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Plagiarism, MLA Formatting and Embedding Quotes (Concrete Details)

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1 Plagiarism, MLA Formatting and Embedding Quotes (Concrete Details)

2 Plagiarism Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gC2ew6qLa8U INTENTIONAL plagiarism

3 What is Plagiarism? Check for Understanding: Take 3 minutes (quietly with a partner if needed), to create a working definition of what plagiarism is and how to recognize it.

4 What is Plagiarism? pla·gia·rism (noun) 1. an act or instance of using or closely imitating the language and thoughts of another author without authorization and the representation of that author's work as one's own, as by not crediting the original author Synonyms: appropriation, infringement, piracy, counterfeiting; theft, borrowing, cribbing, passing off. 2. a piece of writing or other work reflecting such unauthorized use or imitation: “These two manuscripts are clearly plagiarisms,” the editor said, tossing them angrily on the floor.

5 Many Ways of Categorization / Types of Plagiarism Plagiarism according to Turnitin.com: Cloning CTRL – C Find – Replace Remix Recycle Hybrid Mashup 404 Error Aggregator Re-tweet

6 Why is avoiding plagiarism important? There are many ways in which different high schools, universities, businesses and other similar institutions define the term, “plagiarism”. Ultimately, they all honor the belief in “intellectual property” (which means that if you create it, it belongs to you or your employer in the eyes of U.S. law) Plagiarism policies, academic honesty codes, intellectual property rights all additionally recognize that for something to be yours and be of value to you, you need to have put in most if not all of the work. “Copying” teaches nothing and adds nothing to a topic or endeavor.

7 Four Major Forms of Plagiarism: Word for Word Plagiarism: Source material is copied word for word without citation or alteration. Ex: Beware the Ides of March. [No quotation marks / text note] Paraphrasing Plagiarism: You rephrase words or sentence structure, but essentially add nothing to the content Ex: Look out for March 15 th ! [Nothing added / no text notes] Mosaic / Patchwork Plagiarism: “Stitching together” many different sources without adding significant new content or a text note. Ex: Et tu Brute? Look out for March 15 th ! [No original content or proper text notes] Self Plagiarism: Rephrasing or re-presenting work you have done yourself elsewhere in an essay. Ex: The ides of March are important to Caesar. [later in the essay…]Caesar believes the ides of march are important.

8 What do you think the four major types of plagiarism are?  Check for Understanding: Take 3 minutes to define what you think these types of plagiarism represent:  Word for Word Plagiarism:  Paraphrasing Plagiarism:  Mosaic / Patchwork Plagiarism:  Self Plagiarism:

9 Intentional Versus Unintentional Some plagiarism issues are matters of intentional, deliberate misrepresentation, where the person doing the plagiarism was well aware of what they were doing Ex: Buying essay on line, using someone else’s research, cutting and pasting chunks of someone else’s work Other examples of plagiarism might be unintentional due to ignorance about citing outside sources, accident or oversight. Missing text notes, sources cited incorrectly, paraphrasing that is too close to the original Regardless of reason, you are responsible for avoiding plagiarism in your own work.

10 Summary: What is the difference? Check for Understanding: What is the difference between INTENTIONAL and UNINTENTIONAL plagiarism? Take 3 minutes to summarize what you think these terms mean.

11 Plagiarism and Jane Schaffer As we will see in coming slides, using two items in a Jane Schaffer chunked paragraph goes a long way towards assuring that you are not guilty of plagiarism. These are: TEXT NOTES A WORKS CITED PAGE Generally speaking, if information does not come from your own head, you must either discard it or cite it.

12 Plagiarism and Jane Schaffer Quotations you take from the play; Julius Caesar should be considered Concrete Details in Jane Schaffer language and should be cited properly in your paper. Quotes are one example of how you can use information from a source to support your argument. This is also called: TEXT-BASED EVIDENCE.

13 Using 2-Chunk Format to construct a body paragraph “2 Chunk Format” body paragraph: Topic Sentence (TS) 1 st Concrete Detail (CD) – In this case, a quote from the passage Commentary (CM) – Your reflections / explanation of quote Commentary (CM) 2 nd Concrete Detail (CD) Commentary (CM) Concluding Sentence (CD)

14 Using 2- Chunk Format to construct a body paragraph Shorthand structure of 2 chunk paragraph: TS – Topic Sentence CD – Concrete Detail (Quote) CM - Commentary CD – Concrete Detail (Quote) CM - Commentary CS – Concluding Sentence

15 Using 2-Chunk Format to Construct a body paragraph Check for Understanding: How many quotes (direct or paraphrased) should a Jane schaffer 2-chunk paragraph have? What J.S. term is used to describe them? Check for Understanding: What does ANY quote (direct or paraphrased) need to have to avoid plagiarism?

16 Consequences of Plagiarism Shakespeare plagiarized, but you are not Shakespeare! We live in a day where there are computers, printing presses and MOST people are literate (can read and write). Modern people CARE about whether their ideas are being “stolen” intentionally or unintentionally. Plagiarism is a considered dishonest and a type of fraud.

17 Consequences of Plagiarism Like any dishonesty, there are consequences for plagiarism: In an academic setting, you could fail an assignment and as a result an entire class. In college, you could be expelled! In a business setting, you could lose your job and possibly be vulnerable to lawsuits regarding your dishonesty. Bottom line: Don’t do it!

18 Consequences of Plagiarism Check for Understanding: Why is avoiding plagiarism so important both in the world of academics and the world of work?

19 PRACTICE Here is an original quote: “Selling a product successfully in another country often requires changes in the product.” Here is a student’s use of that quote: To sell a product successfully in another country, you need to change the product. Is this plagiarism? Explain why or why not.

20 Practice It is plagiarism (intention unclear). The ideas are the same… almost identical. The wording is too similar (“successfully,” “in another country”). The length is too similar to the original. Only minor changes were made. It lacks a proper text note to indicate the author / source.

21 What is the “MLA”? M.L.A. stands for “Modern Language Association” The M.L.A. consists of academics and writers who set uniform standards for academic writing (style guides) They insure uniformity and clarity when teachers and academics are judging your work. M.L.A. is not the only citation / attribution system. There are others such as “Chicago Style” or “APA Style.” Always follow the style specified by your teacher!

22 MLA Format for Citing Sources We will focus on the two forms of MLA formatting that you will need to know to avoid plagiarism: Books There are many subsets of books (anthologies, books by multiple authors, multi-volume books, etc.) Each type of book has different MLA expectations in terms of style Internet There are many variations on internet resources, so be sure you are citing the one you are using properly (Ex: databases, metasites, 2 nd party publishers, etc.)

23 MLA Format for Citing Sources With a “Works Cited” page, formatting is important! Be sure to put proper punctuation where it belongs (periods, commas, etc.) Style guides change over time, so always be sure that you have either your teacher’s expectations or the most current version of the MLA style guide. For example, the internet is not uniform in how it represents authorship and origin, so you might need to omit some information if it is missing.

24 Books Minimally, you will need the following information: 1) Author(s) 2) Book title 3) Publisher 4) Date of publication 5) Page number(s) / Line number(s) if appropriate. A “Works Cited” citation might look like this: Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Penguin, 1987. Print.

25 Internet Minimally, you will need the following information: 1) Author and/or editor names (if available) 2) Article name in quotation marks (if applicable) 3) Title of the Website, project, or book in italics. 4) Any version numbers available, including revisions, posting dates, volumes, or issue numbers. 5) Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date. 6) Take note of any page numbers (if available). 7) Medium of publication. 8) Date you accessed the material. 9) URL (if required, or for your own personal reference; MLA does not require a URL). A “Works Cited” citation might look like this: The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008. Web. 23 Apr. 2008.

26 Text Notes When using a quote from a source, it MUST be followed by a TEXT NOTE A Text Note is a short-hand reference to where the information came from and usually keys into a WORKS CITED PAGE at the end of your essay / written work.

27 Text Notes A text note for a book might look like this: Ex: “Beware the ides of March.” (Shakespeare 716). Note: No commas, “#” signs, or “Pg.” – Just the author and page number A text note for an internet site might look like this: Ex: “Beware the ides of March.” (“Julius Caesar”) Note: The title in parentheses should match the title of the webpage on your “Works Cited” page

28 Resources If you are not sure what to do: Ask an English teacher (follow the rules of each teacher) Visit the Theme Readers in the LRC Use an on-line resource such as the On-line Writing Lab (O.W.L.) offered by Perdue University Buy / use an MLA style guide CAUTIOUSLY use internet resources such as “Citation Machine,” “Son of Citation Machine,” or “Easybib”. Be sure they are accurate before you use them to make a Works Cited page!

29 Embedding Quotations When paraphrasing an outside source, you do not need quotation marks, but you DO still need text notes. When using a direct quote in a sentence, you should include it in your sentences in a way that it: Doesn’t seem to stand by itself without context and, Blends seamlessly with your own previous and following thoughts related to the quote as they appear in the sentence.

30 Embedding Quotes Here are six useful rules for embedding your quotes: You should generally start the sentence with your own words. You should use present tense verbs Ex: “Antigone shows” instead of “Antigone showed” You may need to use transitional words / phrases to lead into the quoted portion of your sentence. Don’t use unclear pronouns if avoidable (he/ she / it) Use third person point of view (no “I” or “You”) It should be clear through the use of quotation marks what is yours and what belongs to your source.

31 Embedding Quotations If a quotation is less than three lines long, place it within the paragraph. Make sure your punctuation for it follows this pattern, with the notation of your source within the sentence: "Quotation," (Author 3)—”3” indicating page number. If the quotation is over 3 lines long, indent the whole passage five spaces from the margin. In this case, do not use quotation marks and make sure your notation of author and page number within parenthesis is placed outside the sentence

32 Embedding Quotations If you use an ellipsis (...) to conclude a sentence, which indicates that text has been left out from the source, you must include a period to end the sentence. Cassius demonstrates his dishonesty when he states,“Well, Brutus, thou are noble… who so firm who cannot be seduced?" (4). Use brackets if you add information to the quote for clarity. “The author [of Julius Caesar] often plagiarized his sources.” Make sure to cite your quotations on a Works Cited page.

33 Using Transitional Words Many verbs can be used to introduce summaries, paraphrases and quotations. Some are comments, describes, explains, reveals, proposes, reports, thinks, writes, considers, concludes, claims, contends, insists, admits, concedes, concurs, derides, laments, speculates, warns, etc.

34 Embedding Quotes An embedded quote should NOT look like: “Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow world like a Colossus, and we petty men walk under his huge legs and peep about to find ourselves dishonorable graves” No text note / no surrounding sentence An embedded quote SHOULD look like: In Act I, scene ii, Cassius paints an image of Caesar “bestride the narrow world like a Colossus,” where he is represented as a giant that towers over Cassius and Brutus while they are like insects beneath him (Shakespeare 720).

35 Practice: I know that virtue to be in you, Brutus, As well as I do know your outward favour. Well, honour is the subject of my story. I cannot tell what you and other men Think of this life; but, for my single self, I had as lief not be as live to be In awe of such a thing as I myself. I was born free as Caesar; so were you: We both have fed as well, and we can both Endure the winter's cold as well as he: For once, upon a raw and gusty day, The troubled Tiber chafing with her shores, Caesar said to me 'Darest thou, Cassius, now Leap in with me into this angry flood, And swim to yonder point?' Upon the word, Accoutred as I was, I plunged in And bade him follow; so indeed he did. The torrent roar'd, and we did buffet it With lusty sinews, throwing it aside And stemming it with hearts of controversy; But ere we could arrive the point proposed, Caesar cried 'Help me, Cassius, or I sink!' I, as Aeneas, our great ancestor, Did from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder The old Anchises bear, so from the waves of Tiber Did I the tired Caesar. And this man Is now become a god, and Cassius is A wretched creature and must bend his body, If Caesar carelessly but nod on him. He had a fever when he was in Spain, And when the fit was on him, I did mark How he did shake: 'tis true, this god did shake; His coward lips did from their colour fly, And that same eye whose bend doth awe the world Did lose his lustre: I did hear him groan: Ay, and that tongue of his that bade the Romans Mark him and write his speeches in their books, Alas, it cried 'Give me some drink, Titinius,' As a sick girl. Ye gods, it doth amaze me A man of such a feeble temper should So get the start of the majestic world And bear the palm alone. Shout. Flourish Cassius’ monologue delivered to Brutus from Act I, Scene ii

36 Practice: BRUTUS Another general shout! I do believe that these applauses are For some new honours that are heap'd on Caesar. CASSIUS Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow world Like a Colossus, and we petty men Walk under his huge legs and peep about To find ourselves dishonourable graves. Men at some time are masters of their fates: The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, But in ourselves, that we are underlings. Brutus and Caesar: what should be in that 'Caesar'? Why should that name be sounded more than yours? Write them together, yours is as fair a name; Sound them, it doth become the mouth as well; Weigh them, it is as heavy; conjure with 'em, Brutus will start a spirit as soon as Caesar. Now, in the names of all the gods at once, Upon what meat doth this our Caesar feed, That he is grown so great? Age, thou art shamed! Rome, thou hast lost the breed of noble bloods! When went there by an age, since the great flood, But it was famed with more than with one man? When could they say till now, that talk'd of Rome, That her wide walls encompass'd but one man? Now is it Rome indeed and room enough, When there is in it but one only man. O, you and I have heard our fathers say, There was a Brutus once that would have brook'd The eternal devil to keep his state in Rome As easily as a king. Cassius’ monologue delivered to Brutus from Act I, Scene ii

37 Practice: Using embedded quotes and text notes, create a “two chunk” paragraph based on Cassius’ speech in Act I, Scene ii.

38 Works Cited The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2010. Web. 2/1/13. "plagiarism." The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. 11 Feb. 2013. { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/3548725/12/slides/slide_37.jpg", "name": "Works Cited The Purdue OWL.Purdue U Writing Lab, 2010.", "description": "Web. 2/1/13. plagiarism. The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. 11 Feb. 2013.


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