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MLA Format In-text Citations & Works Cited. What’s MLA and why do we need it? Modern Language Association sets standards for publishing in the humanities.MLA.

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Presentation on theme: "MLA Format In-text Citations & Works Cited. What’s MLA and why do we need it? Modern Language Association sets standards for publishing in the humanities.MLA."— Presentation transcript:

1 MLA Format In-text Citations & Works Cited

2 What’s MLA and why do we need it? Modern Language Association sets standards for publishing in the humanities.MLA stands for “Modern Language Association,” an organization supporting the teaching and study of language and literature. With more than 30,000 members in 100 countries, the MLA sets standards for publishing in the humanities.

3 logical system for documenting outside sourcesThe Modern Language Association devised a logical system for documenting outside sources. You will use this system, MLA documentation, for giving credit to outside sources. What’s MLA and why do we need it?

4 any information or ideas from an outside sourceIf you use any information or ideas from an outside source, you must either “Quote” the source exactly or rewrite the information in 100% your own words and sentence structure.

5 What’s MLA and why do we need it? ALL instances of paraphrasing and/or quotingFollowing ALL instances of paraphrasing and/or quoting from sources, you must include information about where the information came from—in other words, the source.

6 MLA formatting has 2 main functions #1: In-text citations #1: In-text citations body of the paper  Found in the body of the paper itself either quoted or paraphrased.  Appears in the paper every time an outside source is either quoted or paraphrased. author’s last name and page number  Parenthesis containing the author’s last name and page number of source (Smith 25).  Citations look like this: (Smith 25). #2: Works Cited#2: Works Cited end of the paper. ◙Found at the end of the paper. sources used and cited ◙Lists all sources that have been used and cited in the paper. Alphabetized ◙.Alphabetized by author’s last name. also appear on the works cited ◙Author’s names appearing in the paper should also appear on the works cited. correct MLA format ◙All publication information must be recorded in correct MLA format.

7 In-text citations Student Paraphrase: Arthur C. Clarke, author of 2001: A Space Odyssey, a 1968 novel that introduced the concept of artificial intelligence to general audiences, predicts that in a mere thirty-six years, people will no longer have to work. He predicts that a device called the “Universal Replicator” will use nanotechnology to change matter from one form to another. With the ability to create all necessities from common substances, by 2040, people will not need to work in order to survive (Clark 73). Note the paraphrased information in blue and the in-text citation at the end. Only the author’s last name and page number are included in the in-text citation. The rest of the information will be included in the works cited. Original Passage from book: “In 2040, The Universal Replicator, based on nanotechnology, is perfected: any object, however complex, can be created - given the necessary raw material and the appropriate information matrix. Diamonds or gourmet meals can, literally, be made from dirt. As a result, agriculture and industry are phased out, ending that recent invention in human history - work!” Source: Author  Arthur Clarke Title  Optimism for Tomorrow (book) Quote found on page 73. Published by  Penguin Putnam, New York Year  2003

8 In-text citations important terms: Paraphrase Paraphrasing: 100% your own wordsParaphrasing: explaining the source’s ideas in 100% your own words.

9 In-text citations important term: Paraphrase Paraphrasing READ understandParaphrasing means that you READ the source first and understand what it says. recall the source’s ideas –Then, after putting the source out of sight (closing the book, switching screens etc...) recall the source’s ideas and write them in your own words.

10 In-text citations important term: Paraphrase plugging in different words plagiarism.Simply plugging in different words or writing a “patchwork” paraphrase ( ½ your words & ½ source’s words) is plagiarism.

11 In-text citations important term: Quote Direct Quote: A direct quote is...Direct Quote: A direct quote is... the source’s exact words, copied accurately, word for word, “” and surrounded with “quotation marks.” you must include an in-text citation immediately after the end of the quote. After using a direct quote from a source, you must include an in-text citation immediately after the end of the quote.

12 In-text citations – No Author use the TITLEWhen you have a source with no author listed (remember that you should always apply the evaluation criteria to all sources; assume the examples here come from valid sources), use the TITLE (or an abbreviated title) in the in-text citation. For example “article”“article” (paraphrasing information from an “article” --note the quotation marks that indicate “article”): ("Wordsworth Is a Loser" 100). Several Wordsworth critics once encouraged people to cover their ears when Wordsworth poems were read, because they believed listeners would become depressed and whiny, just like Wordsworth himself ("Wordsworth Is a Loser" 100).

13 In-text citations – No Author cont’d websitewebsite (Quoting information from a website--note the underlining that indicates website): A recently published cartoon responded to the debate about genetically altered foods. It depicts the Garden of Eden, with Eve saying to the Serpent, “ I won’t take a bite if it’s been genetically altered” as he tries to tempt her (Cartoon Stock). websites do not have page numbersNote that websites do not have page numbers, as pages are numbered by the printer — if we had giant paper, we may have one page; if we used tiny paper, we may have 100.

14 Don’ts In-text citations : Some Don’ts for “Authorless” sources...  Do not ever, ever, ever  Do not ever, ever, ever use in an in-text citation! something weird  Do not use something weird such as (no author listed) or (anonymous) or (unknown) in your in-text citation. name of the publication  Do not use the name of the publication (Newsweek or Harvard Business Journal or Expanded Academic ASAP) in your in-text citation. USE THE TITLE if you do not have an author!USE THE TITLE if you do not have an author!

15 Works Cited Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel & Dimed, On (Not) Getting By in America. New York: Holt Publishing, Home Page July 22, Hightower, James. “How Wal-Mart is Remaking Our World.” Hightower Lowdown. April 26, July 23, Smith, John.. “Trying to Survive on Minimum Wage...can it be done?” New York Times 3 Oct. 2002: A20. Expanded Academic ASAP. Tidewater Community College Library, Portsmouth VA. 20 July, Barbara Ehrenreich’s Home Page Expanded Academic ASAP Database Article Smith, John. “Trying to Survive on Minimum Wage...can it be done?” NY Times, C7+ (May 2005) Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group. Info about the working poor from a scholarly source found on the TCC LRC website..... Hightower Lowdown website Jim Hightower How Wal-Mart is Remaking our World Article about Wal-Mart April m Note : the works Cited page should be double-spaced; it’s single spaced here to save room.

16 Works Cited: Works Cited: Necessary Information Works Cited entries vary depending upon the type of source, but they follow a general pattern: AuthorAuthor —Last Name, First Name. (Smith, John.) TitleTitle —either “In Quotation Marks” or Underlined. Publication InformationPublication Information —where/how the source was published: –City of Publication: Publisher (New York: Random House) –Database Name, Company publishing database (Opposing Viewpoints, Gale Group) –Magazine/Journal name-- underlined (Newsweek) ( Journal of Emergency Nurses ) –Main website’s name - underlined (UCLA History Department) (NIH) Date of publicationDate of publication —when the source was published or accessed (23 July 2006) or 2004.

17 Works Cited: Citing Database Sources you cannot pretend as if you read the original source. you cannot simply list the article without Whenever you use a database source, you cannot pretend as if you read the original source. For example, if you find an article from the Journal of the American Medical Association on one of the TCC databases and you use it in your paper, you cannot simply list the article without the Name of the Database Used, Name of the Service that publishes the Database, Library information. »It is easy to distinguish database articles from other sources. Please use the following format when citing database sources: Author's name. "Title of the Article." Original Source of Article Date of original source: page numbers. Name of the Database Used. Name of the Service that publishes the Database. Name of Library or Library System, City, State Abbreviation. Date of access. See next slide for examples...

18 Works Cited: Citing Database Sources Gray, Geoffrey. "An echo in the boxing ring." Columbia Journalism Review 42.6 (March- April 2004): 64(1). Expanded Academic ASAP. Thomson Gale. Tidewater Community College Library, Portsmouth, VA July Rossi, John P. "The enduring relevance of George Orwell." Contemporary Review (Sept 2003): 172(5). InfoTrac OneFile. Thomson Gale. Tidewater Community College Library, Portsmouth VA. 24 July Sowell, Thomas. "Increasing the Minimum Wage Is Counterproductive." Poverty. Ed. Karen Balkin. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Thomson Gale. Tidewater Community College Library, Portsmouth VA. 26 July "U.S. EPA environmental justice plan falls short." World Watch. 18:6 (8). Nov-Dec Science Resource Center. Thomson Gale. Tidewater Community College Library, Portsmouth VA. 20 July 2006 Don’t forget to include the highlighted information: You do not need to include the entire HUGE web address. You may stop at the “.com”

19 Works Cited: Special Circumstances  UNKNOWN AUTHOR begin with the work's title  When the author of a work is unknown, begin with the work's title.  Titles of articles and other short works, such as brief documents from Web sites, are put in quotation marks.  Your works cited entry would look like this:  “The Rich and the Rest.” Futurist 39: 4 (July/Aug. 2005): SIRS Knowledge Source. SIRS, Inc. Tidewater Community Coll. Lib., Portsmouth, VA. 22 Jul  Titles of books and other whole/long works, such as entire Web sites, are underlined.  Your works cited entry would look like this:  Atlas of the World. New York: Macmillan Publishing, From:


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