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Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) The land of extremes.

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1 Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) The land of extremes

2 Facts about Yakutia:  Geographical situation The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) occupies most of the Northeastern part of the Asian continent. It extends 2000 kilometers from north to south and 2500 kilometers from east to west. It occupies an area of square kilometers forming 1/5 of the territory of Russia. The territory of Yakutia is larger then the territories of France, Austria, Germany, Italy, Sweden, UK, Finland, and Greece put together. The Novosibirskie Ostrova and some other Arctic islands are part of the territory of the Republic. More then 40 per cent of the territory is above the Arctic Circle. There are three time zones - six, seven, and eight hours ahead of Moscow. The capital of the Republic - Yakutsk - is 6875 kilometers from Moscow and 1814 kilometers from Vladivostok. The difference between Yakutsk and Greenwich time is 8 hours.  Geographical situation The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) occupies most of the Northeastern part of the Asian continent. It extends 2000 kilometers from north to south and 2500 kilometers from east to west. It occupies an area of square kilometers forming 1/5 of the territory of Russia. The territory of Yakutia is larger then the territories of France, Austria, Germany, Italy, Sweden, UK, Finland, and Greece put together. The Novosibirskie Ostrova and some other Arctic islands are part of the territory of the Republic. More then 40 per cent of the territory is above the Arctic Circle. There are three time zones - six, seven, and eight hours ahead of Moscow. The capital of the Republic - Yakutsk - is 6875 kilometers from Moscow and 1814 kilometers from Vladivostok. The difference between Yakutsk and Greenwich time is 8 hours.

3 Climate  Yakutia is rich in natural contrasts. The climate is sharply continental with a range in temperature of 100(C from +40(C in the summer to -60(C in the winter. The Pole of Cold (the absolute coldest point of the Northern Hemisphere) is situated in Oimyakonsky uluss where a record negative temperature of (C was recorded in Winter in Yakutia is continuously cold but with little snow accumulation, while the summer is short and dry with high temperatures prevailing through most of the territory during this time. Also the Air is fresh and clean. During winter, the low altitude of the Sun determines a short day over most of the territory of Yakutia. The Polar Nights begin on the territory which is above the Arctic Circle. The Sun seems to forget about that area. Darkness and twilight take charge for several months. Some nights are lit up by the Aurora Borealis, the natural phenomenon that can only be observed along the latitudes occupied by this territory. Due to the comparatively high altitude of the Sun, and the dryness and clarity of the air, summers are mostly sunny; the Polar Days begin. A day can last up to 20 hours along the latitude of Yakutsk, while farther North, the Sun never drops below the horizon

4 Economy  Natural resources Yakutia is truly a treasury of natural resources. Diamond deposits in West Yakutia as well as gold deposits in the basins of Aldan, Indigirka, and Yana, are all well known. The Republic has large reserves of tin, wolfram, mercury, complex and iron ores, bituminous and brown coals, natural gas and oil. Yakutia is also famous for construction materials and salubrious mineral waters. Industry The most important industry is mining. The diamond, gold and tin ore mining industries are the major ones. 99 per cent of all Russian diamonds are mined in Yakutia. The Republic develops its diamond processing industry along with the oil and gas processing complex. Jewelry is another traditional branch of the economy. Along with diamonds, coal has a very high export value. Coal is exported to the different regions of Russia and to the Asian-Pacific countries. Timber production and processing is also highly developed.  Natural resources Yakutia is truly a treasury of natural resources. Diamond deposits in West Yakutia as well as gold deposits in the basins of Aldan, Indigirka, and Yana, are all well known. The Republic has large reserves of tin, wolfram, mercury, complex and iron ores, bituminous and brown coals, natural gas and oil. Yakutia is also famous for construction materials and salubrious mineral waters. Industry The most important industry is mining. The diamond, gold and tin ore mining industries are the major ones. 99 per cent of all Russian diamonds are mined in Yakutia. The Republic develops its diamond processing industry along with the oil and gas processing complex. Jewelry is another traditional branch of the economy. Along with diamonds, coal has a very high export value. Coal is exported to the different regions of Russia and to the Asian-Pacific countries. Timber production and processing is also highly developed.

5 Spiritual Belief  Sakha initially are pagans  But in 18-th century have been Christianized, obtained Orthodox Christianity  Still practice shamanism

6 Sakha Origin  Sakha (eski sakha) nomads (turkic tribe) who appeared in Siberia in 10-th century Today population of Yakutia (Sakha) represents multiethnic community of different believes

7 Early History  The Sakha arrived relatively recently in 13th century to their current geographical area from Central Asia. They are heterogeneous of Turkic and Mongolian origin. They conquered the indigionous hunter-gatherer tribes and began to call themselves "Sakha", after Sakhastan, an historic nation-state in Persia. "Sakha" may be cognate with Saxe, Saki, Scythian, etc., historic tribes that were famous and dominant in Central Asia. The Evenki referred to the Sakha as "Yako" and this term was adopted by the Russians when they began arriving in the region in the early 17th century. Tygyn, a king of the Khangalassky Yakuts, granted territory for Russian settlement in return for military pact that included war against indigenous rebels of all North Eastern Asia (Magadan, Chukotka, Kamchatka and Sakhalin). King of Mengeler-Khangalastar Yakuts, Kull began a Sakha conspiracy by allowing his relative Tygyn to enter into tricky pact with Russians in plan to conquer all of North Eastern Asia in centuries to come. The Lensky Ostrog (Fort Lensky), the future city of Yakutsk, was founded by Pyotr Beketov, a Cossack, on September 25, 1632 (the date of the first stockade construction). In August of 1638, the Moscow Government formed a new administrative unit with the administrative center of Lensky Ostrog, which cemented the town's ascendancy in the territory. TurkicMongolianhunter-gathererSakhastan nation-statePersiaScythian Evenki RussiansPyotr BeketovCossackSeptember MoscowTurkicMongolianhunter-gathererSakhastan nation-statePersiaScythian Evenki RussiansPyotr BeketovCossackSeptember Moscow

8 Late History Place of exhile and repression 1920-s shaman hunting (witchhunting) Shaman’s house were burnt, and shamans were sent to prison s wave of national self- consciousness, the trial over students for “nationalism”

9 History  Chernyshevsky’s house

10 Places of Interest

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