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UNC Charlotte Writing Resources Center.  Locations › Cameron 125 › Atkins T1 (across from Peet’s Library Café) › Center for Graduate Life › Center City.

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Presentation on theme: "UNC Charlotte Writing Resources Center.  Locations › Cameron 125 › Atkins T1 (across from Peet’s Library Café) › Center for Graduate Life › Center City."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNC Charlotte Writing Resources Center

2  Locations › Cameron 125 › Atkins T1 (across from Peet’s Library Café) › Center for Graduate Life › Center City 714  Phone ›  ›  Web › writing.uncc.edu/writing- resources-center writing.uncc.edu/writing- resources-center  Appointments › writing.uncc.edu/writing- resources-center/schedule- appointment writing.uncc.edu/writing- resources-center/schedule- appointment

3  MLA format was created—and is continually revised—by the Modern Language Association to meet the needs of the writers who use it.Modern Language Association  Typically, writers in the humanities rely on MLA format as a “universal language” of sorts.

4 These are some others you may be familiar with…  APA – American Psychological Association (social sciences, business) APA  CMS or Chicago Manual of Style (history) CMS  CSE – Council of Science Editors (sciences) CSE  IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (engineering) IEEE

5 …the main points that all writers/students want to know regarding MLA format:  What is plagiarism, and how to avoid it while effectively integrating sources into your writing  Parenthetical (or “in-text”) citations, and their correlation with the  Works Cited Page

6  Writers need to understand current definitions of plagiarism, which have changed over time, and which differ from culture to culture (Lunsford).  In many countries other than the U.S., using the words and ideas of others without attribution is considered a sign of respect as well as an indication of knowledge.  Many cultures do not recognize Western notions of plagiarism—described in the next slide—which rest on the belief that language and ideas can be “owned” by writers.

7  In an instructional setting, plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source.  This definition applies to texts published in print or online, to manuscripts, and to the work of other students.

8  Most current discussions of plagiarism fail to distinguish between plagiarism and misuse of sources.  A student who attempts (even if clumsily) to identify and credit his or her source, but who misuses a specific citation format or incorrectly uses quotation marks or other forms of identifying material taken from other sources, has not plagiarized. Instead, the student has failed to cite and document sources appropriately.

9 In academic writing in the U.S., you should always credit…  Quotations, paraphrases, summaries  Facts not widely known or claims that are arguable  Help provided by others

10 In academic writing in the U.S., you should credit all materials except:  Common knowledge  Ideas available in a wide variety of sources  Your own findings from primary or field research

11  Show that you are a knowledgeable and credible researcher.  Demonstrate fairness—that you have considered multiple points of view.  Provide background for your research by placing it in the context of the work of others.  Help readers follow your thoughts and understand how your ideas relate to those of others.  Point readers where to go to find more information on your subject.

12  Your research-based writing will typically be a combination of these elements: › your voice, supplemented with › direct quotes from your sources, as well as › paraphrases.  Regarding plagiarism, which of these elements do you think causes students the most trouble?

13 …you’re right!  A paraphrase is when you put another author’s words into your own. You still need to give credit to that author.  Before we delve into written paraphrases, some music might help us understand the dangers of bad paraphrasing…

14  Have you ever heard this song, “Under Pressure” by Queen & David Bowie, released in 1981?“Under Pressure”  Does that song remind you of another one…?

15  What about this song, “Ice Ice Baby,” released in 1989?Ice Ice Baby  Do you think Vanilla Ice plagiarized?

16  Vanilla Ice used the “Under Pressure” sample without permission. In writing terms, he didn’t cite his source.  David Bowie & Queen sued, and Vanilla Ice settled out of court for what was probably a very large sum.

17 Is this paraphrase acceptable? Why or why not? The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River where the Bordens lived, which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production.

18 The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As steam- driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of largecities like Fall River where the Bordens lived, which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production.

19 According to Williams, Smithburn, and Peterson, Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the Nineteenth century. Steam- powered production had shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, and as immigrants arrived in the U.S., they found work in these new factories. As a result, populations grew, and large urban areas arose. Fall River was one of these manufacturing and commercial centers (200). Williams, Joyce G., Eric Smithburn, and M. Jeanne Peterson, eds. Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s.Bloomington, IN: TIS Publications, Print.

20  Uses your own words and sentence patterns  Demonstrates your inferential thought processes  Rather than being merely a faithful reproduction of the ideas in source text, an effective paraphrase is one that expresses your perspective.  Includes a citation.

21  Sometimes called in-text citations, parenthetical citations tell your reader where to find the information you’re writing about in that sentence.  The “default” citation is (Author’s Last Name page #). (Smith 24).  There are situations where you won’t have this information or won’t need this information. One common example is on the next slide…

22  If you introduce your reader to the author(s) in a signal phrase, then you only need to include the page number in your citation:  According to Williams, Smithburn, and Peterson, Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the Nineteenth century. Steam-powered production had shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, and as immigrants arrived in the U.S., they found work in these new factories. As a result, populations grew, and large urban areas arose. Fall River was one of these manufacturing and commercial centers (200).

23  Your parenthetical citations are like a map’s key for your reader in that it helps them easily navigate your Works Cited page.  The Works Cited Page is a list of the sources you cited in your paper.  The author’s last name—included in most citations—is the first thing in that source’s correlating entry on the Works Cited page, making it easy for your reader to find…

24 Harriet was a domestic slave in the home of a well to-do family, and thus was protected from those violent aspects and images of the institution that are often evoked when we hear the word slavery: weary slaves toiling in fields under the hot, sultry sun; cruel overseers with whips, ready to strike at a moment’s notice; wretched living environments and never enough to eat. No, Harriet was born into excellent circumstances, as far as slavery was concerned; for the first six years of her life she did not even know she was a slave (Jacobs 9). Harriet, or “Hatty” as her family called her, was surrounded by kith and kin and, as Jean Fagan Yellin puts it, she “lived a charmed life” during her early years (8).

25 In your Works Cited: Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Ed. Nellie Y. McKay and Frances Smith Foster. New York: W. W. Norton & Co, Print. Lavender, Catherine. “The Cult of Domesticity and True Womanhood.” The College of Stanton Island. 12 July Web. 28 Sept Yellin, Jean Fagan. Harriet Jacobs: A Life. New York: Basic Cevitas Books, Print.

26  As you practice MLA format, you’ll notice trends and understand its purpose, but…  You’ll come across situations where you can’t easily figure out what to include in your parenthetical citation or on your Works Cited page. When in doubt, ask.  The rule of thumb, though, is that your parenthetical citation matches the first part of that source’s entry on the Works Cited Page. Here’s an example of an “odd case”…

27  When you can’t find the author of a piece that you’d like to cite—but you’re sure that it’s a credible source that will enhance your paper—then you go to the next part of the Works Cited entry.  Does anyone know the next part of the Works Cited entry?

28 In your Works Cited: "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow. Demand Media, n.d. Web. 24 Feb In your paper: Vegetarians might choose to replace the meat for more pinto beans or for another kind of bean. However, there are many tasty recipes that call for soy- or wheat- based beef substitute (“How to Make”).

29  Citation machines are helpful, but can be inaccurate.  Citing sources is not about memorizing rules; it is about learning to use available resources to help you give credit to other writers for their words and ideas.  As you move from one field to another, find out the preferred citation style and practice it.  Set aside time, ask for help, and utilize the resources available to you…

30  From the Purdue Online Writing LabPurdue Online Writing Lab  From Diana Hacker’s Research & Documentation OnlineResearch & Documentation Online

31  UNCC Writing Resources Center (WRC) UNCC Writing Resources Center (WRC)  Purdue U. Online Writing Lab (OWL) Purdue U. Online Writing Lab (OWL)  UNCC Atkins Library UNCC Atkins Library

32  Locations › Cameron 125 › Atkins T1 (across from Peet’s Library Café) › Center for Graduate Life › Center City 714  Phone ›  ›  Web › writing.uncc.edu/writing- resources-center writing.uncc.edu/writing- resources-center  Appointments › writing.uncc.edu/writing- resources-center/schedule- appointment writing.uncc.edu/writing- resources-center/schedule- appointment

33 Lunsford, Andrea. The Everyday Writer. 3 rd ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, Print. The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, Web. 23 Apr


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