviewing the Family Compliance Policy Office in the Department of Education in the United States is responsible for enforcing FERPA, has stated that institutions “may submit” students’ papers to Turnitin.com only if they remove all personally identifiable information from the papers (Family Policy Compliance Office, 2006).
Students Individual Rights and Responsibilities Citing, however, that It's important for individuals to know that fair and impartial treatment is an individual’s right. Remembering an individual’s rights and that due process is guaranteed. Regardless of the outcome, an individual case should be held in strict confidence in accordance with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 in the U.S.A.
References Dawson, J. 2004. Plagiarism: What’s really going on? In Seeking Educational Excellence. Family Policy Compliance Office, 2006. Hall, Edward T., and Mildred Reed Hall, 1990. Understanding Cultural Differences Maine: Intercultural Press, Inc. Hansen, B 2003. Combating Plagiarism. CQ Researcher 13 (32). 773-796. Introna, L. et. Al. 2003. Cultural Attitudes Toward Plagiarism. Lancaster University. Martin, B. 1994. Plagiarism: A Misplaced emphasis. Journal of Information Ethics 3 (2).. 36-47 McDonnell, K. 2003. Academy Plagiarism Rules and ESL Learning- Mutually Exclusive Concepts? American University, Washington, D. C.