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University of Scranton CTLE Writing Center.  also known as parenthetical documentation.  used to cite borrowed words, facts, or ideas at the point they.

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Presentation on theme: "University of Scranton CTLE Writing Center.  also known as parenthetical documentation.  used to cite borrowed words, facts, or ideas at the point they."— Presentation transcript:

1 University of Scranton CTLE Writing Center

2  also known as parenthetical documentation.  used to cite borrowed words, facts, or ideas at the point they are used in the document.  used in conjunction with and not as a replacement for the Works Cited page.

3  In-text citations lead readers to specific works listed on the Works Cited page.  Footnotes and endnotes provide readers with the explanatory information:  Content notes offer additional comments, information, insight, etc., not provided in the text  Bibliographic notes provide information on additional sources or comments on other sources.

4 1. You use an idea from a source. The idea is not originally yours. It belongs to the author(s) of the source and must be cited. 2. You paraphrase or summarize a source (even if you change the word order and replace words with synonyms). 3. You directly quote a source. 4. You use information that is not common knowledge.

5  For a source with one author: Helpfulness and listening skills are key components of consulting success (Burkhart 6).  There should be an entry on the Works Cited Page that corresponds to this in-text citation: Burkhart, Mary. Tips for Writing Consultants. Scranton: Scranton Books, Print.

6  Place the in-text citation where a pause occurs naturally, for example, before the punctuation that concludes the phrase, the clause, or the sentence containing the borrowed information.  The in-text citation used on the previous screen is referred to as author page style to reflect the order of the information within the citation: (Burkhart 6).

7  For a source with no author:  Use the title or a shortened version of the title in quotation marks if it is a short work or in italics/underline if it is a long work.  (“Working with Student Writers” 6).

8  For a source with two/three authors:  Separate last names with any necessary commas and the word “and.”  (Burkhart and Smith 6)  For a source with four/more authors:  Include all last names or include first last name followed by “et al.”  (Burkhart et al. 6).

9  For a source with the author named in a signal phrase:  Include just the page number.  Mary Burkhart reports that effective listening and communication skills are imperative (6).  For a source without page numbers:  Include just the author’s name.  (Burkhart).

10 For an excellent overview or review of the 2009 updates in MLA style and format, click on Purdue University’s MLA Power Point PresentationMLA Power Point Presentation For one-on-one help using MLA, visit The Writing Center STT 588 D (570)

11 Hacker, Diana and Nancy Sommers. “MLA Papers.” A Writer’s Reference. 7 th ed. Boston: Bedford, Print. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7 th ed. New York: MLA, Print. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 3 rd ed. New York: MLA, Print. Russell, Tony, Allen Brizee, and Elizabeth Angeli. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 16 Nov Web. 22 Feb


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