Presentation on theme: "Writing from Research The Keys to Using Sources in Academic Writing."— Presentation transcript:
Writing from Research The Keys to Using Sources in Academic Writing
What writing have you done in the past? Answering questions in class Informal chatting (IM, Text, Facebook, Twitter) Writing reflections or responses Composing journal entries (personal or in school) Email and other forms of correspondence (Does anyone write letters anymore?)
Reflections, Journals = Informal Writing = Writing To Learn Writing to Learn : A strategy used by many classroom teachers that encourages students to use writing to “discover new knowledge— to sort through previous understandings, draw connections, and uncover new ideas as they write” (NWP & Nagin, 2003).
Academic Writing = Formal Writing = Writing in the Disciplines Writing in the Disciplines : The pedagogical stance that students become better learners, thinkers, readers, and writers within any given discipline by working within the forms and conventions of that discipline. Biology students become biologists by doing lab reports, Art students become artists by composing reviews and artist’s statements, education students become teachers by writing lesson plans, etc.
Academic Writing Should… Focus on writing from sources Adhere to the stylistic conventions of each given discipline Use standard formatting (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) Demonstrate an understanding of the rhetorical situation Establish some premise/thesis/hypothesis or propose a specific path of inquiry
The Secret Unlike previous writing you may have done in school… the secret to college-level academic writing is that you are encouraged to find information in any and all reliable sources at your disposal. Find information and use it for your own purposes. Just be sure to cite it.
The Major Steps for Success in Writing from Sources Conducting Research Evaluating Sources Composing bibliographic entries and embedding in-text citations. Conducting Literature Reviews / Annotated Bibliographies
Peer Reviewed Sources As an academic writer, it is your responsibility to find and pass on information that is reliable. Because we are not all experts on every topic, we need to rely on an intricate system to be sure our information is reliable. Colleagues, peer reviewers, editors, fact- checkers, researchers, librarians and publishers make up this network.
Examples of Peer Reviewed Sources Peer Reviewed Sources - Books - Scholarly journals - Trade magazines / Journals - Government Websites Other Common Sources that are NOT reviewed - Wikipedia - “.com” websites - Any source where an author and place of publication has not been identified
Locating Sources The JU Library is the best way to secure reliable sources on campus, either by stopping by to speak with a librarian or by visiting both databases and our catalog online: http://voyager.ju.edu/
Evaluating Sources Diana Hacker established a lengthy set of source evaluation criteria. These can be viewed here: www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/tips.html
Citing Sources Think of citations this way: If all academic writers are using multiple sources for every essay/book/article they write, things could get sloppy. In order to ensure consistency and to avoid potentially ruinous instances of plagiarism, various academic associations have established guidelines/standards for composing essays and citing sources.
MLA Style The Modern Language Association has established a handbook, currently in its 7 th edition, containing criteria for citing sources primarily in the Arts and Humanities. In-text citations focus on the author and page number since ‘currency’ is less relevant in these fields: (McCourt 01). Bibliographic entries utilize a hanging indent and are punctuated consistently: McCourt, Ed. “Citing Sources in MLA Style.” This Powerpoint Presentation. JU, 2010.
APA Style The American Psychological Society has established guidelines that are most commonly used within the Social Sciences, Business, and Nursing. Because date of publication is essential in most of these fields, in-text citations also include a date: (McCourt, 2010, p.14). APA also has its own formatting for bibliographic entries (again, emphasizing date): McCourt, E. (2010). Composing APA citations. This Powerpoint Presentation, 14-15.
Following Rules (i.e. Cheating) No one memorizes the intricacies of APA/MLA style… though some pick it up through repetition. Use a source to help you cite properly: – Microsoft Word (Format Tab) – www.easybib.com www.easybib.com – www.citationmachine.net www.citationmachine.net
Organizing Research Researchers often use both informal & formal methods to organize their research Keeping a research journal is a helpful way to organize research Annotated Bibliographies and Literature Reviews are formal assignments that also assist in this process
Annotated Bibliographies An annotated bibliography is a formal listing of all sources consulted, presented in proper citation style, with each entry accompanied by annotations that summarize and evaluate each source. Read more about Annotated Bibliographies Here: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 614/01/ http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 614/01/
Literature Review Literature Reviews are similar to annotated bibliographies, but rather than being formalized into a list, they are often composed as a running narrative. Literature reviews should both give an overview of the available material on any given topic as well as placing the current project within the context of that work. Literature reviews may function as a stand-alone project or may be incorporated as a section of a larger case study. Sources in a literature review should be paraphrased and cited throughout the narrative. For additional Info, please visit this site: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/literature_re view.html http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/literature_re view.html
(Thinking about) Embedding Research Though this is a topic for another day, please consider the many ways research can be embedded in your work: – Summary (Restating the author’s main ideas in your own words) – Paraphrasing (Restating particular points made by the author in your own words) – Direct Quotation (Embedding snippets of the author’s own words within your own) – All three of these must be cited (McCourt 01)!
Before We Conclude… Please watch this clip and think about the way the author is using sources. Can you identify direct quotes, paraphrasings, and summaries? Think of your writing in the same way: We are constantly introducing evidence to help convince our readers: 20/20 – Freeloaders Dateline – Racial Bias
A Word on Plagiarism Plagiarism : The use or imitation of the language or ideas of another having been passed off as original work, or without clear citations. Avoid plagiarism at all costs! You can use whatever information you’d like… just cite it! At JU, plagiarism has serious consequences, from failing an essay, to failing a course, to expulsion from the University. Please consult with your instructors or with our Writing Center!
JU Writing Center: Here to Help Visit the Writing Center in Council 105 for help with any writing-related work (research, formatting citations, revising/editing, etc.). Hours are posted on the door (Summer hours begin next week). Visit the Center online as well: www.ju.edu/wcenter
Submit Your Work! If you have conducted some research you are particularly proud of, consult with your professor and consider submitting to JRAD, JU’s Peer Reviewed Journal of Research from Across the Disciplines: www.ju.edu/journal