WHAT A LIT REVIEW IS Broad survey of sources on a particular topic Synthesis of those sources in terms of relationship to topic Analysis of those sources by points of comparison/contrast & evaluation Presentation of Sources in order to demonstrate which aspects require further research
WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE? Researchers have conducted studies about siblings of special needs and autistic children because this group is vulnerable to adjustment difficulties (Cuskelly, 1999). In fact, specialists have compared the sibling- autism relationship to the MR relationship. They have also studied the importance of the family, and particularly the mother, in this relationship. In addition, Kaminsky and Dewey (2001) found that the autism-sibling relationship is characterized by less intimacy and pro-social behavior. This study likewise reports that these relationships were marked by fewer instances of quarreling. While this phenomenon may occur because of the unique situation of the autism-sibling relationship, less fighting is also a positive illustration of a relationship marked by more admiration. Furthermore, Rivers and Stoneman (2003) define this relationship as asymmetrical. These results are also similar to the MR-sibling relationship, as reported by Knott, et al. (1995). Rivers and Stoneman (2003) reveal, too, that parents worry about the autism-sibling relationship in their families. The importance of the family’s influence on the autism-sibling relationship is very useful for this research study and thus, will be discussed in the conclusion of the literature review. ~Ellen Geib, CU Writing Center Tutor
HOW DID ELLEN DO THAT? Organize your sources by sub-topics: One sub-topic/paragraph In the first sentence of each paragraph, transition from the previous paragraph; then compose topic sentence for the paragraph Sum up each source in terms of what research shows Discuss both the similarities and the differences between those sources At the end of each paragraph, make a synthesis statement
TYPICAL NEEDS FOR REVISION Or: What do I do now that I have my first rough draft?
IMPROVE YOUR THESIS Argue for a particular evaluation of the research or perspective on the research in one sentence near the end of the introduction Examples: The current trend in treatment for congestive heart failure combines surgery and medicine. More and more cultural studies scholars are accepting popular media as a subject worthy of academic consideration. Source of examples: http://writingcenter.unc.edu/resources/handouts- demos/specific-writing-assignments/literature-reviews http://writingcenter.unc.edu/resources/handouts- demos/specific-writing-assignments/literature-reviews
LOGICAL STRUCTURE Break the “string of pearls”: This is not an annotated bib. Follow Your Thesis Revise material so it fits a logical structure (3 basic choices): Chronology (of publication or of trend) Methodology Thematic Develop logical structure from rough draft: “Post-outline” to discover organizational problems. Go. “Shadow Draft” to discover what the sub-topics are: Go.
Sources that don’t relate to one another in terms of theme/topic, methodology, etc. Sources that aren’t peer- reviewed Sources that may be too obscure Do more research to find sources you can compare & contrast Do more research to find sources that are significant and peer-reviewed REVISING RESEARCH Eliminate Irrelevant Sources Add Relevant Sources
FLUENT WRITING Every paragraph should flow from & connect back to the thesis Each paragraph should flow from & develop its topic sentence Use transitions!
Look at each paragraph, and answer: How does this paragraph develop my thesis? How can I revise this paragraph so that it does develop my thesis? Do I need to eliminate this paragraph? Look at each paragraph and answer: How does this paragraph develop my topic sentence? How can I revise this paragraph so that it does develop my topic sentence? Do I need to rewrite my topic sentence? THESIS & T.S. CHECKS Circle Thesis Circle Every Topic Sentence
TRANSITIONS... To Show Addition: and, also, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, next, too, first, second To Give Examples: for example, for instance, to illustrate, in fact, specifically To Compare: also, similarly, likewise To Contrast: but, however, on the other hand, in contrast, nevertheless, still, even though, on the contrary, yet, although To Show Time (Chronology): after, as, before, next, during, later, finally, meanwhile, since, then, when, while, immediately To Indicate Logical Relationship: if, so, therefore, consequently, thus, as a result, for this reason, because, since Source: Diana Hacker & Nancy Sommers, A Writer’s Reference, 7 th ed.
PARAPHRASES Paraphrase carefully Avoid plagiarism! Must translate original source into your own words & sentence syntax Use appropriate documentation style per assignment (APA, MLA, Turabian, etc.) Paraphrase accurately Double check with original source Fix whatever you’ve misrepresented or taken out of context Paraphrase far more than you quote (quote only once or twice)
Introduction Set up & explain literature review structure (Thematic? Chronological? Methodology?) Present thesis BEGIN & END WELL Conclusion Specifically identify the study that will follow (i.e., your original study!) as a result of this literature review. Specifically identify the study that should follow (i.e., the original study that some researcher should do) as a result of this literature review.
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