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Declaration of Independence (in APA style) If Thomas Jefferson had to conform to APA style….

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Presentation on theme: "Declaration of Independence (in APA style) If Thomas Jefferson had to conform to APA style…."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Declaration of Independence (in APA style) If Thomas Jefferson had to conform to APA style….

3 Before we jump into the APA…. Chronology Of Events: June 7, 1776 to July 4, June 7 -- Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, receives Richard Henry Lee's resolution urging Congress to declare independence. June Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston appointed to a committee to draft a declaration of independence. American army retreats to Lake Champlain from Canada. June Jefferson, at the request of the committee, drafts a declaration, of which only a fragment exists. Jefferson's clean, or "fair" copy, the "original Rough draught," is reviewed by the committee. Both documents are in the manuscript collections of the Library of Congress. June A fair copy of the committee draft of the Declaration of Independence is read in Congress. July Congress debates and revises the Declaration of Independence. July 2 -- Congress declares independence as the British fleet and army arrive at New York. July 4 -- Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence in the morning of a bright, sunny, but cool Philadelphia day. John Dunlap prints the Declaration of Independence. These prints are now called "Dunlap Broadsides." Twenty-four copies are known to exist, two of which are in the Library of Congress. One of these was Washington's personal copy.

4 What is the APA? Following the American Psychological Association (APA) Style Guide 5 th Edition is now in effect.

5 Why not MLA Style? The majority of Universities on the East Coast of the US use APA style. The majority of Universities in the Central US and West Coast use MLA There are over 16 types of paper formatting styles in higher educational institutions. Thomas Jefferson lived in Virginia and the Continental Congress was located in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. Therefore the Declaration of Independence must be written in APA format! Just like our University Requires!

6 Please note Mr. Jefferson….. Paper size & type: 8.5” x 11” - heavy white bond Font size: 12 pt Font type: Times Roman/Courier (serif) Spacing: The entire document is double- spaced Margins: 1” on ALL sides Text justification: Left justified (not full) Line length: 6.5” (78 characters)

7 Also Mr. Jefferson…. Lines per page: No more than 27 (not counting header). Page numbering: Upper right hand corner, right justified (MS Word header location is acceptable). Page headers: First two or three words of title in the upper right-hand corner above or five spaces to the left of the page number. Paragraphs & Indentations: Indent the first line of every paragraph 5-7 spaces (1/2 inch). The only exception are abstract, block quotations, titles and headings, table title and notes, and figure captions.

8 How to Format the Declaration you ask Mr. Jefferson…… Title page (Separate page, numbered page 1) Abstract (Separate page, numbered page 2) Table of Contents (Separate Page) Text (Start on separate page) References (Start on separate page) Appendixes (Start each on a separate page) Author note (Start on a separate page)

9 The Title Page… Pagination: The Title Page is page 1. Key Elements: Paper title, author(s), and affiliation(s) of author(s). Article Title: Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered and positioned in the upper half of the paper. Author(s): Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the line following the title. Institutional affiliation: Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the line following the author(s). Running head: The running head is typed flush left (all uppercase) following the words "Running head:" on the line below the manuscript page header. Do not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spaces.

10 The deed has begun! Declaration of Independence 1 The Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson 2 nd Continental Congress July 4, 1776 Title Page

11 Mr. Jefferson---please the abstract! Begin the abstract on a new page. Include page header and the page number 2. Type the label “Abstract” in Title Case, centered at the top. Single paragraph in block format (no indentation). Do not exceed 120 words. Type all numbers as digits – except those that begin a sentence.

12 Declaration of Independence 2 Abstract It becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation. In this vein I will describe the necessity of Independence from England by the 13 Colonies. Abstract Page Why do we need to be independent Mr. Jefferson? What is the purpose of this paper?

13 Table of Contents… Declaration of Independence 3 Table of Contents Title Page 1 Abstract 2 Introduction 3 Is It Legal 4 Is It Moral/Ethical 5 Is It Socially Responsible 6 Conclusion 7 References 8

14 Very Well—write it if you must Mr. Jefferson….. Text: Begin on new page. Identify page with page header and number. Title of the paper centered at the top, double space then type the text. The sections of the text follow each other without a break; do not start a new page when a new heading occurs. Each remaining page should also carry the page header and the page number.

15 No-No Mr. Jefferson this is not in APA style! (Original hand draft copy of the Declaration of Independence by Jefferson before its revisions!)

16 Declaration of Independence 4 Declaration of Independence When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation. WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness -- That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving Double Space Throughout The paper!

17 Don’t forget references Jefferson! Start on new page “References” is the title (“Reference” if only one) centered, at the top of the page. Double space Hanging indent: second line and subsequent lines indented 5-7 spaces (paragraph indent is acceptable) Most references should contain the following basic information: Author’s last name & initials Title of work Publication information

18 Samples of References Book Franklin, B. (1773). How to do Good Business. New York: Freedom Press. Article in a Magazine Franklin, B. (1772, October 8). I Had a Great Idea Last Night Flying My Kite. The New Yorker, 13 (2),

19 Other references-- A newspaper article Pain, T. (1775, October 31). Federalist Papers. New York Times, p. B6. A source with no known author Off with King George’s Head. (1776, September 12). New York Times, p. A12.

20 Generally--- Internet Web Page: (General Guidelines – See APA for Specific Details) How to write a good revolutionary document. Retrieved September 08, 2002 from Mr. Jefferson-----See version 5 of the APA for various other ways to cite sources in print or electronic form.

21 Avoid Plagiarism! Mr. Jefferson did you come up with this yourself? When quoting any words that are not your own Quoting means to repeat another source word for word, using quotation marks When summarizing facts and ideas from a source Summarizing means to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them, using your own words When paraphrasing a source Paraphrasing means to use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your own words

22 Mr. Jefferson did you properly cite quotes within your document? Author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text Adams (1774) in his manuscript states that it is proper to rebel against oppression from the government “... its time that we have a tea party in the harbor boys…” (p.16) Those who wish to discard our free society due to terrorists threats should note that “...those who give up their basic civil liberties for security deserve neither” (Franklin, 1776, p.12).

23 Headings! (not beheadings for treason Mr. Jefferson) Levels of headings establish the hierarchy of sections to orient the reader. All topics of equal importance have the same level of heading throughout the paper. Avoid having only one subsection within a section; use at least two subsection headings within any given section, or use none.

24 CENTERED UPPER CASE Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase indented, italicized, lowercase, ending with a period.

25 The Deed is done! Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed. APA Software from Nova Book Store Go to these resources for further information on APA formatting Mr. Jefferson!


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