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Harvard Referencing AUSTRALIAN CAMPUS NETWORK ACADEMIC SKILLS UNIT WORKSHOP Introduction to Referencing a)In-text citations b)Reference List.

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Presentation on theme: "Harvard Referencing AUSTRALIAN CAMPUS NETWORK ACADEMIC SKILLS UNIT WORKSHOP Introduction to Referencing a)In-text citations b)Reference List."— Presentation transcript:

1 Harvard Referencing AUSTRALIAN CAMPUS NETWORK ACADEMIC SKILLS UNIT WORKSHOP Introduction to Referencing a)In-text citations b)Reference List

2 REFERENCING WORKSHOP Part 1 All page numbers refer to the La Trobe University publication, Referencing: A Guide by Robyn Thomas 2003 ACTIVITY 1 Materials: Text-book from any of your subject areas AND / OR Online journal article from or the La Trobe website QUOTING Take a one sentence quote from the source Write the sentence as a quote with an in-text citation (see Referencing Guide P. 8-9) Write the full reference (see Referencing Guide P ) PARAPHRASING Paraphrase the sentence in a) Write the paraphrased sentence with an in-text citation (see Referencing Guide P. 8-9) Write the full reference (see Referencing Guide P )

3 Two main STYLES of referencing 1.IN-TEXT REFERENCING SYSTEMS 2. NUMBER-NOTE REFERENCING SYSTEMS In text reference e.g. Davis and McKay (1996, p.112) note that “it is important to be flexible about the system of referencing and adopt whichever style is appropriate”. Full reference e.g. Davis, L.B. and McKay, S. 1996, Structures and Strategies: An introduction to Academic Writing, Macmillan Education Australia, Melbourne. Numbered reference Davis and McKay note that “it is important to be flexible about the system of referencing and adopt whichever style is appropriate” [1]. Full reference: Lloyd Davis and Susan McKay, Structures and Strategies: An introduction to Academic Writing, Macmillan Education Australia, Melbourne, 1996, p.112.

4 TYPES of Referencing There are a few main types of referencing: Harvard (mostly used by Social Sciences, Business, Engineering and Science), Oxford and Cambridge (mostly used in Law subjects and occasionally referred to as 'footnoting') and APA (American Psychological Association (Psychology and some Health Science areas) – but there are also others. NUMBER-NOTE REFERENCING SYSTEMS Oxford system Vancouver system Cambridge reference IN-TEXT REFERENCING SYSTEMS Harvard system APA system (American Psychological Association system) MLA system (Modern Language Association) Humanities

5 1.IN-TEXT REFERENCING SYSTEMS In text reference Davis and McKay (1996, p.112) note that it is important to be flexible about the system of referencing and adopt whichever style is appropriate. Full reference Davis, L.B. and McKay, S. 1996, Structures and Strategies: An introduction to Academic Writing, Macmillan Education Australia, Melbourne. Harvard system In text reference Davis and McKay (1996) note that it is important to be flexible about the system of referencing and adopt whichever style is appropriate (p.112). Full reference Davis, L.B. & McKay, S. 1996, Structures and Strategies: An introduction to Academic Writing, Melbourne: Macmillan Education Australia. APA system In text reference Davis and McKay note that it is important to be flexible about the system of referencing and adopt whichever style is appropriate (112). Full reference Davis, Lloyd and Susan McKay. Structures and Strategies: An introduction to Academic Writing. Melbourne: Macmillan Education Australia, MLA system

6 2. NUMBER-NOTE REFERENCING SYSTEMS OXFORD SYSTEM Numbered reference Davis and McKay note that it is important to be flexible about the system of referencing and adopt whichever style is appropriate [1]. Full reference Lloyd Davis and Susan McKay, Structures and Strategies: An introduction to Academic Writing, Macmillan Education Australia, Melbourne, 1996, p.112. VANCOUVER SYSTEM Numbered reference Davis and McKay note that it is important to be flexible about the system of referencing and adopt whichever style is appropriate 1. Full reference Davis, L.B. & McKay, S. Structures and Strategies: An introduction to Academic Writing, Melbourne: Macmillan Education Australia, 1996 CAMBRIDGE FOOTNOTING REFERENCE Numbered reference Davis and McKay note that it is important to be flexible about the system of referencing and adopt whichever style is appropriate 1. Full reference (appears at the bottom of the page) 1. Lloyd Davis and Susan McKay. Structures and Strategies: An introduction to Academic Writing. Macmillan

7 Harvard Referencing – Citing In Text  It is the most widely used system in business disciplines  It is the standard in La Trobe University Business subjects When you are taking notes, you should record not only the main points of the author’s work, but also your initial critical evaluation of the material (Davis & McKay, 1996). In-text references for a paraphrase* require: 1. Authors Surname (s) 2. A comma 3. Year of Publication * PARAPHRASE is when you re-word the writers words (same idea but different words) No author? Use the the name of the Institution eg: La Trobe University

8 Harvard Referencing In-text references for a paraphrase where you mention the writer’s name: Year of Publication When doing in-text references for a QUOTE add the page numbers. For web references (no pages) use Section Title (if possible) and paragraph number eg: para 12 Davis & McKay, (1996, p. 6) state that “…note taking is a key part of lectures.” There is strong evidence that “…note taking is a key part of lectures” (Davis & McKay, 1996, p. 6) Davis and McKay (1996) explain that………..

9 Referencing Protocol The marker/reader wants to know that: At La Trobe, we use the Harvard System of referencing. However, it is important to check with your lecturer in case they prefer another style. Referencing Protocol –You understood what you read; –You have sought relevant materials, preferably beyond the text; –You have ‘read’* those materials; –You can see how those materials relate to other work. *this includes scan-reading

10 How to Use the Work of Others 3 main approaches: –Direct quotes –Summarising –Paraphrasing

11 Direct Quotes Important to build a context around them. Example: Travel is an excellent tool for broadening the mind and gaining skills in cross-cultural communication. “Travel helps build character” (Lee, 2005 p. 7). It is important to travel with an open mind and to restrict yourself from judging based on your home country. When the words are taken exactly they must be acknowledged as a direct quote. The quote is not linked to the rest of the text. Try rewriting the text so the quote is SYNTHESISED In fact, some psychologists feel that / prominent psychologist, Terence Lee goes as far as saying…… Who?

12 Direct Quotes: Short Quote Interpersonal perception is defined as “how we see other people” (Lewis & Slade 2000, p. 33). Surnames only. Do not include title of paper. ‘&’ or ‘and’ ? The student study guide recommends ‘and’ for 2 authors and ‘&’ for 3. The message – be consistent!!! This is the Harvard system

13 Direct Quotes: Short Quote Interpersonal perception is defined as “how we see other people” (Lewis et al. 2000, p. 33). et al. for more than 3 authors. Sometimes this can be in italics. The message – be consistent!!! Year only. Page number is ONLY FOR QUOTES – not for paraphrased information.

14 When to Cite? General, common knowledge ideas can be stated - but you need to be sure. How accurate are these statement? Everywhere? Too general – Where? Who? Statistics? Some places have flood problems –Terrorism is everywhere. –There is widespread acceptance of a global water shortage. –Most people smoke.

15 When to Cite? Commonly known facts do not need a citation. TASK 2: Look at the following statements. Which one needs a citation? a)The moon revolves around the earth. b)Sydney is on the east coast of Australia. c)Australia’s population will double by d)Food is necessary for survival.

16 Read 2.7 P 7. Look at page 8-13 and answer the following: 1.In line 1, why are the letters a and b next to the date? 2.Why is the quote (lines 6-14) indented and dropped down one line? What spacing should be used for this kind of long quote? 3.Do I put a full-stop before or after brackets? 4.On line 25, why is there no page number in the citation? 5.On line 32, why is there no page number in the citation? TASK: Use the La Trobe Referencing Guide and answer the following:

17 Read 2.7 P 7. Look at page 8-13 and answer the following: 6.On line 47, why are there brackets around the word ‘women’s’? 7.On line 50 & 60, why is the citation in the middle of the sentence (not at the end)? 8.Line 60 – did the writer actually read the text by Birdwhistle? 9.Do I use first names or initials in a citation? 10.Line 64. What does ‘et al ‘ mean? TASK: Use the La Trobe Referencing Guide and answer the following:

18 The Reference list The sources you have used and referred to in-text are written on a separate page that is headed References. Only the work you have cited in-text is included in the reference list. Do not number the references. The reference list is arranged alphabetically according to the author’s surname or corporate name, or if there is no author, the title of the work. If there are two or more references by the same author, then the earliest publication should be listed first with a lower case a after the date, and the next with a b. Book citations must include the authors name, date of publication, title of the book in italics, the publisher and place of publication. Information from journals, newspapers and audiovisual sources should show the author if given; the title of the article in single inverted commas; the title of the journal, underlined or in italics; the volume number; issue number if given, and the page number(s).

19 Put the following REFERENCE LIST in the correct order Carol Nine-Curt, 1979, ‘Cultural differences in nonverbal communication’, in D. Fassler & N. Lay, Encounter with a New World, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York. Robinson, G. 1985, Pergamon Publications (Aust), Sydney, Cross- cultural Understanding Clyne, M., ‘Modes of communication and culture’, Communication at University, papers of the Second Annual Study Skills Conference, La Trobe University, pp , Bock, H. 1982, pp ‘University essays as cultural battlegrounds: the problems of migrant students’, Communication at University: Purpose, Process and Product, papers of the Second Annual Study Skills Conference, La Trobe University, Bock, H. & Harry Lewitt, 1984, ‘Head counting or skullduggery’, in “Language and Learning at tertiary level”, the Fifth Annual Study Skills conference, Deakin University, pp

20 Complete activitieswww.quizlab.com me your SURNAME & FIRST NAME for a password:

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