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Using Quotations in Scholarly Writing John A. Cagle.

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1 Using Quotations in Scholarly Writing John A. Cagle

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3 Each time research material is used: First, you write a sentence expressing a point you want to make at this part of your paper. Second, you properly use and cite your research material. Third, you comment upon the quotation and/or state how the quotation supports the point you’re making.

4 Plagiarism Failing to cite quotations and borrowed ideas Failing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks Failing to put summaries and paraphrases into your own words.

5 Original Source No animal has done more to renew interest in animal intelligence than a beguiling, bilingual bonobo named Kanzi, who has the grammatical abilities of a 2 1 / 2 year old child and a taste for movies about cavemen. Eugene Linden, “Animals,” p. 57.

6 Plagiarism  According to Eugene Linden, no animal has done more to renew interest in animal intelligence than a beguiling, bilingual bonobo named Kanzi, who has the grammatical abilities of a 2 1/2 year old child and a taste for movies about cavemen (57).

7 Borrowed Language in Quotation Marks  According to Eugene Linden, “No animal has done more to renew interest in animal intelligence than a beguiling, bilingual bonobo named Kanzi, who has the grammatical abilities of a 2 1/2 year old child and a taste for movies about cavemen” (57).

8 Each time research material is used: First, you write a sentence expressing a point you want to make at this part of your paper. Second, you properly use and cite your research material. [See next slide] Third, you comment upon the quotation and/or state how the quotation supports the point you’re making.

9 To properly use a quotation Integrate the quotation (or paraphrase or material) into your language with a signal phrase. Insert the quotation or paraphrase. Put the parenthetical citation at the end.

10 Signal Phrases èIn the words of Eugene Linden, “No animal...” èAs Eugene Linden wrote, “No animal...” èOne researcher, Eugene Linden, claimed that “no animal...” è“No animal,” Linden pointed out, “has done more...” èLinden offered the argument that “no animal has...”

11 Using Research in Writing First, each piece of information is embedded in a paragraph you have written in support of your thesis. It does not stand alone. Whether a paraphrase or a direct quotation or a summary of facts or important facts themselves, each piece of information is woven into the fabric of your ideas. Second, the source of each piece of information is acknowledged in the text of your paper and given a proper citation. This is called an in-text citation.in-text citation Third, the full bibliographic information is given for each source in a Works Cited page at the end of the paper.Works Cited Finally, the paper needed to be presented in a professional format. format

12 General Format of Paragraph Your topic sentence xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx. Your statement of a point developing the topic sentence xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx. A signal phrase introduces the quotation, "The quotation or paraphrase goes here xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx" (Author 43). A comment or interpretation of the quotation which links back to the topic sentence follows the use of the quotation xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx. Your statement of a second point developing the topic sentence xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx.. A summary sentence reiterating the main point of the paragraph and, perhaps, a transition to the point of the next paragraph.

13 Signal phrase Luis Bunuel wrote of life in the upper class in Spain: "The only thing my father would carry in the street was his elegantly wrapped jar of caviar. According to social convention, men of 'rank' were never supposed to carry anything; that's what servants were for. Even when I went o my music lesson, my governess always carried the violin case" (25).

14 Author not in signal phrase There was considerable difference between the upper class and the worker in Spain. As a Spanish director observed about his childhood, "The only thing my father would carry in the street was his elegantly wrapped jar of caviar. According to social convention, men of 'rank' were never supposed to carry anything; that's what servants were for. Even when I went o my music lesson, my governess always carried the violin case" (Bunuel 25).

15 Set off long quotations Desmond describes how Washoe tried signing to the other apes: One particularly memorable day, a snake spread terror through the castaways on the ape island, and all but one fled in panic. This male sat absorbs, staring intently at the serpent. Then Washoe was seen running over signing to him “come, hurry up.” (42)

16 Author’s name in Signal Phrase  According to Eugene Linden, “No animal has done more to renew interest in animal intelligence than a beguiling, bilingual bonobo named Kanzi, who has the grammatical abilities of a 2 1/2 year old child and a taste for movies about cavemen” (57).

17 Author not in Signal Phrase  According to one writer, “No animal has done more to renew interest in animal intelligence than a beguiling, bilingual bonobo named Kanzi, who has the grammatical abilities of a 2 1/2 year old child and a taste for movies about cavemen” (Linden 57).

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23 Writer’s own thought Summary of findings Signal phrase before quotation

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26 Parenthetical Citations – Multiple Authors 2 authors – cite both names separated by & (Kosik & Martin, 1999, p. 127) 3-5 authors – cite all authors first time; after first time, use et al. (Wilson et al., 2000) 6 or more authors – cite first author’s name and et al. (Perez et al., 1992)

27 Parenthetical Citations – Multiple Citations Multiple sources from same author – chronological order, separated by comma (Burke, 1998, 1999, in press) Within same year: (Burke, 1998a, 1998b, 1999, in press)

28 Parenthetical Citations – Multiple Citations Continued Multiple sources – separated by semicolon, alphabetical order (Burke, 1998; Perez, 1992; Wilhite, 2001) Personal communication (not included in references) (T.K. Lutes, personal communication, September 19, 2001)

29 Book with one author. Note that there is also a translator in this one. If there is an editor (Ed.), it follows the same form as for the translator. Bunuel, L. (1983). The autobiography of Luis Bunuel. (A. Israel, Trans.). New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Book with three authors. Note that second and third authors have their names in normal order: Infante, D. A., Rancer, A. S., & Womack, D. F. (1990). Building communication theory. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press. Book in edition other than first: Hacker, D. (1997). A pocket style manual (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford Books. Personal Interview: Cagle, John A. Personal interview. 16 July 2002.

30 Article in a monthly magazine: Teachout, T. (1998, June/July). Old money, young love. Civilization, Article in a weekly magazine: Stodghill, R. (1998, June 15). Where'd you learn that? Time, Article in a journal paginated by volume: Fisher, W. R. (1984). Narration as a human communication paradigm. Communication Monographs, 51, Article in a newspaper: Robertson, P. (1998, June 16). Clothes for a cause. The Fresno Bee, p. E3.

31 Internet citation form is simple, including the date you accessed the website: Note that the word processor did a word wrap after "Internet:" because there wasn't room on the line for the entire URL [internet address]. Cagle, J. A. (2000). Cagle's famous best movies ever made lists [Online]. Retrieved 3 October 2003 from Online material from InfoTrac or Electronic Database: Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database.

32 Reference List – Journal Article Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, Widmer, M., & Ellis, G. D. (1998). The Aristotelian good life model: Integration of values into therapeutic recreation services. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 32(4), Jones, R. (in press). The new healthcare lexicon. Journal of Health.

33 Reference List – Book Noguchi, R. R. (1991). Grammar and the teaching of writing: Limits and possibilities. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Allison, M. T., & Schneider, I. E. (Eds.). (2000). Diversity and the recreation profession: Organizational perspectives. State College, PA: Venture. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

34 Reference List – Book Chapter Adkins, L. (1998). Feminist theory and economic change. In S. Jackson & J. Jones (Eds.), Contemporary feminist theories (pp ). Washington Square, NY: New York University.

35 Reference List – Electronic Media Whitton, J. (1998, July). Videocounseling for rural teens with epilepsy. Telehealth News, 2(2). Retrieved from 4a.html.#1 United States Sentencing Commission. (n.d.) sourcebook of federal sentencing statistics. Retrieved December 8, 1999, from annrpt/1997/sbtoc97.htm

36 Reference List – Electronic Media Continued Mulroy, D. (2001). The war against grammar. Retrieved June 28, 2001, from ATEG/Mono/Mulroy/War.htm

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38 Book with one author. Note that there is also a translator in this one. If there is an editor (Ed.), it follows the same form as for the translator. Bunuel, Luis. The Autobiography of Luis Bunuel. Trans. Abigail Israel. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Book with three authors. Note that second and third authors have their names in normal order: Infante, Dominic A., Andrew S. Rancer, and Deanna F. Womack. Building Communication Theory. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Book in edition other than first: Hacker, Diana. A Pocket Style Manual. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.

39 Article in a monthly magazine: Teachout, Terry. "Old Money, Young Love." Civilization June/July 1998: Article in a weekly magazine: Stodghill, Ron. "Where'd You Learn That?" Time 15 June 1998: Article in a journal paginated by volume: Fisher, Walter R. "Narration as a Human Communication Paradigm." Communication Monographs 51 (1984): Article in a newspaper: Robertson, Peter. "Clothes for a Cause." The Fresno Bee 16 June 1998: E3. Personal Interview: Cagle, John A. Personal interview. 16 July 2002.

40 Internet citation form is simple, including the date you accessed the website: Note that the word processor did a word wrap after "Internet:" because there wasn't room on the line for the entire URL [internet address]. Cagle, John A. "Cagle's Famous Best Movies Ever Made Lists." 23 March http://www.csufresno.edu/comm/movie.htm Online material from InfoTrac: Stephenson, Michael T., William L. Benoit, and David A. Tschida. “Testing the mediating role of cognitive responses in the elaboration likelihood model.” Communication Studies 52 (Winter 2001). 3 October 2003

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