2What is a Series of Paragraphs? A series of paragraphs is nothing more than a fancy name for an essayAn essay is a very structured set of ideas that try to prove a point that the author has decided to write aboutThere are may types of essays but the one thing that they all have in common is that they are allYour goal as a writer is to pretend you are writing to someone who doesn’t believe you, and you are trying to change their mind about a specific topic!Persuasive
3How Do I Begin? Step 1: Brainstorm Step 2: Come up with an idea Step 3: Come up with an outlineStep 4: Start to writeStep 5: Peer editStep 6: Final draft!
5The Structure.. The BIG Picture! (Literally…) The hamburger method is the best way to remember essay structure. You have the top bun that you first “sink your teeth into”, then the juicy, delicious middle where all the “meat” of your essay is, and then the bun on the bottom that holds the entire thing together!
6Introduction Structure Hook:There are many different types of hooks. The purpose of the hook is to grab the reader’s attention and make them want to continue reading.It should relate to the reason why you are writing the essay in the first place.Types of hooks include:Quotes Definitions Statements…
7Introduction Structure Background InformationYou provide background information because you are always assuming your reader knows nothing about what you are talking about. You need to give them CONTEXTYou include:The TITLE and AUTHOR of the work you are writing aboutSettingImportant or key charactersA quick glimpse of key conflicts
8Introduction Structure Thesis StatementThis is the most important part of an essay. The purpose is to let your reader know exactly what you want your reader to learn by reading your paper.There are two parts to your thesis statement:Topic OpinionThe topic tells The opinion tellsthe reader what the reader whatthe main idea of your stance is onyour essay is that topic.Ex// Love, war, Ex// … causes thefriendship… main characterto lose hope
9Introduction Structure Thesis StatementAfter you have brainstormed and created your thesis statement, and you know what you are arguing, you need to create a:Mapping StatementThe mapping statement lets your reader know what your three body paragraphs are going to be about.That means you list three ideas in itYou write it like a list, where you start off by describing them similarly so it flows well. Make them parallel!Ex//…due to physical, emotional and verbal suffering.
10Thesis Statement Example: For example: Pretend your thesis is: In the story,“On the Sidewalk Bleeding” Andy’s identity islost forever because of the couple, the officer and thejacket.What is the topic?What is the opinion?What are the three parts of the mapping statement?What would paragraph 1 be about? Paragraph 2?Paragraph 3?Thesis Statement
11Body ParagraphsIn a series of paragraphs, you will have 3 body paragraphsYour three body paragraphs are the three things that you listed in your mapping statementThe order that you put them in the mapping statement is the same order you put your body paragraphs inBody paragraphs have a very specific structure. This ensures that you clearly and concisely explain your ideas to ensure your reader understands your thoughts
12Body Paragraph Structure Topic SentenceFirst is theThe topic sentence connects to your three ideas in your mapping statement.The first point in your mapping statement is your first body paragraph’s topic sentence, the second idea from it is your second body paragraph, and the third will be the topic sentence for your third body paragraphYour topic sentence provides the topic for the paragraph, and explains how it helps to prove your thesis
13Body Paragraph Structure Example: Topic SentenceIf you remember, the thesis statement was:In the story,“On the Sidewalk Bleeding” Andy’s identity islost forever because of the couple, the officer and thejacket.The first topic sentence should include the first idea from themapping statement, and it should explain how it proves the thesis.An example for the first body paragraph would be:The couple contributes to Andy’s loss of identity since they let himto die, which takes away his chance to turn his life around for thebetter.(notice the explanation of how the topic proves the thesis)
14Body Paragraph Structure PointNext you have aYour point is a supporting detail that helps explain your topic sentence.Your point should be clear and concise.It should not be a part of the plot.For Example:GoodOne reason why the couple contributed to Andy’s loss of identity isbecause they acted selfishly.The point here is that the couple was selfish, which supports the idea that they took away his chance of a better life. Notice how this point is not obvious on its own. You need more information as a reader to clarify this idea.Badbecause Freddie walked Angela home.This does not show any relationship to the thesis. It does not show any connection between Andy’s loss of identity and the couple.
15Body Paragraph Structure ProofNext you have aA proof comes in one of two forms. It is either a:or aThe preferred method is to use a quote because a quote does not leave any room for interpretation. We know that a quote shows exactly how it was said originally.The quote should show an example of the point that you just made in the previous sentence(s).QuoteSpecific Example
16Direct Quotations Inserting quotations can be tricky… Both parts of a divided quotation are enclosed in quotation marks. The first word of the second part of the quotation is not capitalized unless it begins a new sentence.Divided: “There would be no one to live for during those coming years,” says Mrs. Mallard, “she would live for herself” (Chopin 38).Use quotation marks to begin and end a direct quotation.In a direct quotation, the words of the speaker are quoted exactly, and the first word of the quotation is capitalized.Direct: Mrs. Mallard states “Free! Body and soul free” (Chopin 38).
17Indirect QuotationsQuotation marks are never used with an indirect quotation, which reports the meaning of the speaker but not in direct words.Indirect: Mrs. Mallard talks about freedom, in particular, she exclaims she is free in both her mind and body (Chopin 38).
18Quotations Always lead up to your quotation by giving the speaker and the situation. Do not assume that the reader knows the exact part of the story that you are quoting.Always follow up your quotation by commenting on, explaining, applying, interpreting, or drawing a conclusion from your quotation.Do not leave the reader to do the work! Never move on to a new point or paragraph immediately after the quotation.
19QuotationsShort quotations of 1 to 4 lines are put into quotation marks and included, double spaced, in the body of the assignment.They are introduced by a comma (,) unless they are a continuation of a body paragraph sentence; the appropriate punctuation, or none at all, is then used.Quotations are followed by the author’s last name and page reference in parentheses, with no punctuation included, except a period after the closing bracket.For example: (Chopin 38).
20Body Paragraph Structure Your Topic Sentence:The couple contributes to Andy’s loss of identity since they let himto die, which takes away his chance to turn his life around for thebetter.Your Point:The couple acts selfishly instead of trying to save Andy’s life.An Example of a Proof:When they see him on the ground and realize he is bleeding they say, “Idon't want to get mixed up in this. He's a Royal. We help him, and theGuardians'll be down on our necks. I don't want to get mixed up in this, Angela” (Hunter 2).Notice how the connection between this quote and the point you made is not necessarily obvious. It requires some explanation on your part. That brings us to the next part of paragraph structure.
21Body Paragraph Structure ExplanationNext you haveYou need to create a sentence, after you have provided support for your topic sentence, that takes the time to explain how your point and proof relate to your thesis statement.For Example:The fact that the couple is afraid to help Andy shows that they care more about themselves than another person dying. Since they let him die, Andy loses his chance to change his life for the better.
22Body Paragraph Structure Concluding SentenceLastly, you have aThere are two parts to a concluding sentence. First you need to:Restate your topic sentence in a different wayThen you need to:Transition into your next topic sentenceFor Example:Although the couple plays a role in taking away Andy’s chance at a new life, the officer also contributes to Andy’s loss of identity.
23Body Paragraph : Final Product Thesis: In the story,“On the Sidewalk Bleeding” Andy’s identity is lost forever because of the couple, the officer and the jacket. First Body Paragraph: Firstly, the couple contributes to Andy’s loss of identity since they let him to die, which takes away his chance to change who he is and have a better life. One reason why the couple contributed to Andy’s loss of identity is because they acted selfishly. When they see him on the ground and realize he is bleeding they say, “I don't want to get mixed up in this. He's a Royal. We help him, and the Guardians'll be down on our necks. I don‘t want to get mixed up in this, Angela” (Hunter 2). Therefore, the fact that the couple is afraid to help Andy shows that they care more about themselves than another person dying. Since they let him die, Andy loses his chance to change his life for the better. Although the couple plays a role in taking away Andy’s chance at a new life, the officer also contributes to Andy’s loss of identity.
24Conclusion The conclusion is meant to bring it all home! It is the wrap up section of your essay.It follows the following format
25Conclusion First: Restate Thesis (differently from how it was stated in yourintroduction)Second: Summarize Paragraph 1Third: Summarize Paragraph 2Fourth: Summarize Paragraph 3Fifth: Leave a Final Thought – Like Jerry Springer!
26Transitions Transitions are words or phrases that connect ideas. Transitions help the reader clearly understand relationships in your writing such as time, space, emphasis, example, contrast, comparison, effect and addition.In a proper paragraph, transitions are incorporated to create fluency in your writing and to connect your ideas/sentences.For example:Firstly, Secondly, Lastly, FinallyFor example, For instance,Thus, As a result, ConsequentlyIn addition to, SimilarlyIn contrast, Rather, Yet, But
28TransitionsTransitions are meant to be like a road map for your reader.They help tell them which ideas are new, and which ones are connected.They also help your ideas flow and sound better together.There are some key places to put transitions in an essay to really help guide your audience:At the beginning of each new body paragraphAt the beginning of each new pointAt the beginning of each new explanationAt the beginning of each closing sentenceLook at your paragraph again…
29Body Paragraph : Final Product Thesis:In the story,“On the Sidewalk Bleeding” Andy’s identity is lost forever because of the couple, the officer and the jacket.First Body Paragraph:Firstly, the couple contributes to Andy’s loss of identity since they let him todie, which takes away his chance to change who he is and have a better life.One reason why the couple contributed to Andy’s loss of identity is becausethey acted selfishly. When they see him on the ground and realize he isbleeding they say, “I don't want to get mixed up in this. He's a Royal. Wehelp him, and the Guardians'll be down on our necks. I don‘t want to getmixed up in this, Angela” (Hunter 2). Therefore, the fact that the couple is afraidto help Andy shows that they care more about themselves than anotherperson dying. Since they let him die, Andy loses his chance to change hislife for the better. Although the couple plays a role in taking away Andy’schance at a new life, the officer also contributes to Andy’s loss of identity.
30MLA Format – The BasicsMLA Format is the format used in English and other Arts programs.There are some key elements of MLA format to remember when you develop an essay.You need to go through them like a checklist to ensure that your format is correct.It is meant to help guard against plagiarism
31MLA Format STRUCTURE The entire essay need to be double spaced There should be no extra spaces between paragraphs. You simply go to the next available line to start your next paragraph (sticking to your double space structure).Make sure your line-spacing defaults are all set to “0”.Your entire essay should use 1 inch margins.Indent each new paragraph
32MLA FormatYou do not need a title page. Instead, the first page of your essay has a very specific set up…
33MLA Format ESSAY DETAILS At the top of the page, on the left side, you put the following information in this order:Your FULL nameYour teacher’s nameYour Course CodeThe date, using the following format:Day Month YearDo not use commas and do not write the “4th”For Example:John SmithENG 1P1Mrs. Jones30 May 2012
34MLA FormatTITLEYou need to have a creative title that connects to the meaning of your essayYour title should have no bolding, no underling and no italicsIt should be centeredIt should go on the next available line following your name, teacher, course code and date details
35MLA Format HEADER At the top of the page, you have to input a header Insert page numbers and choose the option so they are aligned rightAfter that, on the left side of the page number, write your last nameThe final product looks like this:
36MLA Format The very last part of MLA format is the Works Cited page Go to a new page after you have reached the end of your essayAt the very top of the page, center the words : Works CitedAt the next available line, you will put your citations for the books or other works you used.A book citation uses the following format: