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Writing a research paper English 9. Step 1: Identify your topic Consider how long your paper must be  The shorter the paper, the more narrow your topic.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing a research paper English 9. Step 1: Identify your topic Consider how long your paper must be  The shorter the paper, the more narrow your topic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing a research paper English 9

2 Step 1: Identify your topic Consider how long your paper must be  The shorter the paper, the more narrow your topic should be  The longer the paper, the more space you will have to explore bigger ideas Consider your interests, what resources are available

3 Step 2: Research Take notes as you research DO NOT simply copy/cut & paste – this will cause you problems later on! Keep a working bibliography Make note of where you find each piece of information – you will need to cite it in your paper! More is better, but stay focused!

4 First due date: 12 notecards (minimum) 3 sources (minimum) NO GOOGLE! NO WIKIPEDIA! You get it, right??? Due Friday, March 25  Library time Wed. & Thurs.

5 Step 3: Organize your ideas in an outline A good outline will make writing your paper much easier What is your thesis? What is your overall opinion about what you have learned through your study of this topic? Sort your research notes into categories – these will become your body

6 Sample Outlines Purdue OWL nglish.purdue.edu//media/pdf/ _544.pdf&chrome=true nglish.purdue.edu//media/pdf/ _544.pdf&chrome=true Most MLA outlines follow the Alphanumeric format

7 Lets’ try it! Here are some of my notes about trench warfare. How would you sort them?  Trenches are ditches dug for soldiers to fight from (source A)  Trenches were composed of intricate systems of connected trenches (source A)  “the soldier found himself powerless as an individual, crouching in trenches for days on end, simply waiting to be destroyed from afar” (source B)  Trenches were used for offensive and defensive purposes (source A)  Trench warfare in WWI led to massive numbers of casualties (source A)  After WWI, many surviving soldiers had nightmares about the horrors of trench warfare (source A)  Patrols went into “no man’s land” at night to strengthen barbed wire (source B)  Trench life made for very strong and powerful ties between the soldiers (source B)

8 Source A: International Military and Defense Encyclopedia, 1993 Source B: History in Dispute, 2002

9 Group similar ideas: I. _____________________ A. Trenches are ditches dug for soldiers to fight from (source A) B. Trenches were composed of intricate systems of connected trenches (source A) II. ____________________ A. Life was very hard and death was everywhere 1. “the soldier found himself powerless as an individual, crouching in trenches for days on end, simply waiting to be destroyed from afar” (source B) 2. Trench warfare in WWI led to massive numbers of casualties (source A) B. Trench life made for very strong and powerful ties between the soldiers (source B) C. After WWI, many surviving soldiers had nightmares about the horrors of trench warfare (source A) And so on….

10 Don’t forget your thesis! Look at all your notes:  What have you learned?  What’s your take-away? Example: Thesis: Trench warfare was the most important yet most damaging aspect of World War I.

11 Now you try! Look at your note cards. Sort them into groups. What main idea or heading would you give each? This is the Roman Numeral. Come up with a thesis statement that includes all the ideas you will discuss in the body (everything in your notes). Organize in descending order.

12 WWI Research Paper Outline Thesis: Trench warfare was the most important yet most damaging aspect of World War I. I. Description of trench warfare A. Trenches are ditches dug for soldiers to fight from (source A) B. Trenches were composed of intricate systems of connected trenches (source A) II. Life in the trenches A. Life was very hard and death was everywhere 1. “the soldier found himself powerless as an individual, crouching in trenches for days on end, simply waiting to be destroyed from afar” (source B) 2. Trench warfare in WWI led to massive numbers of casualties (source A) B. Trench life made for very strong and powerful ties between the soldiers (source B) C. After WWI, many surviving soldiers had nightmares about the horrors of trench warfare (source A)

13 WWI Research Paper Outline Thesis: I. A. B II. A B. C. III. A. B. C

14 Next due date: Outline and working bibliography due Thursday, March 31

15 Step 4: Drafting your paper Using your outline, begin writing your paper in essay (long) format. Your thesis statement is the last sentence of your introduction paragraph. Each roman numeral in your outline becomes one paragraph in the body of your paper.  Remember you still need MEAT, but the paragraphs will probably be longer than in a normal five-paragraph essay Your conclusion should restate your thesis and discuss your overall learning about this topic.

16 In-text citations: MLA Whenever you use someone else’s ideas (even paraphrased):  (Author last name page#). Ex.  (“Title of article” page#). Ex. Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change... ” (“Impact of Global Warming” 6).

17 In-text citations: MLA Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name). For websites, you do not need to put the entire URL in the text citation, only the domain name or beginning of the URL (but you DO need the entire URL in the Works Cited page!!)

18 In-text citations: MLA PLEASE, look at the sample paper before writing your draft!!! 7/13/ 7/13/

19 Works Cited page: MLA Alphabetical by author’s last name or first word in citation ONLY list those works that you cited in the body of your paper Hanging indent, double-spaced Separate page from text (insert a page break after you are done with your conclusion)

20 Formatting Guidelines 12 point Times New Roman or Arial font ONLY Double-spaced (everything!); 3-4 pages not including Works Cited page 1-inch margins (these should be your Word default margins) Left margin: Your name; My name; English 9; date (double space between each – see sample paper) Title centered on page; no caps, bold, italics, or underline Add a header to your pages: your last name page number (see sample paper)

21 Next deadline Rough draft of paper DUE Monday, April 11 See me with questions! can You can do this!!!!


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