Presentation on theme: "MLA 格式講座 主講：劉育汝. Writing a research paper requires you to seek out information about subject, take a stance in it, and back it up with clear opinions."— Presentation transcript:
Writing a research paper requires you to seek out information about subject, take a stance in it, and back it up with clear opinions and the thought of others. The real value of a research report depends on what you as a researcher have discovered and how well you tell others about it.
In choosing a subject for research, you will want first to think about what you already know and what you have to build on. The next stop is to consider those subjects that you think you want to learn about. Avoid too big topic. Avoid the topic that can be traced only single source.
Evaluating Sources 1.Is it up-to date? 2.What are the author’s credentials? 3.Is a journal or newspaper known to be generally fair, or is it biased in some definite way?
4.Does the author have a special interest in the topic that might affect the relaibility of the source? 5.Does the source seem adequately documented? 6.In the case of controversial topics, does a source give a balanced or a one-sided view?
7.Does the source’s language reveal a bias or call the author’s reliability into question? vague, nonspecific use of language discriminatory langaugae percentages that are misleading
8.Is a book published by a respected publishing house? 9.How was the book reviewed? 10.Is the source of a Web page or gopher service reliable?
Evaluating Internet Sources 1.Note the e-mail address of the writer of postings found on mailing lists and newsgroups. The last three letters of an address will at least tell you something about the person—“gov ”is a government office, “edu” indicates an educational institution, “org” a nongovernmental organization, and “com” a private company.
2.What evidence do you have that the person posting on a mailing list or newsgroup is knowledgable. 3.Is a Web page posted by an objective source? 4.Is a Web page actually an advertisement in disguise? 5.Is the identifying information about the author of a Web page convincing?
6.While electronic versions of respected publications are as trust-worthy as their print versions, what about electronic journals, magazines, and newsletters that have no print counterpart? What evidence can you find to give you confidence in such publications? 7.In the case where you have an e-mail address of an individual or agency, send a message requesting further information.
When you find a source that you want to read thoroughly, consider using the PQRST method: P: Preview a text by quickly surveying it from beginning to end. Q: Jot down questions that you expect to find answered in the source. R: Read it carefully from beginning to end, nothing passages you want to use. S: Summarize the thesis and main points of what you have read. T: Test yourself; make sure you understand the source before you use it.
Electronic source cards author: editor: title of book or article or other source part of book used(foreword, chapter, essay, poem ): title of series the book is part of:
page numbers relevant to your topic: type of source(book, essay in book, article in journal, audio cassette, Web page, etc.): title of publication or publisher: place of publication: volume and/ or issue number: date: other information( reprint, translator, identifying numbers, Web address, performers, etc):
Quoting To quote is to reproduce exactly someone else’s words. (double check, ask yourself what the quotation will serve and whether it would be better to express the idea in your own words) Paraphrasing To paraphrase is to reproduce the exact sense of a written passage or oral statement in your own words—to convey accurately the ideas, facts, or attitudes of someone else in words that are natural to you.
Interpreting Interpreting begins as soon as you start to say what something means, to draw conclusions from facts, to explain why certain information is significant. Summarizing Summarizing, like paraphasing, is a process of putting someone else’s material in your own words. Recording Original Observations and Conclusions Throughout the process of research, you will want to make cards on which you record your own thoughts and observations.
Plagiarism To plagiarize is to take the language, ideas, or conclusions of another person and to represent them as one’s own. Imaging the reader ( It is usually advisable to think your audience as someone who wants to learn about your topic, but ho knows a little about it.)
It is important to use only one style for each research paper and to be consistent about the smallest details so that your reader will know exactly what each item means.
Citation 五大項： author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication 內文 引用書目
一、書 1.Buell, Lawrence. The Environmental Imagination. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1995. 王振復。《建築美學》。台北：地景， 1993 。 2.Lash, Joseph P. Eleanor and Franklin. New York: Norton, 1971. ---. Love, Eleanor. Garden City: Doubleday, 1982.
3.Ellmann, Richard. James Joyce. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford UP, 1982. 王存立編。《火的故事》。台北：牛頓， 1987 。 Ellmann, Richard, and Robert O’clair, eds. The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1988. 4.Ehrlish, Paul R., and Anne H. Ehrlich. Healing the Planet. Reading: Addison, 1991. 林顯金、揭維恆、陳衍正編著。《野外求 生》。台北：新文京， 2006 。
5.Bailyn, Bernard, et al. The Great Republic: A History of the American People. Lexinton: Heath, 1977. 喬昭華、鄭靜宜、蘇旭珺、饒湘蘭、賴郁綺。 《服飾與生活》。台北：國立工中大學， 2003 。 6.U.S. Department of Energy. An Assessment of Thermal Insulation Materials. Washington: GPO, 1978. 十三經注疏小組編。《十三經注疏分段標 點》。第二冊。台北：新文豐， 2001 。
7.Writers’ and Artisits’ YearBook, 1980. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1980. 8.Innes, Michael 【 J.I.M Stewart 】. Going It Alone. New York: Dodd, 1980. 9.Johnson, Edar. Sir Walter Scott: The Great Unknown. 2 vols. London: Hamilton, 1970.
10.Kettle, Arnold. An Introduction to the English Novel. Vol. 2. London: Hutchinson U Library, 1953. 2 vols. 11.Coles, Robert. Privileged Ones. Boston: Little, 1977. Vol. 5 of Children of Crisis. 5 vols. 1967-77. 12.Huston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. 1937. Foreword. Sherley Anne Williams. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1978.
13.Ganies, Ernest J. The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. 1971. New York: Bantam, 1972. 14.Ellmann, Richard. James Joyce. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford UP, 1982. 15.Fowles, John. The Magus. Rev. version. Boston: Little, 1977.
16.Homer. The Illiad. Trans. Richmond. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1951. 高汀（ William Golding ）。《蒼蠅王》。楊 耐冬譯。台北：志文， 1984 。 Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Illiad. By Homer. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1951.
二、單篇文章 1.Oliver, Mary. “ Crossing the Swamp.” American Primitive. Boston: Little, Brown, 1983. 58-59. 2.Walker, Alice. Afterword. I Love Myself: A Zora Neale Hurston Reader. Ed. Alice Walker. Old Westbury: The Femenist Press, 1979. 297-313.
3.Said, Edward W. “ An Ideology of Difference” Critical Inquiry 12 (1985): 89- 107. Rpt. in “ Race, ” Writing, and Dufferences. Ed. Diane Long Hoeveler and Beth Lau. New York: The Modern Language Assoication, 1993. 22-28. 4.Pope Alexander. “The Rape of the Lock.” The Norton Anthology of World Masterpiece. Vol. 2. Ed. Maynard Mack er al. 6th ed. New York: Norton, 1992. 306-26. 2 Vols.
5.Suber, Howard. “ Motion Picture.” Encyclopedia Americana. 1981 ed. 6.Monro, D. H. “ William Godwin.” The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Paul Edwards. 8 vols. New Work: Macmillian, 1967.
三、期刊、報章文章 1.Whitney, Craig R. “ Under Pressure, France Is Ending Its Nuclear Tests.” New York Times 30 Jan. 1996: A1 ＋ 2.Passell, Peter. “Czechs Tread Minefield on the May to Capitalism.” New York Times 18 Apr. 1992, natl. ed. : 17 ＋.
3.Smith, Gerard. “ Toward Arms Control.”Editorial. New York Times 29 June 1982: A23. 4.Sprague, Claire. “Dialectic and Counter- Dialectic in the Martha Quest Novels. ” Journal of Commonwealth Literature 14 (1979): 39-52.
四、其他 1.Rebel Without a Cause. Dir. Nicholas Ray. With Janes Dean, Sal Mineo, and Natalie Wood. Warner Brothers, 1955. 2.Twain, Mark. Adventures of Huckberry Finn. New York: Harper & Bros., 1886. Online. Literature and Publications Gopher. Internet. 4 Jan. 1996. 3.Rainforest Action Network. “Global Rates of Destruction ” http://( Retrieved 9 May 1996).
五、第二手資料 1.Squire, James R. The Responses of Adolescents While Reading Four Short Stodies. Urbana: NCTE, 1964. In David Bleich, Subjective Criticism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1978.101.