Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Peck Hall 325 and 326 904-8237 Hours: Monday—Thursday830—630 Friday830—3 Saturday10—1.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Peck Hall 325 and 326 904-8237 Hours: Monday—Thursday830—630 Friday830—3 Saturday10—1."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Peck Hall 325 and Hours: Monday—Thursday830—630 Friday830—3 Saturday10—1

3 MLA Parenthetical Documentation

4 Modern Language Association The MLA is basically an organization that determines standard grammatical practice for writers in certain areas. In the English department, we follow these guidelines; check with instructors in other departments to determine their style preference.

5 Parenthetical Documentation The purpose of parenthetical documentation is to simplify reading and reference to researched material. Instead of having to search around for foot or endnotes that give bibliographic information, the reader need only look to the end of the sentence to find an abbreviated citation that refers to a full entry on the Works Cited page.

6 For example: According to a 1999 study of teenagers, “Sixty-three percent of girls and seventy-four percent of boys under the age of eighteen had tried marijuana or were regular users” (Jones 48). Jones, Carson R. The American Drug Epidemic. Boston: St. Martin’s Press, The information given at the end of the borrowed material is just enough to point to the full citation on the Works Cited page and is placed strategically to allow for smoother reading.

7 MLA Rules Words, phrases, and incomplete sentences must be worked coherently into your own sentences: Some researchers argue that television before the age of two is “harmful and debilitating,” prolonging the “acquisition of unspoken and spoken cues” (Jones 48). Notice the punctuation and that only the author’s last name and page number appear in parentheses.

8 MLA Rules When quoting a complete sentence or more from a work, always prepare the quote with an introductory sentence followed by a colon: Some noted researchers contest the validity of the study’s results: “In a single-blind study of such short length, results clearly are not indicative of the populace at large” (Jones 48). Or a dependent clause or phrase followed by a comma: According to child psychologist Robert Jones, “In a single- blind study of such short length, results clearly are not indicative of the populace at large” (48).

9 MLA Rules If a quotation is more than four typed lines, set it off in block form by indenting ten spaces from the left margin (extending all the way to the right margin). Double space, use no quotation marks, and in this instance, place the final period before the parenthetical citation:

10 Although two small studies have produced evidence to refute Dr. Jones’s claim, the most respected studies support his findings: While not always popular with working parents who are too busy not to set their children in front of Barney all day, most pediatricians agree that children should abstain from watching television at least until age two, and even then, television time should be limited and closely monitored. (Wilson 29) As parents, we owe it to our children to err on the side of caution.

11 Use Block Quotes Sparingly Direct quotes should only be used when the language they contain is exceptional--the words the author chooses convey as much to the reader as their content. Heavy reliance on block quotes in undergraduate course suggests that the writer has taken the easy way out—here’s the information; you decide what’s good. One other point to remember: block quotes are not paragraphs. They begin with a lead-in like all other quotes and should be followed up by explicatory information beginning back at the left margin. Let’s look at that block quote one more time:

12 Although two small studies have produced evidence to refute Dr. Jones’s claim, the most respected studies support his findings: While not always popular with working parents who are too busy not to set their children in front of Barney all day, most pediatricians agree that children should abstain from watching television at least until age two, and even then, television time should be limited and closely monitored. (Wilson 29) As parents, we owe it to our children to err on the side of caution.

13 MLA Rules Note all changes you make to direct quotations by using brackets [ ]; otherwise, spelling, capitalization, and interior punctuation must remain unchanged: According to Jones, “The logic behind his [Dr. Beaman] argument is sound” (29). According to Jones, “The effects [of the drug] were more severe in patients under twelve” (27).

14 MLA Rules Commas and periods go inside quotation marks; semicolons, colons, and dashes go outside. Question marks go inside when the quote is a question, outside when your entire sentence is a question: Although Watson’s theories have been “long-lived,” new ideas are born each day (Jones 29). Watson’s theories have been “long-lived”; however, new ideas are born each day (Jones 29). Jones asks, “Are these rules necessary?” (29). Is her theory that “children are receptive to colors and images only in 30-second intervals” really sound (Jones 29)?

15 MLA Rules If you mention the author’s name in the sentence, put only the page number in parentheses: Richard Jones argues that “children should be allowed to develop in the real world, not the pseudo-reality of television” (29). Remember that the purpose of parenthetical documentation is to facilitate reading; don’t clutter the sentence with duplicate information.

16 MLA Rules Give the authors of your research some credibility the first time you use them; subsequently, refer to them by last name only: A child psychologist at Harvard University for the past twelve years, Dr. Richard Jones argues that “children must be nurtured in reality, not the fantasy of television” (29).

17 Online Sources Citing online sources is a little different sometimes than printed sources. In parenthetical citation, refer simply to the author, or to the major words in the title if the author is unknown, or, if the original work has recognizable section breaks or paragraph breaks, refer to those. Do not follow the pagination of your printer!

18 For Example: In his 1997 article, Jonathan Harris argues that “the Salem witch trials were the manifestation of overactive imaginations.” In his 1997 article, Jonathan Harris argues that “the Salem witch trials were the manifestation of overactive imaginations” (par. 14). One researcher argues, “The Salem witch trials were the manifestation of overactive imaginations” (Harris). One researcher argues, “The Salem witch trials were the manifestation of overactive imaginations” (Harris, par. 14).

19 More Examples: As the public becomes aware of the importance of each species on the planet, they exert more pressure on their representatives to vote responsibly: “Endangered species were protected in the last session of Congress by a five to one margin” (“Endangered”). As the public becomes aware of the importance of each species on the planet, they exert more pressure on their representatives to vote responsibly: “Endangered species were protected in the last session of Congress by a five to one margin” (“Endangered,” par. 14).

20 Use Quotes to Support Too many times, we rely too heavily on our research; the sole purpose of using secondary sources is to back up what you have to say. Therefore, quoted or paraphrased material will never begin or end a body paragraph and will always be introduced and followed-up in your voice.

21 Use Quotes to Support Not: “Children must be allowed to develop in reality, not the fantasy world of television” (Jones 29). But: As parents we often do not realize the harm of excessive television viewing, but according to Richard Jones, child psychologist at Harvard University, “Children must be allowed to develop in reality” (29). Without support from parents, our children cannot be expected to know fiction from reality.

22 Use Quotes to Support No matter how many quotes or paraphrases you use in a paragraph, the pattern is always the same and simply repeats itself with each new piece of research: Topic Sentence Assertion Lead-In to Quote Quote to Support Assertion Explication of Quote Conclusion to Paragraph

23 Samples: One researcher concludes that “boys develop more slowly than girls” (Jones 29). Researcher Joshua Jones argues that “boys develop more slowly than girls” (29). As Jones and Williams observe, “Girls are more likely to acquire speech before boys of the same age” (36). According to one study, “Girls are more likely to acquire speech before boys of the same age” (Jones and Williams 36).

24 Samples: One study concludes that girls generally learn to speak before boys their age (Jones and Williams 36). An article in Time points out that comparing children’s skills is often hurtful to the child and to the parent (“Children” 44). William Boyd urges, “Each child needs to be cherished for his achievements” (qtd. in Frazier 28). Two recent studies reveal that “middle children are often the ones who are rule followers” (Jones 29; Hall 43).

25 Practice! Take a part of this “research” and lead into, incorporate gracefully, and follow-up as borrowed material. “Every poll taken in the United States has shown that the majority of registered voters agree that medical marijuana should be legal if prescribed by a physician. The two most dramatic expressions of this have been the resolutions passed by voters in San Francisco and later in Santa Cruz, CA. The initiatives passed by a margin of 79.7 and 78.6 percent.” --Ed Rosenthal. “California Medical-Marijuana Initiative.” High Times

26 For Example: More and more people accept the premise that marijuana should be legalized. If voters in San Francisco and Santa Cruz are any indication, “The majority of registered voters agree that medical marijuana should be legal if prescribed by a physician” (Rosenthal 2). Maybe Americans should resist their knee-jerk responses and investigate the matter on a purely scientific basis.

27 Practice! Take a part of this “research” and lead into, incorporate gracefully, and follow-up as borrowed material. “Every poll taken in the United States has shown that the majority of registered voters agree that medical marijuana should be legal if prescribed by a physician. The two most dramatic expressions of this have been the resolutions passed by voters in San Francisco and later in Santa Cruz, CA. The initiatives passed by a margin of 79.7 and 78.6 percent.” --Ed Rosenthal. “California Medical-Marijuana Initiative.” High Times

28 Peck Hall 325 and Hours: Monday—Thursday830—630 Friday830—3 Saturday10—1


Download ppt "Peck Hall 325 and 326 904-8237 Hours: Monday—Thursday830—630 Friday830—3 Saturday10—1."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google