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THE NEW FRONTIER: Libraries seek new Technology Platforms for and End-user Discovery, Collection Management, and Preservation Marshall Breeding Director.

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Presentation on theme: "THE NEW FRONTIER: Libraries seek new Technology Platforms for and End-user Discovery, Collection Management, and Preservation Marshall Breeding Director."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE NEW FRONTIER: Libraries seek new Technology Platforms for and End-user Discovery, Collection Management, and Preservation Marshall Breeding Director for Innovative Technology and Research Vanderbilt University Library Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides 11 September 2011 IGeLU

2 Abstract Marshall Breeding will provide his view of the changing landscape of library technologies. Academic, research, and public libraries experience great changes in the nature of their collections and in the expectation of their clientele. Increased involvement in electronic content and decreased emphasis on print collections press demand for tools that break away from traditional library management models and address a broader view of library collections. Libraries likewise face new imperatives to deliver end user interfaces consistent with that experienced elsewhere on the Web and that provide access to the entire span of library collections including print, local digital collections, and subscribed collections of articles, databases and e-books. Many libraries find themselves involved with content areas outside of traditional collections, including needs to manage or archive scientific data sets, and to deliver new types of services in support of research, teaching, or other strategic activities of their parent organizations. Traditional automation tools increasingly fail to meet expectations in this context. Breeding will discuss some of the issues and challenges involved for as new technologies emerge to address the changed realities of libraries today.

3 Library Technology Guides

4 International Perceptions Survey

5 ARL Member Libraries

6 Mergers and Acquisitions

7 Library Journal Automation Marketplace  Published annually in April 1 issue  Based on data provided by each vendor  Focused primarily on North America  Context of global library automation market

8 System Name200120022003200420052006200720082010 AGent VERSO 14196231554472418 Evergreen 618 Voyager 504435223412452 ALEPH 500 805851538367292647 Vubis Smart 133454566056404612 V-Smart 1112 Millennium 15713614411910795 6445 Koha (Classic/ZOOM) 305740-- Library.Solution 797073584134353230 Carl.X / Carl.Solution 1310000 Polaris ILS 122120373954325633 Unicorn 1172071241349171121108-- Horizon 12611416819314794150-- Virtua 376067352527303918 ILS Sales Statistics: total

9 Ex Libris – Personnel Data YearDevelopSupportSalesAdminOtherTotal 2010 174223533816504 2009 165206523212467 2008 161198553419467 2007 1291875349 418 2006 127160424618393 2005 5793392349261

10 Annual Industry report published in Library Journal:  2011: New Frontier: battle intensifies to win hearts, minds and tech dollars  2010: New Models, Core Systems  2009: Investing in the Future  2008: Opportunity out of turmoil  2007: An industry redefined  2006: Reshuffling the deck  2005: Gradual evolution  2004: Migration down, innovation up  2003: The competition heats up  2002: Capturing the migrating customer LJ Automation Marketplace

11 The New Frontier…  new phase of competition following a period of research and development that aimed to provide alternatives to libraries, both in back-end automation and end user discovery. A variety of new solutions have emerged, often representing quite different conceptual models. In a continued trend, librarians seek solutions that immediately improve the experiences of their users, especially via discovery products.

12 Key Context: Academic Libraries in Transition  Shift from Print > Electronic  E-journal transition largely complete  E-books now in play (consultation > reading)  Increasing emphasis on subscribed content, especially articles and databases  Academic libraries seeing long-term declines in print circulation  Need better tools for managing electronic resources  Need better tools for access to complex multi-format collections  Strong emphasis on digitizing local collections  Demands for enterprise integration and interoperability

13 Key Context: Technologies in transition  XML / Web services / Service-oriented Architecture  Beyond Web 2.0 Integration of social computing into core infrastructure  Local computing shifting to cloud platforms Application Service Provider offerings standard New expectations for multi-tenant software-as-a-service  Full spectrum of devices full-scale / net book / tablet / mobile Mobile the current focus, but is only one example of device and interface cycles

14 Key Text: Changed expectations in metadata management  Moving away from individual record-by-record creation  Life cycle of metadata  Metadata follows the supply chain, improved and enhanced along the way as needed  Manage metadata in bulk when possible  E-book collections  Highly shared metadata  E-journal knowledge bases, e.g.  Great interest in moving toward semantic web and open linked data  Very little progress in linked data for operational systems  AACR2 > RDA  MARC > RDF?

15 Status Quo Sustainable?  ILS for management of (mostly) print  Duplicative financial systems between library and campus  Electronic Resource Management (non-integrated with ILS)  OpenURL Link Resolver w/ knowledge base for access to full-text electronic articles  Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.)  Institutional Repositories (DSpace, Fedora, etc.)  Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collections  No effective integration services / interoperability among disconnected systems, non-aligned metadata schemes

16 Phase of realignment  Strong need to realign library automation with current library realities  Legacy library systems reinforce workflows no longer in step with library priorities.  Need systems that allow libraries to allocate personnel in proper proportion to collection  Separate automation platforms for print and electronic have not proven successful

17 Academic Library Issues  Greater concern with electronic resources  Management: Need for consolidated approach that balances print, digital, and electronic workflows  Access: discovery interfaces that maximize the value of investments in electronic content

18 Public Library Issues  Enhance the experience of library patrons  Management and access to physical resources  Self-service through the Web portal:  View current loans, perform holds, renewals, pay fines and fees  Self-service in the physical library  RFID-based self-issue and returns  Helps the library deploy service personnel for highest impact

19 National Library Issues  Larger-scale collections  Cultural Heritage responsibilities  National services: bibliographic, resource sharing, automation, etc.  National infrastructure: technology platforms shared at the widest level

20 Digital preservation  Libraries involved in creating digital libraries need processes and infrastructure for long-term preservation  Open Archival Information Systems (OAIS) defines practices and protocols that need to be embodied in a digital preservation environment  Trusted Digital Repositories: meet standards for preservation appropriate for unique and valuable collections  Digital preservation currently implemented in national, large research, and other well-resourced libraries and archives.  Some institutional projects, some cooperative  Common to have disaster recovery; rare to implement true digital preservation

21 A Cloudy Forecast for Libraries Systems Librarian Column, Sept 2011 “Service-oriented architectures and browser-based interfaces deployed through cloud-based infrastructure stand today as the key technologies preferred for new software development efforts”

22 Cloud Computing  Major trend in Information Technology  Few organizations have core competence in large-scale computer infrastructure management  Essentially outsourcing of server housing and management  Usually based on a consumption-based business model  Most new automation products delivered through some flavor of cloud computing  Many flavors to suit business needs: public, private, hybrid

23 Library Automation in the Cloud  Almost all library automation vendors offer some form of cloud-based services  Server management moves from library to Vendor  Subscription-based business model  Comprehensive annual subscription payment  Offsets local server purchase and maintenance  Offsets some local technology support

24 Application Service Provider  Vendor hosting of traditional ILS  Technically Application Service Provider though marketed as SaaS  Continued reliance on Graphical Clients deployed on each staff workstation that need to be updated and synched  Vendor maintains individual instances for each library / site

25 Software as a Service  Multi Tennant SaaS is the modern approach  One copy of the code base serves multiple sites  Software functionality delivered entirely through Web interfaces  No workstation clients  Upgrades and fixes deployed universally  Usually in small increments

26 Data as a service  SaaS provides opportunity for highly shared data models  WorldCat: one globally shared copy that serves all libraries  Primo Central: central index of articles maintained by Ex Libris shared by all libraries implementing Primo / Primo Central  Global Knowledgebase of e-journal holdings shared among all customers of SFX  General opportunity to move away from library-by- library metadata management to globally shared workflows

27 Infrastructure as a Service  Access to hardware provisioned from remote providers  Examples:  Amazon Elastic Compute (EC2)  Cloud and Simple Storage Service (S3)  Many library automation vendors use IaaS to deploy their offerings

28 Rethinking library automation  Fundamental assumption: Print + Electronic + Digital  Traditional print-dominant ILS model not adequate for current and future library realities  Libraries currently involved with a core ILS surrounded by additional modules to handle electronic content  New discovery layer interfaces replacing or supplementing ILS OPACS  Cloud technologies offer potential for new levels of efficiency and cooperation “It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007

29  Traditional Proprietary Commercial ILS  Aleph, Voyager, Millennium, Symphony, Polaris,  BOOK-IT, DDELibra,  LIBERO, Amlib, Spydus, TOTALS II  Traditional Open Source ILS  Evergreen, Koha  New generation unified resource management  Ex Libris Alma, Kuali OLE, OCLC Web-scale Management Services  Cloud-based automation systems  Ex Libris Alma  OCLC Web-scale: Management Service  Serials Solutions: Web-Scale Management Solution Competing Models of Library Automation

30 Comprehensive Resource Management  No longer sensible to use different software platforms for managing different types of library materials  -- ILS + ERM + OpenURL Resolver + Digital Asset management, etc. very inefficient model  ++ Flexible platform capable of managing multiple type of library materials, multiple metadata formats, with appropriate workflows

31 Open Systems  Achieving openness has risen as the key driver behind library technology strategies  Libraries need to do more with their data  Ability to improve customer experience and operational efficiencies  Demand for Interoperability  Open source – full access to internal program of the application  Open API’s – expose programmatic interfaces to data and functionality

32 Legacy LMS Model Circulation BIB Staff Interfaces: Holding / Items Circ Transact UserVendorPolicies $$$ Funds CatalogingAcquisitionsSerialsOnline Catalog Public Interfaces: Interfaces Business Logic Data Stores

33 ` Legacy ILS Model / API Circulation BIB Staff Interfaces: Holding / Items Circ Transact UserVendorPolicies $$$ Funds CatalogingAcquisitionsSerialsOnline Catalog Public Interfaces: Interfaces Business Logic Data Stores Application Programming Interfaces

34 Legacy ILS Model + protocol Circulation BIB Staff Interfaces: Holding / Items Circ Transact UserVendorPolicies $$$ Funds CatalogingAcquisitionsSerialsOnline Catalog Public Interfaces: Application Programming Interfaces Protocols: SIP2 NCIP Z39.50 OAI-PMH Self-Check Interlibrary Loan System Interlibrary Loan System

35 Legacy ILS Model / External API Circulation BIB Staff Interfaces: Holding / Items Circ Transact UserVendorPolicies $$$ Funds CatalogingAcquisitionsSerialsOnline Catalog Public Interfaces: Application Programming Interfaces / Web Services Protocols: SIP2 NCIP Z39.50 OAI-PMH External Systems & Services Flexible Interoperability

36 Consolidated index Search Engine Discovery Service Search: Digital Coll ProQuest EBSCO … JSTOR Other Resources New Library Management Model ` API Layer Library Management System Learning Management Enterprise Resource Planning Stock Management Self-Check / Automated Return Authentication Service Smart Cad / Payment systems

37 Library Services Platform  Possible new term for the successor to the ILS  ILS now viewed as print-centric  Next Generation systems must serve as platforms to connect external systems as well as to deliver internal functionality  Delivered Functionality + library created extensions + interoperability

38 From local discovery to Web-scale discovery New models of Library Collection Discovery

39 Next-Gen Library Catalogs Marshall Breeding Neal-Schuman Publishers March 2010 Volume 1 of The Tech Set

40 Online Catalog Search: Search Results ILS Data

41 Disjointed approach to information and service delivery  Silos Prevail  Books: Library OPAC (ILS module)  Articles: Aggregated content products, e-journal collections  OpenURL linking services  E-journal finding aids (Often managed by link resolver)  Subject guides (e.g. Springshare LibGuides)  Local digital collections ETDs, photos, rich media collections  Metasearch engines  All searched separately

42 Federated Search Search: Digital Collections ProQuest EBSCOhost … MLA Bibliography ABC-CLIO Search Results Real-time query and responses ILS Data

43 Next-gen Catalogs or Discovery Interface  Single search box  Query tools  Did you mean  Type-ahead  Relevance ranked results  Faceted navigation  Enhanced visual displays  Cover art  Summaries, reviews,  Recommendation services

44 Discovery Interface search model Search: Digital Collections ProQuest EBSCOhost … MLA Bibliography ABC-CLIO Search Results Real-time query and responses ILS Data Local Index MetaSearch Engine

45 Discovery Products

46 Differentiation in Discovery  Products increasingly specialized between public and academic libraries  Public libraries: emphasis on engagement with physical collection  Academic libraries: concern for discovery of heterogeneous material types, especially books + articles + digital objects

47 Discovery from Local to Web-scale  Initial products focused on technology  AquaBrowser, Endeca, Primo, Encore, VuFind,  LIBERO Uno, Civica Sorcer, Axiell Arena  Mostly locally-installed software  Current phase focused on pre-populated indexes that aim to deliver Web-scale discovery  Primo Central (Ex Libris)  Summon (Serials Solutions)  WorldCat Local (OCLC)  EBSCO Discovery Service (EBSCO)  Encore with Article Integration

48 Citations / Metadata > Full Text  Citations or structured metadata provide key data to power search & retrieval and faceted navigation  Indexing Full-text of content amplifies access  Important to understand depth indexing  Currency, dates covered, full-text or citation  Many other factors

49 Web-scale Index-based Discovery Search: Digital Collections ProQuest EBSCOhost … MLA Bibliography ABC-CLIO Search Results Pre-built harvesting and indexing Consolidated Index ILS Data

50 Challenge for Relevancy  Technically feasible to index hundreds of millions or billions of records through Lucene or SOLR  Difficult to order records in ways that make sense  Many fairly equivalent candidates returned for any given query  Must rely on use-based and social factors to improve relevancy rankings

51 Open Discovery Initiative  Project underway to address issues related to information providers, discovery service providers, and libraries  Protocols for transfer of content  Transparency of what is transferred and indexed  Rights or restrictions on how discovery services use content  Initial meeting at ALA Annual  Proposal under consideration by NISO  “Proposed New Work Item: Standards and Best Practices for Library Discovery Services Based on Indexed Search”

52 Decoupled from ILS

53 Decoupled Discovery?  Decoupled interfaces emerged from broken online catalogs  Poor interfaces, inadequate scope  Inefficient integration between automation and discovery platforms  New wave of more tightly integrated suites:  Ex Libris Alma > Primo  OCLC Web-scale Management Services > WorldCat Local  Serials Solutions Web-Scale Management Solution > Summon  Still possible to decouple, but more effort, worse results

54 Delivering library services to mobile devices  Increased expectation for access to services through mobile  Library services:  Mobile web  Apps  Carefully select functionality appropriate for mobile

55 Tablet computing  Tablet computers have been around for a while, but the introduction of Apple’s iPad increases popularity  High-quality device for content consumption  Access to library services and content

56 Questions and discussion

57 Thanks!

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