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1 Compiled by Study Skills University of Winchester Based on Faculty of Education Guidelines for Written Assignments, 2009 Quick route to the Reference.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Compiled by Study Skills University of Winchester Based on Faculty of Education Guidelines for Written Assignments, 2009 Quick route to the Reference."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Compiled by Study Skills University of Winchester Based on Faculty of Education Guidelines for Written Assignments, 2009 Quick route to the Reference List (Action buttons only work if you are running the slide show.)

2  Authority – person or persons who may exert an influence on opinion because of their level of expertise.  Reference List / Bibliography – fully detailed references given in a list at the end of the text. (It can also be called References if there are two separate lists and the one called Bibliography contains a list of read but not cited references.)  Citation – referencing of an authority that has been quoted or paraphrased in your work.  Glossary – list of words, terms or acronyms relating to a specific subject  Quotation – short passage of text taken from an outside source.  Reading List – list of books, journals or newspapers recommended as suitable references for a particular subject or course.  Referencing – acknowledging the authority from which the quotation has come, at the point at which the quotation has been made.

3  Extensive use of abbreviations is not encouraged, but this is what they mean if you come across them:  Ibid – (in the same place) Used to indicate that the reference cited is the same as the one immediately preceding it.  Loc Cit – (the place cited) The same work and the same location within it.  Op Cit – (the work already referred to) A source already referred to but may cause ambiguity if there is more than one previous source.  Sic – (thus) Use this if the item you have quoted has a mistake in it that should not be attributed to you.  Vide supra – (see above) Means refer to what has gone.

4  ‘The verbatim or non-verbatim copying or paraphrasing, without acknowledgement, from published or unpublished material attributable to, or which is the intellectual property of another, including work of other students’ (University of Winchester Academic Misconduct Policy, 2008:2).  This means:  Copying from another student’s essay  Copying text from books or the internet without referencing the author.  Paraphrasing (that is rewriting in your own words) text from books or the internet without referencing the author.  Forgetting to add an authority to a quotation.

5  Demonstrates that you have researched your subject in sufficient depth.  Acknowledges the work of authorities on your subject.  Shows an understanding of the theories that underpin your research  Puts your work into context with others who have done similar research.

6  Summarising  A summary of the author’s main ideas or argument written in your own words, usually from an entire chapter or book rather than from a specific quotation.  Paraphrasing  Referring indirectly to the authority, writing in your own words, a close interpretation of the author’s argument and usually from a specific quotation.  Short quotation  A direct quotation of less than 40 words incorporated into the main text, identified within quotation marks.  Long quotation  A direct quotation of 40 words or more, standing alone, separated from the main body by a clear line space and indented. No quotation marks required.

7  The Citation  This is placed at the point of the quotation.  It is the minimum amount of information required to find the full reference in the -  Reference List  This is the full list of references you have included in your written submission.  It contains specific information presented in a conventional format.  The information about the source enables a reader to find the source. Any reference which cannot be readily sourced must be supplied in an appendix: policy documents, business plans, schedules, etc

8 You will summarise when you wish to express the ideas of an authority which are referenced throughout a book or chapter. (It is, therefore, not appropriate to include page numbers in the brackets.) Children need to acquire a considerable amount of knowledge in order to develop their reading, writing, speaking and listening skills and, in particular, they need understanding of the technical aspects of these skills (Medwell et al., 2002). Anxiety about how we speak may not only prevent us from expressing ourselves as we would wish, but may also have a strong negative effect on our listeners, so it is incumbent upon all those involved in public speaking to consider the importance of technique and exercise to develop and maintain an impressive voice (Berry, 2000).

9 Paraphrasing is like summarising in that you use your own words to explain the authority’s idea. However, the paraphrase is usually a re-write of a direct quotation and thus you should include the page number from which you have paraphrased the quotation. Steiner (1983, p.12-13) identifies strategic planning as a process which determines principal objectives and lays down tactical plans in order to ensure that strategies are appropriately implemented. It is very important that you reference the authority when summarising or paraphrasing or you may be considered to be plagiarising work.

10 Why paraphrase instead of using a direct quotation?  You may find you use less words when paraphrasing. If you use a direct quotation you may have to explain its relevance.  Too many direct quotations can make the writing stilted. Your own writing will be sparsely scattered between quotations. There is little opportunity for you to develop your argument and establish your style.  The direct quotation may not “stand alone” and make sense without considerable explanation.

11 A direct quotation is one which includes the exact words of the authority; these are copied directly into the text: ‘Game theory has become the dominant approach to understanding conflict, and co-operation between individuals, organisations and countries’ (Kollewe, 2005:63). PUNCTUATION POINT The full-stop lies outside the quotation mark because it is punctuating the sentence which includes the reference. Note that the end of the quotation is not punctuated.

12 Short quotations of no more than 40 words should appear in the main body of the text. If no name is mentioned in the main body then it must be included in the reference: PUNCTUATION POINT The date and page number can be written 1996, p.289 or 1996:289, but be consistent and use only one of the two options. The authors also noted that this ‘fits with the notion that the subjective experience of memory is an attribution or inference’ (Kelley and Jacoby, 1996, p.289).

13 Longer quotations should be written indented and without quotation marks and separated from the main body of text by a clear line space, above and below. Long quotations are discouraged. Paraphrase or summarise in preference. Loss of identify can be considered in two particular ways. For example, as Kaminsky writes: Thus, loss of identity is concerned with the stripping of the victim of all his/her known possessions which might be physical, but which are more often to do with his/her beliefs and feelings and all those things that matter. If the villain, the evil, represents loss of identity rather than sinking into the animal within, the weaponry’s horror lies in its impersonality in such films as Rosemary’s Baby, White Zombie and Invasion of the Bodysnatchers. The victim, apparently, has not been physically harmed … in one sense alive, in another sense though his body has not been defiled, his mind and identity have been taken, a horror perhaps even more to be feared (1974, p.139). PUNCTUATION POINT Use a comma or colon at the end of the main body before starting the quotation. Single line spacing is acceptable for the long quotation.

14  If diagrams or illustrations have been copied, scanned or re-drawn from published work, these should be referenced as for a direct quotation. 14 (Tiggywinkle, 2005, p.97) (Atherton, 2009) There is no page number for the above reference as its source is a website

15  If there are more than two authors, then the surname of the first author only should be given, followed by et al.. In the bibliography, all names must be acknowledged and written in full. The first time this reference is used, all authors must be quoted at the point of citation, but thereafter et al. should be used. ‘We have to remember that a statistically significant F value […] allows us to reject the null hypothesis’ (Hinton et al. 2004:156). PUNCTUATION POINT Where sections of text have been omitted within the quotation, then a space followed by […] then another space must be inserted at the point of omission. There is no need to insert […] at the beginning or end of a quotation.

16  You can omit sections from a quotation as mentioned on the previous slide. You should not edit quoted text unless, by extracting it from the main text, there is now some ambiguity. When you change or add a word which is your own, you must enclose it in square brackets. ‘[We] are concerned with not only the rich and the clever. We want to extend choice to every person’ (Simon, 1991:51). ‘[Lynne Reder] argued that if FOK judgments were based on explicitly retrieved information, then one might expect that the time needed to make these judgments would be at least as long than the time needed to retrieve information’ (Dunlosky and Metcalfe, 2009:65).

17  If the work is from a newspaper with no author, then the newspaper should be quoted.  If the work is from a reputable website, then name the website. (Do not include the URL.)  If the work has no author and no date, think carefully as to whether to include it. Even before the Civil War, people were saying ‘that darn iron horse is gonna change the world’ (Crazy Star Gazette, 1855, p.1). Numbers in slum and squatter settlements will double in 25 years, and the average age of slum dwellers is decreasing.(WorldBank, 1999). PUNCTUATION POINT At the end of a line, do not split the name of the source from its date and page number as shown above. Use Ctrl + space between these elements to keep them together.

18  If you refer to a person who is quoted in someone else’s work, then you must cite the author of the quotation at the point of reference and the source cited. You will find the date for the author cited at the back of the book.  Try not to do this too often or find the original work and quote from this if possible. Amongst the concerns about freedom to access of information is that which involves access to personal health records ‘People could misunderstand the results of predictive tests, either by causing unnecessary alarm or creating false security that in turn brings about inadvisable lifestyle changes’ (Swailes, 2001 cited in Brooks et al. 2004:417).

19  These are references to cited documents presented at the end of the text.  They should be listed in alphabetical order according to the author’s name and then by date (earliest first).  Websites without authors should be included in the same list.  If more than one item has been published during a specific year, by letter thus 1999a, 1999b.

20  Book  Contribution in a book  Book with no author  Article in a journal  Article in a newspaper  Video, DVD, Film  Broadcast  Web pages  Electronic journals  Podcast  Conference paper  Government document  Blog *  Dance – live performance*  Music Score*  Plays – performance* For these and other examples not listed, please contact studyskills

21  Brooks, I., Weatherston, J. and Wilkinson, G. (2004) The International Business Environment. Harlow: Prentice-Hall  Houseman, G., Graves, L. and Martins, P. (2002) Lost For Words. Sydney: Campion  Smith, J. (1997) The End is Nigh. 2 nd edn. London: Longman Surname, Init. (date) Title. Edition if not first. Place of pub: Publisher Back to Bibliography Index

22  Demaine, J. (ed) (1999) Education Policy and Contemporary Politics. Basingstoke: Macmillan  Burchfield, R. W. (ed) (2004) Fowler’s Modern English Usage. 3 rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press Where the book is edited, write ed or eds (if there is more than one): Back to Bibliography Index

23  Sociological Theories: race and colonialism (1980) Paris : UNESCO Occasionally a book with have no author, but an authorless book with no date may not be a valid source. Back to Bibliography Index

24  Latimer, P. (1993) ‘Alcoholism in hospital: the case for Benzodiazepines‘in: Holland, T., Frazer, P., Elliot, F. (eds) (1995) Treatment and Care. (pp 52-78). London: Open University Press The author of the chapter, the title of the chapter, the author or editor of the book and the title of the book must be included, also the pages of the chapter: Back to Bibliography Index

25  Spellman, B. A. & Bjork, R. A. (1992) ‘When predictions create reality: Judgments of learning may alter what they are intended to assess’ Psychological Science, 3, 315-316  Aitkin, D. (1990) ‘How research came to dominate higher education’ Oxford Review of Education, 17, (3), pp235-248 Surname, Init. (date) ‘Title of Article ’ Journal, Volume, (Part No), Page nos Notice that the title of the journal is in italics, but not the title of the article: Back to Bibliography Index

26  Mesure, S. (2005) ‘Stuart Rose may at last be delivering at M&S’ The Independent, Tuesday 11 October, p69g  Torvill, M. (2004) ‘Thin is not a happy state’ The Globe, Monday 26 April, p9a Surname, Init. (date) ‘Title of Article ’ Newspaper. Day, Date, Page nos Colno. Notice that the volume number is replaced by the day and month of the date: Back to Bibliography Index

27  Party Post (1952) Film Directed by Arle Yunger USA: Glow Worm Pictures  Streetwise (2001) DVD London: Talecast Videos 27 Title of Production (date) Material designation Director – optional, Production place: Organisation For film, the date should be the year of release in the country of production: Back to Bibliography Index

28 Douglas, M. (2004) The world’s biggest Ceilidh band [online] Yorkshire-Folk-Arts Available from: http://www.yorkshire-folk- [Accessed 3 June 2004] http://www.yorkshire-folk- Worldbank (1999) Cities Alliance for Cities without Slums [online] Worldbank Available from : ml. [Accessed 14 October, 2005] ml Author/Editor (date) Title [online]. (Edition) Place of publication, Publisher if known. Available from: URL [Date accessed] Back to Bibliography Index

29  Doctor Who Episode 1, Series 2 Genesis of the Daleks (1975) BBC1 15 April, 18:30 hrs  Newsnight (2007) BBC2 October 24, 22:00 hrs Number and title of the episode should be given, including the title of the series, transmitting organisation, channel and the full date and time of transmission: Title of Series Episode No, Title of Episode (date) Transmitting Organisiation Channel Full date and time of transmission Back to Bibliography Index

30 Iheanacho, I. (2009) Analysing Aspirin [online] BMJ Podcast Available from: aspirin [Accessed 10 November, 2009] aspirin Podcasts can come from one of two sources, either from a broadcast channel or from an internet website. Title of Series Episode No, Title of Episode (date) Transmitting Organisiation Channel Full date and time of transmission Author/Editor (date) Title [online] (Edition) Place of publication, Publisher if known Available from: URL [Date accessed] Nightwaves Arts and Ideas Podcast Van Gogh Letters (2009) BBC Radio 3 October 19, 23:00 hrs Back to Bibliography Index

31 Peabody, M. (1997) ‘Lost Villages: study of southern England heritage sites’ Social History [online] 3 (17) pp39-42 Available from: [Accessed 19 May 2003] Moore, D., Zabrucky, K., Evans, N. (1997) ‘Metacomprehension and Comprehension Performance in Younger and Older Adults’ Educational Gerontology [online] 23 (5) pp467-475 Available from: [Accessed 28 January 2009] Author (date) Title Journal [online] Volume (issue) pages Location within host, Available from: URL [Date accessed] Back to Bibliography Index

32 Wilson, T., (2004) Retention: a holistic approach. Paper presented at the Retention in HE Conference, London: Hartwell, 15-27 or Kermani, H. and James, H. (1996) Fadeout in Family Literacy: the attrition problem in family literacy programs. Paper presented at the AERA Annual Meeting, New York, March 1996 Surname, Init. (contributing author), (Year of publication) Title of contribution. Followed by In: Init. Surname, of editor or proceedings (if applicable) followed by ed. Title of conference including data and place of conference, Place of publication: Publisher, page nos of contribution Back to Bibliography Index

33 UNICEF (2004) Humanitarian Action Report New York: UNAIDS/UNICEF/USAID Name of issuing body (Year of publication) Title of publication Place of publication: Publisher Report no (where relevant) Back to Bibliography Index

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