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Bibliographic Research Online Searching Part 2. Bibliographic Research Searching in an online environment Searching in an online environment Find Reputable.

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Presentation on theme: "Bibliographic Research Online Searching Part 2. Bibliographic Research Searching in an online environment Searching in an online environment Find Reputable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bibliographic Research Online Searching Part 2

2 Bibliographic Research Searching in an online environment Searching in an online environment Find Reputable Web sites Find Reputable Web sites Evaluating Resources Evaluating Resources

3 Basic Steps in Online Searching Identify key terms Identify key terms Select appropriate online databases Select appropriate online databases Identify search engine features Identify search engine features Devise search query Devise search query Search the database Search the database Evaluate results Evaluate results Adjust search query as needed Adjust search query as needed Bibliographic Research: Part One Bibliographic Research: Part Two

4 Devise Search Query Know the database content and functions Know the database content and functions Consider relationship of search terms to each other conceptually Consider relationship of search terms to each other conceptually Consider relationship of search terms to the database content Consider relationship of search terms to the database content Understand search engine’s unique priority of operation when applying Boolean logical operators (used in the study of sets or set theory; aka binary logic) Understand search engine’s unique priority of operation when applying Boolean logical operators (used in the study of sets or set theory; aka binary logic)

5 Used by permission from Katie Custis Biography Index Biology Index Theology Index

6 Devise Search Query Devise Boolean Search Strategies for each database keeping in mind the databases unique purpose, scope, audience and dates of coverage. Devise Boolean Search Strategies for each database keeping in mind the databases unique purpose, scope, audience and dates of coverage. Apply Limits peculiar to each database with an understanding of the command defaults, priority of operations and special features. Apply Limits peculiar to each database with an understanding of the command defaults, priority of operations and special features. Default (computing) = a preselected option when no alternative is specified Default (computing) = a preselected option when no alternative is specified

7 Devise Search Query Apply Boolean operators Apply Boolean operators AND AND Phrase Phrase Proximity Proximity OR OR Synonyms Synonyms Stemming, Truncation Stemming, Truncation NOT (AND NOT) NOT (AND NOT)

8 BOOLEAN OPERATORS AND AND - Narrows the search - Can be thought of as BOTH - Requires that both terms be in the results - Used for combining differing concepts Messiah AND Christ the INTERSECTION of two sets -Sometimes referred to as “All of these” Messiah Christ

9 BOOLEAN OPERATORS OR OR - Broadens the search - Used to find one term OR another - Can be thought of as EITHER - Used to search synonymous/closely related terms Messiah OR Christ the UNION of two sets -Sometimes referred to as “Any of these” Messiah Christ

10 BOOLEAN OPERATORS NOT NOT -Narrows a search -Used to eliminate records -Exercise extreme caution; needed concepts may be eliminated unintentionally Messiah Messiah NOT Christ Christ Messiah Null set

11 BOOLEAN APPLIED

12 Boolean Applied Boolean logic (binary logic) is used by computer search engines to extract specific data from large databases. Boolean logic (binary logic) is used by computer search engines to extract specific data from large databases. Internet Search engines, directories, library catalogs and subject databases use Boolean Logic (binary logic) for culling out a desired set of records Internet Search engines, directories, library catalogs and subject databases use Boolean Logic (binary logic) for culling out a desired set of records

13 Messiah OR Christ AND Jesus Messiah OR (Christ AND Jesus) MessiahChrist Jesus

14 Messiah OR Christ AND Jesus Messiah Christ Jesus (Messiah OR Christ) AND Jesus

15 MessiahChrist Jesus (Messiah OR Christ) AND Jesus (Messiah AND Jesus) OR (Christ AND Jesus)

16 Messiah OR Christ OR Jesus Messiah AND Christ AND Jesus (Messiah OR Christ) AND Jesus

17 Messiah OR Christ OR Jesus MessiahChrist Jesus

18 MessiahChrist Jesus Messiah AND Christ AND Jesus

19 MessiahChrist Jesus (Messiah OR Christ) AND Jesus

20 Applied Boolean AND Phrases Phrases Narrow form of AND Narrow form of AND Double quotes = Typical command used to indicate a phrase “” Double quotes = Typical command used to indicate a phrase “” “Jesus Christ” “Jesus Christ” “Holy Spirit” “Holy Spirit”

21 Applied Boolean AND PROXIMITY: NEAR or WITHIN PROXIMITY: NEAR or WITHIN NEAR / WITHIN is a restrictive AND NEAR / WITHIN is a restrictive AND Designates the closeness of terms within a source document Designates the closeness of terms within a source document Designates the number of words by which search terms can be separated Designates the number of words by which search terms can be separated

22 w/n: within the same document where n = the maximum number of words that can come between them Jesus w/1 Messiah Applied Boolean AND PROXIMITY: NEAR or WITHIN PROXIMITY: NEAR or WITHIN w/s: within the same sentence w/p: within the same paragraph Pre/n before the term where n=designated number Jesus the Messiah Jesus pre/1 Messiah

23 Applied Boolean OR Synonyms Synonyms Default On/Off Default On/Off -work, job, career, -work, job, career, -thought, think, thinking -thought, think, thinking Wildcards (replace one or more letters within a word) Wildcards (replace one or more letters within a word) variant spelling: women/woman; color/colour; encyclopedia/encyclopaedia; judgment/judgement Truncation, Stemming Truncation, Stemming Plurals variant endings: ed, es, ing; banks, banking, bankruptcy Typical commands used * ? + # !

24 bill w/3 clinton or george w/3 bush Here’s how one database will resolve this search: clinton or george bill within three or fewer words of clinton or george bush within three or fewer words of clinton or george that is also within three or fewer words of bill However, with the use of parentheses you can force the names to stay together as one search concept. For this example, you would enter: ( bill w/3 clinton ) or ( george w/3 bush) Search Strategy See “Search Tips” and “Help” menus in the database for instructions

25 Search Strategy Exercise Using the library’s OPAC Advanced Search perform the searches illustrated on the next two slides. Using the library’s OPAC Advanced Search perform the searches illustrated on the next two slides. Then using Boolean logic/binary logic explain why the resulting hit lists are so different. Reminder: Then using Boolean logic/binary logic explain why the resulting hit lists are so different. Reminder: “any of these” = OR “any of these” = OR “all of these “ = AND “all of these “ = AND “as a phrase” = phrase “as a phrase” = phrase

26 Search Strategy Exercise ANSWER

27 Search Strategy Exercise ANSWERS

28 Search Strategy Exercise In the ATLA (FirstSearch) database Advanced Search screen what would the search query look like if the searches resulted in these statements? In the ATLA (FirstSearch) database Advanced Search screen what would the search query look like if the searches resulted in these statements? (ti: jesus and ti: christ) or ti: messiah (ti: jesus and ti: christ) or ti: messiah ti: jesus and (ti: christ OR ti: messiah) ti: jesus and (ti: christ OR ti: messiah) ANSWER

29 Search Strategy Exercise Many online databases provide help by way of showing the resulting search statement in Boolean syntax (with imbedded parenthesis ) Many online databases provide help by way of showing the resulting search statement in Boolean syntax (with imbedded parenthesis ) This allows analysis of the search statement as it has been interpreted by the computer’s search engine. This allows analysis of the search statement as it has been interpreted by the computer’s search engine. Adjustments may then be made to your search statement to get the intended results. Adjustments may then be made to your search statement to get the intended results. Some databases will offer suggestions for improving your search results. Some databases will offer suggestions for improving your search results.

30 Search Strategy Exercise Using the Academic Search Premier database Advanced search perform these searches. Using the Academic Search Premier database Advanced search perform these searches. messiah Or christ And jesus messiah Or christ And jesus christ Or messiah And jesus christ Or messiah And jesus jesus And ( christ OR messiah ) jesus And ( christ OR messiah ) Then explain which Boolean operation is being given priority. Then explain which Boolean operation is being given priority. ANSWER

31 Devise Search Query Limiting Limiting Options Location Location Language Language Date Date Type Type of Document Field Field Truncation/Stemming Truncation/Stemming

32 Devise Search Query Select fields Select fields Default settings Default settings Author, Personal Name Author, Personal Name Title, Source (Publication) Title, Source (Publication) Keyword, Abstract, Full-text Keyword, Abstract, Full-text Subject, Descriptor Subject, Descriptor Consider the uniqueness of the terms in relation to the database content Consider the uniqueness of the terms in relation to the database content “Jesus” in an Education index cf. “Jesus” in a Religion Index “Jesus” in an Education index cf. “Jesus” in a Religion Index Location of the term within the record (e.g. field choice) Location of the term within the record (e.g. field choice) “Jesus” in the Title field cf. “Jesus” in the Subject field “Jesus” in the Title field cf. “Jesus” in the Subject field

33 Evaluate Results Kind of records retrieved Kind of records retrieved How well do they meet the information need? How well do they meet the information need? Examine search query syntax Examine search query syntax Priority of operations Priority of operations Parenthetical operations performed first Parenthetical operations performed first Hint: (a) AND (b) OR (c) = (a AND b) OR c Hint: (a) AND (b) OR (c) = (a AND b) OR c Number of hits Number of hits In relation to the database’s subject content In relation to the database’s subject content Considering the information need Considering the information need Too many? Too few? Too many? Too few? Meaning of the search terms used Meaning of the search terms used

34 Adjust Search Query As Needed Broaden/Narrow Search Broaden/Narrow Search Change Boolean operations Change Boolean operations Change the position of terms within the search query Change the position of terms within the search query Change field selections Change field selections Change limiting options Change limiting options Change terminology Change terminology Change databases Change databases

35 Internet Searching To Surf or not to Surf

36 Internet Searching The Internet versus the Library Complementary Current Events vs. Historical Research Popular vs. Scholarly Copious vs. Selective Content Haphazard vs. Standardized & Organized Unscrupulous vs. Scrutinized Transient vs. Permanent

37 Surface Web Surface Web Deep Web (Invisible Web) Deep Web (Invisible Web) Search Engines Search Engines Subject Directories Subject Directories The Good, the Bad and the Ugly The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

38 Surface Web Only 30% of the entire Internet Accessed by search engines subject directories Content Popular, Personal, Public Domain Static fixed Web pages

39 Deep Web (Invisible Web) 70% of the Internet 70% of the Internet Accessed by direct query or authorization Accessed by direct query or authorization Content: Information stored in Databases mounted on the Web Content: Information stored in Databases mounted on the Web Scholarly resources; targeted topics Scholarly resources; targeted topics Library OPAC’s, subject specific databases Library OPAC’s, subject specific databases News, Business, Directories; Phone Books, Multimedia, Graphic Files, Digital Exhibits News, Business, Directories; Phone Books, Multimedia, Graphic Files, Digital Exhibits

40 Deep Web (Invisible Web) Search engines cannot/will not index this information. Some subject directories will link to these sites For more information see: http://library.albany.edu/internet/deepweb.ht ml

41 Internet Searching Search Engines Search Engines Specific site wanted (e.g. Lord of the Rings, Lakers, CNN) Specific site wanted (e.g. Lord of the Rings, Lakers, CNN) 40% overlap among them 40% overlap among them No quality control No quality control Uses robots, web crawlers, spiders, etc. to match characters in specific fields Uses robots, web crawlers, spiders, etc. to match characters in specific fields Hit lists ranked based on paid inclusion programs (except Google which has a separate sponsor list) Hit lists ranked based on paid inclusion programs (except Google which has a separate sponsor list)

42 Internet Searching Subject Directories Subject Directories Topical searches (e.g. movies, sports, news) Topical searches (e.g. movies, sports, news) No particular site in mind No particular site in mind Some are created and maintained by librarians, scholars and subject specialists Some are created and maintained by librarians, scholars and subject specialists

43 Identify Reputable Internet Sites Scout Report Scout Report http://scout.wisc.edu/ http://scout.wisc.edu/ INFOMINE – Scholarly Internet Resource Collections: http://infomine.ucr.edu/ INFOMINE – Scholarly Internet Resource Collections: http://infomine.ucr.edu/ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Encyclopaedia Britannica Online  “Britannica Internet Guide“  “Britannica Internet Guide“ Use Subject Directories created and maintained by scholars, subject specialists and librarians:

44 Identify Reputable Internet Sites The Digital Librarian The Digital Librarian http://www.digital-librarian.com/ http://www.digital-librarian.com/ The Internet Public Library The Internet Public Library http://www.ipl.org/ http://www.ipl.org/ BUBL Link (British) BUBL Link (British) http://bubl.ac.uk/ http://bubl.ac.uk/

45 Identify Reputable Internet Sites TMC Library OPAC TMC Library OPAC TMC Library Web Resources TMC Library Web Resources WorldCat (FirstSearch) WorldCat (FirstSearch) See next slide for instructions See next slide for instructions

46

47 Intelligent Searching A ~”name” reflects a personal site representing a personal viewpoint Clues of Caution when searching the public Internet… in the URL: A.com or.org typically provides biased information The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

48 Intelligent Searching …on the site itself: Comic or incendiary language Lack of ownership or author Lack of currency Bias towards audience, or slant of information; positive without the negative; one sided

49 Intelligent Searching Check domain names with a registry agency: register.com More about domain names: http://florin.syr.edu/webarch/domains.php3 Search Smart: Check underlying pages, top level pages, and links

50 Look up the domain registry page at the appropriate registry agency: For.com,.edu,.net,.org : www.networksolutions.com/cgi- bin/whois/whois For.gov (U.S. government) : www.nic.gov/cgi-bin/whois For.mil (U.S. military) : www.nic.mil/cgi-bin/whois

51 Look up the domain registry page at the appropriate registry agency: For Asian-Pacific : www.apnic.net/apnic- bin/whois.pl For European : www.ripe.net/cgi-bin/whois The rest of the world: www.uninett.no/navn/domreg.html

52 Intelligent Searching Visit web sites that post hoaxes Does it have the HON seal: Health on the Net foundation Look for Web site awards or other organizational “seals of approval” Professional associations

53 Evaluate Everything Physical AND Electronic Consider Consider the following: Purpose Purpose and Scope Source, Source, Authorship, Publishing Body Content Content and Currency Style Style and Functionality Bias Bias Verifiability Verifiability

54 Evaluating Resources These Research Guides will be helpful These Research Guides will be helpful Evaluating Resources www.masters.edu/rgevaluatingresources Evaluating Resources www.masters.edu/rgevaluatingresources An easy way to help evaluate the usefulness of research resources both paper and electronic An easy way to help evaluate the usefulness of research resources both paper and electronic Covers purpose, source, content, style and functionality Covers purpose, source, content, style and functionality Web Page Evaluation www.masters.edu/rgwebpageevaluation Web Page Evaluation www.masters.edu/rgwebpageevaluation

55 Evaluating Resources Use Subject Directories to find Web sites that teach how to evaluate resources Use Subject Directories to find Web sites that teach how to evaluate resources Library Web site Library Web site Web Resources Web Resources Topic – Research/Writing Topic – Research/Writing Type – All Types Type – All Types Sub-topic – Evaluating Resources Sub-topic – Evaluating Resources

56 Evaluating Internet Resources Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply & Questions to Ask, UC Berkeley - Teaching Library Internet Workshops http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guide s/Internet/Evaluate.html Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply & Questions to Ask, UC Berkeley - Teaching Library Internet Workshops http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guide s/Internet/Evaluate.html Evaluating Information Found on the Internet, Johns Hopkins University - http://www.library.jhu.edu/researchhelp/gener al/evaluating/ Evaluating Information Found on the Internet, Johns Hopkins University - http://www.library.jhu.edu/researchhelp/gener al/evaluating/

57 Evaluating Internet Resources Evaluating Internet Resources, University at Albany, SUNY,- http://library.albany.edu/internet/evaluate.ht ml Evaluating Internet Resources, University at Albany, SUNY,- http://library.albany.edu/internet/evaluate.ht ml Evaluating Web Pages, Duke University - http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/evaluating _web.htm Evaluating Web Pages, Duke University - http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/evaluating _web.htm

58 Evaluating Internet Resources Librarians' Internet Index - http://lii.org/ Librarians' Internet Index - http://lii.org/ For annotated descriptions of many good guides to evaluating Web pages search the subject: For annotated descriptions of many good guides to evaluating Web pages search the subject: “Evaluation of Internet Resources” “Evaluation of Internet Resources”

59 Now you know how to … Search Online Search Online Find Reputable Web sites Find Reputable Web sites Evaluate Resources Evaluate Resources

60 Citing Sources Subject search for Subject search for “report writing”, “authorship” or “technical writing” “report writing”, “authorship” or “technical writing” Title Search – use respective acronym Title Search – use respective acronym apa, mla, cbe apa, mla, cbe NOTE: “Turabian” is the author not the title NOTE: “Turabian” is the author not the title Call numbers: 808.02; 808.06 Call numbers: 808.02; 808.06 Use OPAC to find Manuals of Style

61 Manuals of Style APA - American Psychological Association APA - American Psychological Association MLA - Modern Language Association MLA - Modern Language Association CBE - Council of Biology Editors CBE - Council of Biology Editors Turabian - Manual for writers of term papers, thesis and dissertations by Kate L. Turabian (see also Chicago) Turabian - Manual for writers of term papers, thesis and dissertations by Kate L. Turabian (see also Chicago) Chicago Manual of Style (see also Turabian) Chicago Manual of Style (see also Turabian)

62 Citing Sources For more information go to Library Web page Library Web page Web Resources Web Resources Research/Writing Research/Writing Citing Sources Citing Sources

63 Bibliographic Management Software Create personal databases Create personal databases References can also be imported from online databases, CD-ROM’s or text files References can also be imported from online databases, CD-ROM’s or text files Automatically formats the paper and the bibliography to any selected publication style Automatically formats the paper and the bibliography to any selected publication style Instantly change the format for another publication Instantly change the format for another publication Many online databases provide exporting options for sending articles identified in the database to these bibliographic management tools. Many online databases provide exporting options for sending articles identified in the database to these bibliographic management tools.

64 Bibliographic Management Software Desk top products: Desk top products: ProCite ® (Thomson ResearchSoft) ProCite ® (Thomson ResearchSoft) EndNote ® (Thomson ResearchSoft) EndNote ® (Thomson ResearchSoft) Reference Manager ® (Thomson ResearchSoft) Reference Manager ® (Thomson ResearchSoft) Web based products: Web based products: WriteNote ® (Thomson ResearchSoft) WriteNote ® (Thomson ResearchSoft) RefWorks RefWorks

65 The end. Questions? From the library Web site select Library Services  Ask-A-Librarian or go to http://www.masters.edu/libraries/Ask ALibrarian.asp http://www.masters.edu/libraries/Ask ALibrarian.asp

66 BIBLIOGRAPHY Research Strategies Internet Searching Helps Search Engines Subject Directories Evaluating Resources

67 Research Strategies Badke. Research Strategies: finding your way through the information fog. Lincoln, NE: Writers Club Press / iUniverse.com, 2000 ISBN: 0595100821; Price: $15 est. Badke. Research Strategies: finding your way through the information fog. Lincoln, NE: Writers Club Press / iUniverse.com, 2000 ISBN: 0595100821; Price: $15 est. DDC: 001.42/B142r/2000 DDC: 001.42/B142r/2000 http://www.acts.twu.ca/LBR/research. htm http://www.acts.twu.ca/LBR/research. htm

68 Internet Search Helps UC Berkeley http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/Teach ingLib/Guides/Internet/FindInfo.ht ml UC Berkeley http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/Teach ingLib/Guides/Internet/FindInfo.ht ml University of Albany http://library.albany.edu/internet/searc hnet.html University of Albany http://library.albany.edu/internet/searc hnet.html

69 Internet Search Helps “How to choose a Search Engine or a Subject Directory ” http://library.albany.edu/internet/choose.html

70 Search Engines & Subject Directories University of Tennessee Search Engines http://www.lib.utk.edu/refs/search.html http://www.lib.utk.edu/refs/search.html Search Engine Watch http://www.searchenginewatch.com SearchIQ http://www.zdnet.com/searchiq/

71 Search Engines Go to University at Albany http://library.albany.edu/internet/engines. html for an abstracted list of: Search Engines, Meta Search Engines, Deep Web Collectors, Specialty Search Engines, Domain names, Multi-media & Images finders, New Page Trackers

72 Subject Directories Go to University at Albany http://library.albany.edu/internet/subject. html for an abstracted list of : Academic & Professional Subject Directories Commercial Directories & Portals

73 Evaluate Everything Physical AND Electronic http://milton.mse.jhu.edu:8001/re http://milton.mse.jhu.edu:8001/re search/education/net.html http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/Teach http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/Teach ingLib/Guides/Evaluation.html

74 Answers to Search Query Exercises Search one resulted in ("jesus")[in Title] AND ("christ")[in Title] OR ("messiah")[in Title] with 454 records. The search engine performed the AND operation first then it applied the OR Messiah. The results contain the records with both Jesus AND Christ in them as well as all the records with the term Messiah in them. It could be written this way Search one resulted in ("jesus")[in Title] AND ("christ")[in Title] OR ("messiah")[in Title] with 454 records. The search engine performed the AND operation first then it applied the OR Messiah. The results contain the records with both Jesus AND Christ in them as well as all the records with the term Messiah in them. It could be written this way (jesus AND christ) OR messiah BACK

75 Answers to Search Query Exercises Search two resulted in ("jesus")[in Title] AND (christ OR messiah)[in Title] resulting in 378 records. The search engine performed the OR operation first then it applied the AND operation to it. The results contain those records with both Jesus AND Christ in them as well as Jesus AND Messiah in them. The search statement could be written like this Search two resulted in ("jesus")[in Title] AND (christ OR messiah)[in Title] resulting in 378 records. The search engine performed the OR operation first then it applied the AND operation to it. The results contain those records with both Jesus AND Christ in them as well as Jesus AND Messiah in them. The search statement could be written like this jesus AND (christ OR messiah) BACK

76 Answers to Search Query Exercises BACK

77 Answers to Search Query Exercises BACK

78 Answers to Search Query Exercises BACK messiah Or christ And jesus resulted in 7214 records with the AND operation being performed first then the OR operation. The hit list contains all the records with both christ AND jesus and well as all the records with the term messiah. It can be written this way messiah OR (christ AND jesus) messiah Or christ And jesus resulted in 7214 records with the AND operation being performed first then the OR operation. The hit list contains all the records with both christ AND jesus and well as all the records with the term messiah. It can be written this way messiah OR (christ AND jesus)

79 Answers to Search Query Exercises BACK Christ OR messiah AND jesus resulted in 12592 records with the AND operation being performed first then the OR operation. The hit list contains all the records with both jesus AND messiah as well as all the records with Christ. It can be written christ OR (messiah AND Jesus) Christ OR messiah AND jesus resulted in 12592 records with the AND operation being performed first then the OR operation. The hit list contains all the records with both jesus AND messiah as well as all the records with Christ. It can be written christ OR (messiah AND Jesus)

80 Answers to Search Query Exercises jesus AND (christ OR messiah) resulted in 6323 records. The OR operation was performed first then the AND. The hit list contains all the records with jesus AND christ as well as all the records with jesus AND messiah. jesus AND (christ OR messiah) resulted in 6323 records. The OR operation was performed first then the AND. The hit list contains all the records with jesus AND christ as well as all the records with jesus AND messiah. BACK


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