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11 th H Final 2011 Final Exam Breakdown (67 Questions) Mark Twain reading selection (10) Mark Twain reading selection (10) comprehension, literary analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "11 th H Final 2011 Final Exam Breakdown (67 Questions) Mark Twain reading selection (10) Mark Twain reading selection (10) comprehension, literary analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 11 th H Final 2011

3 Final Exam Breakdown (67 Questions) Mark Twain reading selection (10) Mark Twain reading selection (10) comprehension, literary analysis questions Huck Finn(10) Huck Finn(10) applying literary elements Drama Text Questions (pages in the text) (12) Drama Text Questions (pages in the text) (12) Drama Selection (16) Drama Selection (16) with analysis questions Research/MLA Format (ppts. on website) (10) Research/MLA Format (ppts. on website) (10) Poem Analysis (9) Poem Analysis (9)

4 Protagonist main character (the central or primary personal figure) of a literary, theatrical, cinematic, or musical narrative, around whom the events of the narrative's plot revolve main character (the central or primary personal figure) of a literary, theatrical, cinematic, or musical narrative, around whom the events of the narrative's plot revolve the character that drives the action forward the character that drives the action forward

5 Dialogue written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people. written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people. Annina: Monsieur Rick, what kind of a man is Captain Renault? Annina: Monsieur Rick, what kind of a man is Captain Renault? Rick: Oh, he's just like any other man, only more so. Rick: Oh, he's just like any other man, only more so. (Joy Page and Humphrey Bogart in Casablanca, 1942) "'How are you?' I said. "'How are you?' I said. "'As you see,' old Hernandez said, and he pushed his cap back on his forehead and smiled, 'alive.'" "'As you see,' old Hernandez said, and he pushed his cap back on his forehead and smiled, 'alive.'" (Martha Gellhorn, "The Third Winter," 1938)

6 Dialect a regional variety of language distinguished from other regional varieties by features of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation a regional variety of language distinguished from other regional varieties by features of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation Examples: Examples: Afore -- Before Critter -- Animal Y’all -- The plural of "you". Y’all -- The plural of "you". “I ain’t afeard of the dark.”

7 Symbolism: Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts. Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts. Ex: The Scarlet Letter Ex: The Scarlet Letter The scarlet letter is meant to The scarlet letter is meant to be a symbol of shame, but instead it becomes a powerful symbol of identity to Hester.

8 Conflict A struggle between opposing forces A struggle between opposing forces

9 Internal Conflict Internal conflict exists within the mind of a character who is torn between different courses of action. Man vs. Himself: Should I go to summer school and graduate or should I become a bum?

10 External Conflict External conflict exists when a character struggles against some outside force, such as another character, nature, machines, society, or fate. Exs. Man vs. Man (Luke vs. Darth Vader) Man vs. Nature (a family vs. a tornado) Man vs. Society (a criminal vs. the law)

11 Foreshadowing Foreshadowing is the author’s use of clues to hint at what might happen later in the story. Writers use foreshadowing to build their readers’ expectations and to create suspense. This is used to help readers prepare for what is to come. Ex. In Romeo and Juliet, both main characters state early on that they would rather die than live apart. Ex. In Romeo and Juliet, both main characters state early on that they would rather die than live apart.

12 Satire Uses irony or ridicule with the intention of bringing about social change. The satirist wants to expose and eliminate human stupidity and wickedness. Uses irony or ridicule with the intention of bringing about social change. The satirist wants to expose and eliminate human stupidity and wickedness. Scott Inflamed: Budget Mix-up Leaves Florida Schools with Enough Money to Adequately Educate Students. (Comedy Central)

13 Analogy a similarity between like features of two things, on which a comparison may be based: the analogy between the heart and a pump. a similarity between like features of two things, on which a comparison may be based: the analogy between the heart and a pump.

14 Metaphor A Metaphor is a type of speech that compares or equates two or more things that have something in common. A metaphor is a more direct comparison does NOT use like or as. Example: Life is a bowl of cherries.

15 Simile A Simile is figure of speech that compares seemingly unlike things. Simile’s DO use the words like or as. From Latin, "likeness" or "comparison" Example: Her voice was like nails on a chalkboard.

16 Point of View Point of View Point of view is the perspective, or vantage point, from which a story is told. It is the relationship of the narrator to the story. Point of view is the perspective, or vantage point, from which a story is told. It is the relationship of the narrator to the story.

17 First-person is told by a character who uses the first-person pronoun “I”. The narrator is part of the action – a character in the story.

18 Third-person limited is the point of view where the narrator uses third-person pronouns such as “he” and “she” to refer to the characters. The narrator is outside the action (like a movie camera looking on) and usually concentrates on the feelings and thoughts of 1 character. objective-doesn’t focus on any character is particular, the narrator functions like a movie camera recording the action

19 Omniscient is the “all knowing” perspective. The narrator knows and sees everything – inside all the characters heads, the past, present and future, and other locations.

20 Irony incongruity or discordance between what is expected and what is actually said or done incongruity or discordance between what is expected and what is actually said or done

21 Verbal Irony When someone says one thing but means another but means anotherEx. A speaker exclaims, A speaker exclaims, “I’m not upset!” but reveals an upset emotional state through her tone of voice.

22 Situational Irony What happens is the opposite of what is expected or what is appropriate. What happens is the opposite of what is expected or what is appropriate.Exs. Stress relief candles burning down your house. Stress relief candles burning down your house.

23 Dramatic Irony The audience or reader knows something a character doesn’t know. The audience or reader knows something a character doesn’t know. In Romeo and Juliet, Juliet is grieving that she is in love with Romeo, but he is a member of her family's arch enemy family. She is speaking on her balcony about how she loves him and how if he were any other name (from any other family) it would all be OK. What the audience knows and she doesn’t is that Romeo is in the bushes below listening to her every word.

24 Allegory a symbolic fictional narrative have meaning on two or more levels (the characters srand for other people and events or abstract ideas a symbolic fictional narrative have meaning on two or more levels (the characters srand for other people and events or abstract ideas In The Scarlet Letter, Hester, Dimmesdale, Chillingworth and Pearl stand as Mother, Lover / Father, Husband, and Daughter, but can also be seen as Eve, Adam, Satan, and the Pearl of Great Price. In The Scarlet Letter, Hester, Dimmesdale, Chillingworth and Pearl stand as Mother, Lover / Father, Husband, and Daughter, but can also be seen as Eve, Adam, Satan, and the Pearl of Great Price. (i.e. It’s a biblical allegory) (i.e. It’s a biblical allegory)

25 Plot Exposition Resolution Rising Action Climax Falling Action Conflict Introduced

26 Exposition The Exposition is the introduction. It is the part of the work that introduces the characters, setting, and basic situation/conflict. The Exposition is the introduction. It is the part of the work that introduces the characters, setting, and basic situation/conflict.

27 Rising Action The Rising Action is the part of the plot that begins to occur as soon as the conflict is introduced. The rising action adds complications (new problems) to the conflict and increases reader interest. The Rising Action is the part of the plot that begins to occur as soon as the conflict is introduced. The rising action adds complications (new problems) to the conflict and increases reader interest.

28 Climax The Climax is the point of greatest emotional intensity, interest, or suspense in the plot of a narrative. The climax typically comes at the turning point in a story or drama. The Climax is the point of greatest emotional intensity, interest, or suspense in the plot of a narrative. The climax typically comes at the turning point in a story or drama.

29 Falling Action Falling Action is the action that typically follows the climax and reveals its results. Falling Action is the action that typically follows the climax and reveals its results.

30 Resolution The Resolution is the part of the plot that concludes the falling action by tying up any loose ends.. The Resolution is the part of the plot that concludes the falling action by tying up any loose ends..

31 Theme A theme is a broad idea, message, or lesson conveyed by a work. This message is usually about life, society, or human nature. A theme is a broad idea, message, or lesson conveyed by a work. This message is usually about life, society, or human nature. TSL illustrates how one sin can escalate to encompass one's self so that the true humans behind the sin are lost. This makes Hawthorne's novel not only a story of love vs. hate, sin vs. purity, good vs. evil, but all of these combined to make a strikingly historical tragedy as well. historical tragedy as well.

32 Allusion an analogy created by referring to something “well-known” from outside the story an analogy created by referring to something “well-known” from outside the story Ex. Anne Hutchinson and the “mannish” Queen Elizabeth are allusions utilized by are allusions utilized by Nathanial Hawthorne in Nathanial Hawthorne in TSL. TSL.

33 Personification Personification is a figure of speech in which an animal, object, force of nature, or idea is given human qualities or characteristics. Example: Tears began to fall from the cloud. The flames reached for the child hovering in the corner.

34 Characterization Direct: The author directly states a character’s traits. Direct: The author directly states a character’s traits. ex. Esmeralda was a serious and dedicated student. ex. Esmeralda was a serious and dedicated student.

35 Indirect: The author provides clues about the character by describing their actions, thoughts, feelings, speech, or even the way they dress. Indirect: The author provides clues about the character by describing their actions, thoughts, feelings, speech, or even the way they dress. Ex. Esmeralda could be found every afternoon in the library taking notes for one of her classes. Esmeralda said, “I won’t be at the party because we have a chemistry test on Monday.”

36 Flashback A flashback is a literary device in which an earlier episode, conversation, or event is inserted into the sequence of events. Often flashbacks are presented as a memory of the narrator or of another character. A flashback is a literary device in which an earlier episode, conversation, or event is inserted into the sequence of events. Often flashbacks are presented as a memory of the narrator or of another character. Exs. -The movie Titanic is told almost entirely in a flashback. -Willy often experiences these in Death of a Salesman.

37 Tone Tone is a reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke an emotional response from the reader. exs. informal, formal, light, humorous, serious, personal, impersonal, casual, offhanded, impassioned, plainspoken, simple, elaborate exs. informal, formal, light, humorous, serious, personal, impersonal, casual, offhanded, impassioned, plainspoken, simple, elaborate\

38 Motivation The set of reasons that determines one to engage in a particular behavior. (Why we do what we do.) The set of reasons that determines one to engage in a particular behavior. (Why we do what we do.)

39 Drama Questions The playwright makes the audience concerned for a character by a. creating a simple psychological story b. describing the gestures and facial expressions of the characters c. focusing on a conflict that involves something important to the character d. devising a complicated plot involving several major characters

40 Most of American drama in the 1800s can be described as a. mild and sentimental, rarely challenging accepted traditions b. shockingly realistic and psychologically accurate c. musical comedies with little or no plot d. western melodramas with distinct heroes and villains

41 Most of the plays that are produced in the United States today are a. produced with the hope that they will make money b. put on with the intention of shocking the public c. produced on Broadway d. written by the play’s producer and given to the director

42 Which of the following statements is not true of Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams? a. Miller is concerned with social matters; Williams is concerned with personal matters. b. Williams uses delicate, elegant language; Miller uses spare, plain language. c. Miller has been called the “playwright of our souls”; Williams has been called the “playwright of our social concerns.” d. Miller’s characters are ordinary people; Williams’s characters are psychologically complex human beings.

43 The protagonist of a play is the a. major character who usually drives the action forward b. character that the audience finds the most appealing c. most interesting and memorable character in the drama d. character who eventually gets what she or he wants

44 Current American drama a. uses little dialogue and features fantastic characters b. focuses on moral and religious teachings c. revolts against realism d. de-emphasizes stage effects and imaginative sets

45 Ibsen, Strindberg, and Chekhov were innovative a. European playwrights who realistically presented characters and situations b. American playwrights who presented the psychological complexities of their characters c. New York producers of Absurdist dramas who present new European plays d. European playwrights who were heavily influenced by the plays of Edward Albee and Clifford Odets

46 A play is not finished in the same way that a poem or novel is because a. it must have a definite beginning, middle, and end b. it has to be beautifully written c. after it is written, it still needs to be brought to life on stage d. after it is written, the playwright must find more funding

47 The leading American Absurdist playwright is a. William Inge b. Tennessee Williams c. Edward Albee d. Arthur Miller

48 Which of the following statements is not true of the theater? a. Producers seldom take risks on a play. b. Thousands of plays are copyrighted each year. c. The audience can contribute to a good performance. d. Producers seldom visit regional theaters.

49 Which of the following statements is not true about staging a play? a. Theater is a collaborative medium. b. A director and actors “take away” a play from its author. c. The director has complete control over the production of a play. d. Rehearsals are both pleasant and tense.

50 The plays of Miller and Williams a. focus primarily on social responsibility b. rely heavily on realism c. usually feature female protagonists d. involve colorful, visually dramatic sets

51 The Provincetown Players and the Washington Square Players a. founded the Theater of the Absurd in the latter part of the twentieth century b. placed themselves in opposition to the established commercial theater c. were famous for participating only in one-act plays d. joined together to present an electrifying performance of The Bald Soprano

52 Many Absurdist plays may be only one act because a. they present only one view of a situation b. they present an image which needs little development c. they enable theaters to produce more plays in a year d. short plays cost less to produce than long plays

53 Expressionist drama aims to a. shock the audience by portraying characters with unrealistic conflicts b. make the audience focus on themselves rather than on the stage c. keep drama within the confines of a “beginning, middle, end” pattern d. reveal the inner consciousness of characters

54 The producer does all of the following except a. advance money to finance a play b. meet with agents who represent playwrights c. work with a playwright on changes to a play d. supervise the technical production of a play

55 A play primarily engages the enthusiasm of directors, actors, and technicians through a. colorful sets b. gesture and movement c. special theatrical effects d. the story

56 Exposition gives the audience a. the physical setting of the play b. background information c. the play’s final conclusion d. the play’s psychological realism

57 Playwrights must usually find an agent who a. directs the play and screens the actors b. ensures that the play is suitable for Broadway c. submits a play to producers who are likely to consider it d. takes charge of set design, costume design, and music

58 The first important figure in American drama is generally considered to be a. Samuel Beckett b. Edward Albee c. Eugene O’Neill d. William Inge

59 Research Skills/MLA Format PowerPoints are available on my website. PowerPoints are available on my website.

60 MLA Format Let the fun begin!

61 Purpose MLA stands for Modern Language Association It is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts It provides: g guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing a system for referencing sources through parenthetical citation in essays and Works Cited pages Protection for writers against accusations of plagiarism

62 Guidelines Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper Double-space the text of your paper Use Times New Roman: 12 Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides

63 Guidelines cont. Indent the first of each paragraph one half- inch (five spaces or press tab once) Indent the first of each paragraph one half- inch (five spaces or press tab once) Make sure that your paper is justified on the left side only: Make sure that your paper is justified on the left side only: ___________ ________________________________________________

64 First Page Format Do NOT make a title page for your paper unless specifically asked by your teacher to do so In the left hand corner, list your: Name Instructor’s Name Course Date (28 February 2007) This should be double-spaced

65 Double space again and center your title. Double space again and center your title. The title should be original and appropriate The title should be original and appropriate Do NOT underline, italicize, or put your title in quotes or all capital letters. Do NOT underline, italicize, or put your title in quotes or all capital letters. Instead, use Title Case Instead, use Title Case capitalization of all words, except for internal articles (a), prepositions (in), and conjunctions (and capitalization of all words, except for internal articles (a), prepositions (in), and conjunctions (and Double space between the title and the first line of the text Double space between the title and the first line of the text Create a header Create a header

66 Header A “header” allows you to number all of your pages consecutively (including the Works Cited page) A “header” allows you to number all of your pages consecutively (including the Works Cited page) Your header should include your last name and the page number Your header should include your last name and the page number Put it in the upper right hand corner of the page 1/2 inch from the top Put it in the upper right hand corner of the page 1/2 inch from the top

67 Here’s a sample first page in MLA format: Identifying Information Note the double- spacing throughout the paper and the 1’’ margins Header Original title, double-spaced and in “title case”

68 Works Cited/Parenthetical Citations All research papers MUST include a works cited page and parenthetical (in-text) citation in order to avoid plagiarism All research papers MUST include a works cited page and parenthetical (in-text) citation in order to avoid plagiarism

69 MLA Rules for Works Cited Page Center the title Works Cited, one inch down from the top of the page, and double-space between this title and the first entry. Center the title Works Cited, one inch down from the top of the page, and double-space between this title and the first entry. Include only the works you cited in the paper. Include only the works you cited in the paper. Alphabetize entries according to the author’s last name (or the first word of the document title if there is no author). Alphabetize entries according to the author’s last name (or the first word of the document title if there is no author). Each entry should begin at the left margin. Lines after the first are indented five spaces (1/2 inch). Each entry should begin at the left margin. Lines after the first are indented five spaces (1/2 inch). Double space between all lines. Double space between all lines.

70 Example of a Works Cited

71 Revision: What It Is And Isn’t What is Revising? What is Revising? The word literally means “to look at again.” It is an ongoing process in which you rethink, reconsider and closely examine what you have written and what it is you want to communicate to the reader. The word literally means “to look at again.” It is an ongoing process in which you rethink, reconsider and closely examine what you have written and what it is you want to communicate to the reader. What Revising Does Not Mean What Revising Does Not Mean It is not simply fixing commas, correcting spelling or finding typos. That’s proofreading/editing and it occurs after you revise your paper. It is not simply fixing commas, correcting spelling or finding typos. That’s proofreading/editing and it occurs after you revise your paper.

72 Why Revise? Revision gives you the chance to improve your paper, and it begins with a careful examination of what it is you are trying to say: Revision gives you the chance to improve your paper, and it begins with a careful examination of what it is you are trying to say: Does the paper follow your thesis. Does the paper follow your thesis. Is your order logical? Is your order logical? Do you make points that are clear and fully developed. Do you make points that are clear and fully developed. While you revise your paper, ask yourself the following: While you revise your paper, ask yourself the following: Is this really what I want to say. Is this really what I want to say. Will the reader understand what I’m saying. Will the reader understand what I’m saying.

73 Editing Paragraph structure: Paragraph structure: Each paragraph should have a clear topic sentence. Each paragraph should have a clear topic sentence. Look for good transitions from one paragraph to the next. Look for good transitions from one paragraph to the next. Look for any fragmented sentences. Look for any fragmented sentences. Clarity: Clarity: Is the meaning of each sentence clear. Is the meaning of each sentence clear. Is it clear what each pronoun refers to: he, she, it, they, which, who—check subject/verb agreement. Is it clear what each pronoun refers to: he, she, it, they, which, who—check subject/verb agreement. Check your choice of words—is the meaning clear— don’t use words if you’re not exactly sure of the meaning. Check your choice of words—is the meaning clear— don’t use words if you’re not exactly sure of the meaning.

74 Begin Editing Analyze the Style: Analyze the Style: Is the tone appropriate: formal, persuasive, informative. Is the tone appropriate: formal, persuasive, informative. Does your writing contain many unnecessary or trite phrases such as “there is,” “there are,” “due to the fact that,” “in terms of.” Rework those sentences Does your writing contain many unnecessary or trite phrases such as “there is,” “there are,” “due to the fact that,” “in terms of.” Rework those sentences Is the paper repetitious. Don’t use the same phrases or begin sentences in the same way. Vary the language and sentence length. Is the paper repetitious. Don’t use the same phrases or begin sentences in the same way. Vary the language and sentence length. Citations: Citations: Check the format for your parenthetical citations and your works cited page. Check the format for your parenthetical citations and your works cited page.

75 Proofreading Accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation count! Careless errors distract the reader. Accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation count! Careless errors distract the reader.

76 Tips for Proofreading Don’t Rely on Spell Check: Don’t Rely on Spell Check: They are not foolproof. They are not foolproof. Spell check does not look at words in context, e.g., “you’re” and “your” and “to” and “too” have different meanings but may be spelled correctly. Spell check does not look at words in context, e.g., “you’re” and “your” and “to” and “too” have different meanings but may be spelled correctly. Don’t Rely on Grammar Check: Don’t Rely on Grammar Check: This can sometimes be useful for locating run-on sentences and sentence fragments but can be otherwise misleading. This can sometimes be useful for locating run-on sentences and sentence fragments but can be otherwise misleading. Circle Every Punctuation Mark: Circle Every Punctuation Mark: Ask yourself if the punctuation is correct. Ask yourself if the punctuation is correct.

77 Finishing the Paper Make Corrections then Proofread Again! Make Corrections then Proofread Again! From your hand-corrected hardcopy, make changes online and then print it out. From your hand-corrected hardcopy, make changes online and then print it out. You will need to proof more than once to make sure you’ve caught everything and corrected everything. You will need to proof more than once to make sure you’ve caught everything and corrected everything.

78 First:Revision Second:Editing Third:Proofreading Sequence of Events

79 Poetry Terms (not previously discussed as literary terms)

80 The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words.

81 “Swiftly, swiftly flew the ship”

82 The repetition of similar vowel sounds followed by different consonant.

83

84 “...that hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me.”

85 The repetition of consonant sounds that are preceded by different vowel sounds.

86 “Wherever we go Silence will fall like dews”

87 The use of words whose sounds suggest the sounds made by objects or activities.

88

89 The repeating of a sound, word, phrase, or more in a given literary work.

90 “I sprang to the stirrup, and Jarvis, and he; I galloped, Derrick galloped, we galloped all three”

91 Rhyme Scheme a regular pattern of rhyme, one that is consistent throughout the extent of the poem a regular pattern of rhyme, one that is consistent throughout the extent of the poem There once was a big brown cat a That liked to eat a lot of mice. b He got all round and fat a Because they tasted so nice. b There once was a big brown cat a That liked to eat a lot of mice. b He got all round and fat a Because they tasted so nice. b

92 The repetition of identical sounds at the ends of lines of poetry.

93 “He clasps the crag with crooked hands Close to the sun in lonely lands” from “The Eagle”

94 The repetition of identical sounds within a line of poetry.

95 “We three shall flee across the sea to Italy.” Or “Hold infinity in the palm of your hand And eternity in an hour.”

96 A slant rhyme or half rhyme occurs when the vowel sounds are not quite identical.

97 “And on that cheek and o’er that brow” A mind at peace with all below”

98 Sight Rhyme Sight rhyme, also called visual rhyme and eye rhyme, is a similarity in spelling between words that are pronounced differently and hence, not an auditory rhyme. Sight rhyme, also called visual rhyme and eye rhyme, is a similarity in spelling between words that are pronounced differently and hence, not an auditory rhyme. Examples slaughter and laughter Examples slaughter and laughter again and rain again and rain

99 Meter a recurring pattern of stressed (accented, or long) and unstressed (unaccented, or short) syllables a recurring pattern of stressed (accented, or long) and unstressed (unaccented, or short) syllables An end stressed two syllable foot e.g. from In Memoriam by Lord Tennyson An end stressed two syllable foot e.g. from In Memoriam by Lord Tennyson In MemoriamLord Tennyson In MemoriamLord Tennyson I DREAMED | there WOULD| be SPRING | no MORE

100 The use of concrete details that appeal to the five senses.

101 Cold, wet leaves floating on moss- colored water.

102 An absent person or inanimate object is directly spoken to as though they were present.

103 Brutus: “Ceasar, now be still. I killed not thee with half so good a will.”


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