2Frequently Asked Questions How much of my own experience do I use? When do I bring in research?The answer will vary based on your topic.Think about arranging different “blocks” or “modules” of evidence into paragraphs.Each paragraph is a conversation with 2 – 3 “speakers”One of these speakers may be you!
3A Sample Paragraph Topic sentence – Link back to the thesis Source A Use a “quote sandwich” or a “paraphrase sandwich”Introduce Source ALead-in to quote or paraphraseAnalyze quote/address implicationsTransition to Source B (Create a “Bridge”)Source BAnother “quote sandwich” or “paraphrase sandwich”Conclude paragraph by summarizing what has been said and creating a bridge to the next topic.
4A Sample Paragraph Topic sentence – Link back to the thesis Source A Use a “quote sandwich” or a “paraphrase sandwich”Introduce Source ALead-in to quote or paraphraseAnalyze quote/address implicationsTransition to Source B (Create a “Bridge”Source BAnother “quote sandwich” or “paraphrase sandwich”Conclude paragraph by summarizing what has been said and creating a bridge to the next topic.
5Quotation Quotations must match the source document word for word. Every time you use words directly from a source, you should use quotation marks to indicate that.E.g. Speaking about her father, Bechdel writes, “He would perform, as Daedalus did, dazzling displays of artfulness” (9).If the quote ends with a period, the quotation/citation should follow this form – ” ( ).If the quote ends with a question mark or an exclamation mark, it should follow this form -- !” ( ).
6Quotations (Cont’d)If you need to take information out of a quotation, mark the place where you took it out using ellipses (Easy Writer ).Use brackets [ ] to indicate information that you are adding within a quotation. You may often have to use it to clarify pronouns.If you have a long quotation (more than four lines in MLA), indent it one inch (two tab stops). See Easy Writer 122 for an example.
7Try it Find a quotation from one of your sources. Introduce the source (author and title, if useful)Introduce the immediate contextWhat does the reader need to know?Introduce quotationInclude citationInterpret or address quotation
8ParaphraseA paraphrase summarizes a text without using any phrases from the original text.A paraphrase does not include any quotation marks, but it does include a page number.
9ParaquoteA paraquote combines a paraphrase and a quotation. All parts of a phrase that are quoted directly are enclosed in quotation marks.A paraquote is useful when you want to use a significant phrase or word from a quote, but you don’t want to use the whole thing.
10ExampleIn Fun Home, Alison Bechdel tells us that the Stonewall riots occurred just a few weeks before her family visited New York (104). Although she admits “the absurdity of claiming a connection to that mythologized flashpoint,” she also asks the reader, “Might not a lingering vibration, a quantum particle of rebellion, still have have hung in the humectant air?” (104).
11Try it!Write a sentence that paraphrases a quotation from your source and another sentence that uses a “paraquote.”Make sure to cite author and page number for both the paraphrase and the paraquote!