2 Frequently Asked Questions How much of my own experience do I use? When do I bring in research?The answer will vary based on your topic.Think about arranging different “blocks” or “modules” of evidence into paragraphs.Each paragraph is a conversation with 2 – 3 “speakers”One of these speakers may be you!
3 A Sample Paragraph Topic sentence – Link back to the thesis Source A Use a “quote sandwich” or a “paraphrase sandwich”Introduce Source ALead-in to quote or paraphraseAnalyze quote/address implicationsTransition to Source B (Create a “Bridge”)Source BAnother “quote sandwich” or “paraphrase sandwich”Conclude paragraph by summarizing what has been said and creating a bridge to the next topic.
4 A Sample Paragraph Topic sentence – Link back to the thesis Source A Use a “quote sandwich” or a “paraphrase sandwich”Introduce Source ALead-in to quote or paraphraseAnalyze quote/address implicationsTransition to Source B (Create a “Bridge”Source BAnother “quote sandwich” or “paraphrase sandwich”Conclude paragraph by summarizing what has been said and creating a bridge to the next topic.
5 Quotation Quotations must match the source document word for word. Every time you use words directly from a source, you should use quotation marks to indicate that.E.g. Speaking about her father, Bechdel writes, “He would perform, as Daedalus did, dazzling displays of artfulness” (9).If the quote ends with a period, the quotation/citation should follow this form – ” ( ).If the quote ends with a question mark or an exclamation mark, it should follow this form -- !” ( ).
6 Quotations (Cont’d)If you need to take information out of a quotation, mark the place where you took it out using ellipses (Easy Writer ).Use brackets [ ] to indicate information that you are adding within a quotation. You may often have to use it to clarify pronouns.If you have a long quotation (more than four lines in MLA), indent it one inch (two tab stops). See Easy Writer 122 for an example.
7 Try it Find a quotation from one of your sources. Introduce the source (author and title, if useful)Introduce the immediate contextWhat does the reader need to know?Introduce quotationInclude citationInterpret or address quotation
8 ParaphraseA paraphrase summarizes a text without using any phrases from the original text.A paraphrase does not include any quotation marks, but it does include a page number.
9 ParaquoteA paraquote combines a paraphrase and a quotation. All parts of a phrase that are quoted directly are enclosed in quotation marks.A paraquote is useful when you want to use a significant phrase or word from a quote, but you don’t want to use the whole thing.
10 ExampleIn Fun Home, Alison Bechdel tells us that the Stonewall riots occurred just a few weeks before her family visited New York (104). Although she admits “the absurdity of claiming a connection to that mythologized flashpoint,” she also asks the reader, “Might not a lingering vibration, a quantum particle of rebellion, still have have hung in the humectant air?” (104).
11 Try it!Write a sentence that paraphrases a quotation from your source and another sentence that uses a “paraquote.”Make sure to cite author and page number for both the paraphrase and the paraquote!
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