Presentation on theme: "Writing Across the Curriculum Program Appalachian State University Georgia Rhoades Dennis Bohr."— Presentation transcript:
Writing Across the Curriculum Program Appalachian State University Georgia Rhoades Dennis Bohr
Topics to Include in a WAC Writing About Writing Approach Rhetorical Analysis of texts in different disciplines Writing in different formats for different purposes Essay Sciences report format Abstract Alternative Media for a variety of formats Brochure Powerpoint/ Prezi Website Film/ video Live performance (song, dance, play) MLA and APA documentation with general information about other styles
Literacy Narrative Sciences Report (Primary & Secondary Research) Rhetorical Analysis Digital Media Reflective Letter/ Essay
Rhetorical Analysis “An examination of how well the components of an argument work together to persuade or move an audience” (Lunsford and Ruszkiewicz, Everything’s an Argument, 1045). Speaker/Writer Credibility, Authority, Correctness, Appearance Message/Subject Information, Argument, Reasons, Evidence, Data, Structure Audience Beliefs, Values, Knowledge, Experience Exigence: an issue, problem, or situation that causes or prompts someone to write or speak; the occasion or demand for writing
This essay with headings will be a rhetorical analysis of the article from your major field. In your paper, offer a detailed analysis of these different aspects: you will write in basic essay format but use headings and MLA, APA, or the style used by your discipline, if you prefer. Find information about the author, about the context of the article or book chapter, and, if possible, the place of the author in the field. Explain how this article fits into the work of the field (if you have information from your interview or from research, include it). Analyze the exigence of the article, explaining why it was written and how it is important to the conversation of the field. (For example, the writer might be explaining something she or he has discovered and reporting on it, or the writer might be trying to convince the readers.)
I. What is the writer’s main idea and how is it developed? This overview will help readers understand the context for your analysis. II. Examine the rhetorical triangle: Explain how the writer establishes credibility by citing his or her credentials, using examples. If you have other information about the writer’s work, include it here and cite it. What is the writer’s attitude toward the subject and the audience? Explain claims with analysis. Audience: Who is the audience the writer is addressing and how do you know? What does this audience already know and what does it need to know? What kinds of evidence does the writer assume will convince the readers? Use the text to explain your conclusions. Subject: What is the subject of the piece and how is it delineated? What can you tell about the writer and the audience from the choice and limitations of the subject?
III. Analyze the appeals of the writer’s argument or presentation of the subject. Be specific about using the text to support your analysis. Does the writer focus the argument on himself or herself (ethos), on feelings (pathos), or on the ideas (logos)? Ethos: Character/ background of speaker: Is this person credible? Trustworthy? What is the person’s bias? What do you know about him/ her that would influence your interpretation? Pathos: Emotional appeal: What emotions are appealed to? How? Is this effective? For whom? Logos: Logic and reason: What logic, reasons, facts, statistics are presented? What evidence is used to convince the audience?
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Write a researched, documented paper about the writing done in your major. Focus on the type of writing you will do in this field (in college and beyond) to determine if this is an appropriate major for you. For this paper, you will pull together two areas of research: Primary research from interviews and observations Interview someone majoring in the field, a faculty member, and a professional in the field. Attach the questions in an appendix and document the material, including transcripts. Include an observation of a lecture, class visit, etc. Secondary research into writing in your major, from university catalogs and websites that offer information about writing in your major. All material must be documented correctly.
Write in report format, with the following sections and headings: Introduction/ Background—Explain what discipline you chose and why; who/ what motivated you to choose this field; the kind of work required; and an introduction to how writing is used in the field. Methods—Describe the methods and sources you used, and explain why you chose these methods: Whom did you talk to? Why did you choose to interview them? What are their qualifications as experts? What secondary sources did you find? Why were these sources important to you?
Results —Discuss the findings from your research: What did you learn from the interviews? What did you learn about the discipline? What did you learn about writing in this field? What articles were recommended and what are they about? What else did you learn from your research? Interpretations/ Conclusion—Discuss what you learned in your study and explain the kinds of writing skills that will be necessary in your major. What did you learn? How does this information affect your decision to major in this field? Document your paper by using in-text citations for all borrowed material and include a References page, using APA documentation.
APA (the American Psychological Association) is commonly used in the social sciences (psychology, geography and planning, sociology). MLA (the Modern Language Association) is commonly used in the humanities (English, art, theater). Individual teachers and departments may prefer different styles of documentation, but APA and MLA are the most common types. Primary/ field research (firsthand knowledge) refers to research conducted by you: interviews, observations, surveys, experiments, notes, art you examine, eyewitness accounts, and news reports. Secondary research refers to research you use that someone else has done: books, articles, biographies, researchers’ reports, book reviews, web sites and other Internet sources. In-text citations or parenthetical citations are references to the sources you use in the text of the paper.
Similarities between MLA and APA : All borrowed material whether you quote directly, paraphrase, or summarize MUST BE CITED in the text of the paper and on a Works Cited page (MLA) or a References page (APA). Both MLA and APA require double-spacing throughout the paper. Works Cited (MLA) and Reference (APA) page entries should be listed alphabetically by author’s last name. If there is no author listed, alphabetize by the first key word of the article’s title. If the author of an article is unknown, use all or part of the title in your in-text citation. Any source cited in the text of the paper MUST appear on the References or Works Cited page; any source listed on the References or Works Cited page MUST be cited in the text. Parenthetical citations should clearly point to specific sources on the Works Cited or References page: the in-text citation should directly correspond to the first word on the Works Cited or References page. All lines after the first line of an entry on the References or Works Cited page should be indented five spaces from the left margin (one tab space).
The heading Works Cited or References should appear on a separate page, centered; do not underline, italicize, bold face, or put the words in quotes. Running acknowledgements to introduce borrowed material (“According to Dennis Bohr…”) will make citations easier. In both MLA and APA, integrate quotes into the paper smoothly. Do not drop quotes in whole without a lead in or without explanation. Short quotations are integrated into the body of the paper using quotation marks, and the punctuation follows the parenthetical citation (for both MLA and APA). Longer quotations (more than four typed lines in MLA; 40 words or more in APA) are indented one inch from the left margin; do not use quotation marks; final punctuation comes after the last word of the sentence, not the citation.
Differences between MLA and APA: In MLA, if you mention the author in the text of the paper, you cite only the page number at the end of the borrowed material: According to Dennis Bohr, Wheaties is a Communist conspiracy (22). In MLA, if the author’s name is not included in the text, cite the name and page number in parentheses directly after the borrowed material: Wheaties is a Communist conspiracy (Bohr 22). In APA, when the author’s name is used in the text of the paper, the year is placed directly after it in parentheses; the page number is cited at the end of the borrowed material (using ‘p.’ and the page number). Page numbers are required in APA and MLA when you quote directly; in APA, paraphrases do not require page numbers, but they are suggested for clarity: According to Bohr (2009), Wheaties is a Communist conspiracy (p. 22). Wheaties is a Communist conspiracy (Bohr, 2009, p. 22). MLA: On the Works Cited page, the entry should list the author’s last name, then first name, separated by a comma (Bohr, Dennis.). APA: On the References page, the entry would contain the author’s last name, and then the first initial only, separated by a comma (Bohr, D.).
One major difference between MLA and APA citations on the Works Cited or References pages involves capitalization of titles: In MLA, capitalize titles according to standard capitalization rules: Bohr, Dennis. Macbeth: The Play That Dare Not Speak Its Name. In APA, in the text of the paper, follow standard capitalization rules. In APA, on the References page, capitalization varies according to the type of work you are citing: For books, capitalize only the first word of the title and the first word after a colon. Italicize or underline the title. (Proper nouns and adjectives are still capitalized.) Bohr, D. (2013). Macbeth: The play that dare not speak its name.
For journal articles, the same capitalization rules apply, but do not italicize the title or use quotation marks for it. (Note that proper names are still capitalized.) Bohr, D. (2013). The effect of Communism on the consumption of Wheaties. Wheaties and Communists illustrated. Boone, NC: Black Sheep Publishers. For periodical titles, capitalize AND italicize as you normally would: Wheaties and Communists Illustrated MLA Citation Cullick, Jonathan S., and Terry Myers Zawacki. Writing in the Disciplines; Advice and Models. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin’s, Print. APA Citation Cullick, J.S., & Zawacki, T.M. (2011). Writing in the disciplines: Advice and models. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin’s.