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RLST 210/Div/Rel 3152 October 17, 2011.  3:10-3:15 How we shall proceed  3:15 – 3:40 ERIC BURTON-KRIEGER Matt13:44-53 & 5:38-48. Formal Respondent:

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Presentation on theme: "RLST 210/Div/Rel 3152 October 17, 2011.  3:10-3:15 How we shall proceed  3:15 – 3:40 ERIC BURTON-KRIEGER Matt13:44-53 & 5:38-48. Formal Respondent:"— Presentation transcript:

1 RLST 210/Div/Rel 3152 October 17, 2011

2  3:10-3:15 How we shall proceed  3:15 – 3:40 ERIC BURTON-KRIEGER Matt13:44-53 & 5:38-48. Formal Respondent: ROB KNOX  3:42-4:07 MICHAEL D. BROADNAX, SR._ Matt 13:47-52. And 4:13-22 Formal Respondent: _SAM MALLICK  4:09-4:34 MEGAN YOHE Matthew 13:1-9 & 5:13- 16 & 7:15-20 Formal Respondent: BRYANNA JEW  4:36-5:01 JESSIE LIGHT Matt 13: 1-9 & 6: 25-34, Formal Respondent: KYLE FROHOCK  5:03-5:28 EUGENE SE’BREE Matt 13:1-13 &7:13- 23 Formal Respondent: SKYLER HUTTO  5:28-5:30 Conclusion

3  "The kingdom of heaven is like treasure hidden in a field, which someone found and hid; then in his joy he goes and sells all that he has and buys that field. 45 "Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a merchant in search of fine pearls; 46 on finding one pearl of great value, he went and sold all that he had and bought it.  47 "Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was thrown into the sea and caught fish of every kind; 48 when it was full, they drew it ashore, sat down, and put the good into baskets but threw out the bad. 49 So it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come out and separate the evil from the righteous 50 and throw them into the furnace of fire, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 51 "Have you understood all this?" They answered, "Yes." 52 And he said to them, "Therefore every scribe who has been trained for the kingdom of heaven is like the master of a household who brings out of his treasure what is new and what is old."

4  5:38-48 38 "You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.' 39 But I say to you, Do not resist an evildoer. …. 43 "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' 44 But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, 45 so that you may be children of your Father in heaven; for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the righteous and on the unrighteous. 46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? 47 And if you greet only your brothers and sisters, what more are you doing than others? Do not even the Gentiles do the same? 48 Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect.

5  A group from the First United Methodist Church just returned from a mission trip in Haiti,  laying the foundation for a new church building, leading Vacation Bible School for children.  The locals’ enthusiasm & sense of gratitude & God’s presence through our team astounded the group.  They had witnessed God’s love through the people of Haiti and they felt their activities really made a difference.  How do their experiences of God’s work in Haiti speak to their day-to-day North American lives?  They needed a new vision of what God is doing that would help them to reconcile these two worlds and their call to participate in God’s work. 

6  (3) Teaching: Bible study with group after their return.  Needed: a teaching where scripture reinforces the radically new vision of God’s work and reign provided by their experience in Haiti  In 13:44-45 the Kingdom of God = a radical reversal of values; no “business as usual.” Discovering the “treasure” of the kingdom is being willing to give everything to obtain it.  After discovering what God is doing in the world (as happened in Haiti) these folks have a choice: either put it on a shelf or run hard after it (after returning).  With this new vision of how to live close to God, to participate in God’s reign, different values would drive our lives 5:38-48

7  Donald Hagner’s World Bible Commentary: Matthew 1-13, vol. 33, lx, 395-397; 398-400 is to see the Gospel of Matthew’s presentation of the kingdom as always pointing towards fulfillment—though in chapter 13 we are reminded that it “comes presently as a mystery in an unexpected way” and is present only in a veiled, hidden form.  Hagner might name the root problem as one of ideology, for the community may expect/seek a concrete set of rules = guidelines regarding where to find the kingdom  Alternative: Lack of will to serve God. Parable = a call to “personal sacrifice” (397); “calls for unrestrained response in the form of absolute discipleship” (397)

8  Donald Hagner’s World Bible Commentary: Matthew 1-13, vol. 33, lx, 395-397; 398-400 is to see the Gospel of Matthew’s presentation of the kingdom as always pointing towards fulfillment—though in chapter 13 we are reminded that it “comes presently as a mystery in an unexpected way” and is present only in a veiled, hidden form.  Hagner might name the root problem as one of ideology, for the community may expect/seek a concrete set of rules = guidelines regarding where to find the kingdom  Alternative: Lack of will to serve God. Parable = a call to “personal sacrifice” (397); “calls for unrestrained response in the form of absolute discipleship” (397)

9  Wrong ideology: Our mission team has questions about whether one can only encounter God in such profound ways in far away places? They want rules for where to find the kingdom. ◦ Here the questions about loving neighbor and enemies that Jesus raises (Matt 5) most helpful.  Lack of Will: the group encountered in Haiti a very rigid program (structured interactions, Bible study etc.) that was for them a powerful experience of God’s reign. ◦ Upon return, the group might ask for a prescriptive plan from me on how to participate in God’s kingdom so that they could continue to experience what they did in Haiti.

10  I would try and establish how scripture provides a model (= an example of behavior) for our community around having a decision point with regard to the kingdom (having or not having a “kingdom-life”)  And how we are to live counter to our culture to love those whom we least like.  We must be in relationship with neighbors near and far)  Chapter 5’s command to love our enemies is still described broadly (as a basic ethical principle); so we need to discern together as a community how to live on the basis of this ethical principle (Kant)  to counter an overly prescriptive sentiment.  

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12  Eric: Root Problem: Faith/Vision; Role of Scripture: Holy Bible  Hagner: Root Problem: Faith/Vision; Role of Scripture: Corrective Glasses  Rob: Root Problem: Ideology; Role of Scripture: Family Album  I agree with Eric’s interpretation of Hagner. The Gospel of Matthew presents the Kingdom of Heaven as something that has been fulfilled with the presence of Christ and will continue to be built upon. Hagner emphasizes that the disciples are not sure what the Kingdom of Heaven is – it is a mystery to them. Hagner also suggest that Christ wants us to know the relative value of the Kingdom by comparing it to both a pearl and a treasure.

13  Eric: Root Problem: Faith/Vision; Role of Scripture: Holy Bible  Hagner: Root Problem: Faith/Vision; Role of Scripture: Corrective Glasses  Rob: Root Problem: Ideology; Role of Scripture: Family Album  In my interpretation of Hagner, he demonstrates that the root problem faced by Christians is one of faith/vision because we do not have the same vision of or place the same importance upon the Kingdom as Christ does. This passage in Matthew provides us with a proper vision of the Kingdom.  In my teaching, I had seen the root problem as one of incorrect ideology which could be changed with a Family Album approach to scriptures that gives us the correct ideological understanding of Christ’s words. I could easily have used Hagner’s root problem for my teaching, stating that my problem was one of incorrect Faith/Vision of the Kingdom that could be corrected with the right interpretation of the scriptures (corrective lenses.)

14  2) My Context On July 24, 2011, I conducted Morning Prayer and preached at my church. It was the Sixth Sunday after Pentecost and the gospel reading was Matthew 13:31-33, 44-52. In conducting my exegesis of the text, I read several commentaries and each one had a different interpretation of the phrase “Kingdom of Heaven.” My own interpretation of the kingdom of heaven that it was established when Christ started his ministry and is not an eschatological future kingdom. To me, most people have an incorrect ideology as to what Christ meant when He discussed the Kingdom of Heaven. By adopting the ideology that the kingdom exists now, we should change our thinking and actions to truly help establish a Christian kingdom here on earth. The scriptures in which Christ described the Kingdom should serve as a Family Album, pointing us to a proper ideology.

15  3) Applying Eric’s Teaching to My Context  The kingdom of God is presented as a radical reversal of the values of continuing “business as usual.” Whether one “stumbles across it” or “deliberately seeks it out” (v. 45), the end result of discovering the “treasure” of the kingdom is being willing to give everything to obtain it. I would try and establish how scripture provides a model for our community around having a decision point with regard to the kingdom and then how we are to live counter to our culture to love those whom we least like. This teaching means we have to be in relationship with those close to us (including neighbors near and far

16  3:10-3:15 How we shall proceed  3:15 – 3:40 ERIC BURTON-KRIEGER Matt13:44-53 & 5:38-48. Formal Respondent: ROB KNOX  3:42-4:07 MICHAEL D. BROADNAX, SR._ Matt 13:47-52. And 4:13-22 Formal Respondent: _SAM MALLICK  4:09-4:34 MEGAN YOHE Matthew 13:1-9 & 5:13- 16 & 7:15-20 Formal Respondent: BRYANNA JEW  4:36-5:01 JESSIE LIGHT Matt 13: 1-9 & 6: 25-34, Formal Respondent: KYLE FROHOCK  5:03-5:28 EUGENE SE’BREE Matt 13:1-13 &7:13- 23 Formal Respondent: SKYLER HUTTO  5:28-5:30 Conclusion

17  "The kingdom of heaven is like treasure hidden in a field, which someone found and hid; then in his joy he goes and sells all that he has and buys that field. 45 "Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a merchant in search of fine pearls; 46 on finding one pearl of great value, he went and sold all that he had and bought it.  47 "Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was thrown into the sea and caught fish of every kind; 48 when it was full, they drew it ashore, sat down, and put the good into baskets but threw out the bad. 49 So it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come out and separate the evil from the righteous 50 and throw them into the furnace of fire, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 51 "Have you understood all this?" They answered, "Yes." 52 And he said to them, "Therefore every scribe who has been trained for the kingdom of heaven is like the master of a household who brings out of his treasure what is new and what is old."

18  He left Nazareth and made his home in Capernaum by the sea, in the territory of Zebulun and Naphtali, 14 so that what had been spoken through the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled: 15 "Land of Zebulun, land of Naphtali, on the road by the sea, across the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles-- 16 the people who sat in darkness have seen a great light, and for those who sat in the region and shadow of death light has dawned." 17 From that time Jesus began to proclaim, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has come near.“  As he walked by the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea-- for they were fishermen. 19 And he said to them, "Follow me, and I will make you fish for people." 20 Immediately they left their nets and followed him.  21 As he went from there, he saw two other brothers, James son of Zebedee and his brother John, in the boat with their father Zebedee, mending their nets, and he called them. 22 Immediately they left the boat and their father, and followed him.

19  Context The needs of an Inner City congregation that feel their efforts at evangelism have failed. They have the misconception that doing ministry “right” means overflowing crowds and big budgets. Members experience ministry burnout, because their efforts did not result in their perceived goal.  Root Problem = Wrong Ideology. They believe that the harvest of souls is a direct benefit to those that evangelize (or cast their nets), not seeing that the fish they are commanded to “catch” are not for their own benefit but for that of the “fish” and the Kingdom.  Role of Scripture: Corrective Glasses showing the believers a new perspective and new purpose. 

20  Teaching: highlights Mission as Proclamation and Witness to Save Souls : Those called by God to seek and save the lost must recognize the Kingdom to be invaluable, priceless; they themselves were caught in the “net” of the Gospel Message (13:44-52) by being given the promise that Jesus will teach them how to catch people (4:18-22).  Members of Inner City Congregation will invite people to “see” through the Corrective Glasses of these texts the gracious “net” of the Gospel that “caught” and saved them. With this new ideology they see their goal not as building their own fellowship but as expanding the Kingdom by catching the hearts of humanity (of all kinds) with the Gospel Message.

21  For Davies and Allison eschatology (the final judgment) is the main theme of 13:44-52.  Their root problem is a Wrong/lack of Knowledge on the part of the hearers of the Gospel (see p. 449; they underscore the moral [paraenetic] teaching [= a knowledge] of 13:44-52)  Alternative: Wrong vision. for D&A 1) the moral teaching is framed by a vision of the judgment; 2) throughout their commentary (see vol 1 Introduction) they carefully study the “figures” and “symbolism” of the text (by definition “figures” and “symbolism” convey a vision  Knowledge is conveyed by e.g. theological statements

22  For D&A, the congregation’s misconception that doing ministry “right” means overflowing crowds and big budgets would now be based on a wrong knowledge about mission, ignoring that mission means sorting out good fish from bad fish – ending up with a small crowd of good fish!  Alternatively, if D&A have a wrong vision root- problem, not sharing the vision of the Kingdom and its judgment includes failing to envision that mission means sorting out good fish from bad fish – ending up with a small crowd of good fish! ◦ The difference is that the transmission of this teaching as “knowledge” might not (probably will not) change the attitude of the congregation.  

23  D&A’s lack of knowledge root problem changes the teaching for my contextual problem by emphasizing “what” is preached/proclaimed ◦ instead of “why” we preach/proclaim.  a [Lamp to My Feet or] rule of the community teaching (note the emphasis on judgment & paraenetic [moral] teachings). This knowledge conveyed by the text as rule of the community corrects their misconception that doing ministry “right” means overflowing crowds and big budgets based on a lack of knowledge that mission means sorting good fish from bad fish – ending up with a small crowd of good fish!

24  Alternatively, if for D&A the root problem is a wrong vision ◦ = not sharing the vision of the kingdom and its judgment  Using 13:44-52 & 4:18-22 as family album the teaching is a vision of the Kingdom and its judgment  that the Inner City Congregation would gain if, and if only, they say “we” with the text.  “We” as members of the Kingdom in mission, casting our net often catch many fish that “we” have to sort out, throwing away the bad to keep only the good.  “We” are the angels gathering only the righteous;  Thus it is good for us to have a small congregation of ‘good fish.”

25  Michael’s root problem is a wrong ideology  he identifies Davies and Allison’s root problem as a wrong knowledge.  Lack of or wrong knowledge is a tricky one because that is often the problem for those to whom Jesus speaks or to whom the gospel was originally addressed.  I agree with the comments on the handout stating that a wrong vision is more appropriate based on a more symbolic interpretation of Matthew that allows for a deeper level of interpretation.

26  my context involves a teenager who has the opportunity to minister to special needs children but is afraid to take on this commitment because he might fail (I identified a lack of will as the root problem).  To shift the root problem to a wrong ideology, I have adjusted the context here: rather than fearing the commitment, the boy now does not feel obligated to take on the commitment to minister to special needs children.  Thus he believes that answering the call to mission is optional, not required of him. Matthew 4:13-22 and 13:44-52 both show that God calls people to mission work, work that takes priority over everything else.  Correcting this wrong ideology demands a corrective glasses role of scripture, allowing the boy to see that God is calling him—the ability to recognize God’s call gives him a new ideology, one that requires action.

27  Michael’s understanding of mission as proclamation and witness to save souls does not fit well in my context, so I will understand mission as serving God’s Kingdom… to allow his teaching to better serve this situation.  In his teaching, Michael says, “Those called by God to seek and save the lost must recognize the Kingdom to be invaluable, priceless and desired above everything.”  If I change the first part of this statement to “Those called by God to serve the downtrodden…” and leave the rest as is, the teaching reveals that service is not an option; when God calls someone to mission, carrying it out is the greatest good.

28  3:10-3:15 How we shall proceed  3:15 – 3:40 ERIC BURTON-KRIEGER Matt13:44-53 & 5:38-48. Formal Respondent: ROB KNOX  3:42-4:07 MICHAEL D. BROADNAX, SR._ Matt 13:47-52. And 4:13-22 Formal Respondent: _SAM MALLICK  4:09-4:34 MEGAN YOHE Matthew 13:1-9 & 5:13- 16 & 7:15-20 Formal Respondent: BRYANNA JEW  4:36-5:01 JESSIE LIGHT Matt 13: 1-9 & 6: 25-34, Formal Respondent: KYLE FROHOCK  5:03-5:28 EUGENE SE’BREE Matt 13:1-13 &7:13- 23 Formal Respondent: SKYLER HUTTO  5:28-5:30 Conclusion

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31  "Listen! A sower went out to sow. 4 And as he sowed, some seeds fell on the path, and the birds came and ate them up. 5 Other seeds fell on rocky ground, where they did not have much soil, and they sprang up quickly, since they had no depth of soil. 6 But when the sun rose, they were scorched; and since they had no root, they withered away. 7 Other seeds fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked them. 8 Other seeds fell on good soil and brought forth grain, some a hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty. 9 Let anyone with ears listen!"  10 Then the disciples came and asked him, "Why do you speak to them in parables?" 11 He answered, "To you it has been given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been given. 12 For to those who have, more will be given, and they will have an abundance; but from those who have nothing, even what they have will be taken away.

32  10 Then the disciples came and asked him, "Why do you speak to them in parables?" 11 He answered, "To you it has been given to know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been given. 12 For to those who have, more will be given, and they will have an abundance; but from those who have nothing, even what they have will be taken away. 13 The reason I speak to them in parables is that 'seeing they do not perceive, and hearing they do not listen, nor do they understand.' … 16 But blessed are your eyes, for they see, and your ears, for they hear. …  5:14-16 4 "You are the light of the world. A city built on a hill cannot be hid. 15 No one after lighting a lamp puts it under the bushel basket, but on the lampstand, and it gives light to all in the house. 16 In the same way, let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father in heaven.

33  Context A deacon leading a biblical study to young singles in the community. He is devoting his time and effort into each young man and woman who attends the study for he wants them to grow and prosper in their walk/service of God. The deacon is unsure if he is doing any good, though, because the students are reacting and taking in the information/applying it to their lives differently.  Root-Problem: The deacon has a lack of vision for the kind of teaching the students need.  Role of Scripture: Family Album

34  By participating in Matt13:1-22 as “family album” (saying “we” with Jesus, with the sower, with the disciples addressed by Jesus and described in the Sermon on the Mount) the deacon will share in the vision of the text; then he will gain a vision of the way he, as a member of God’s family, can serve as a light (5:14-16) for the young singles.  Matt 13:1-22 gives the deacon a vision of his identity as a member of God’s family, in which he is called to a special vocation in his kingdom.

35  Matthew 5:14-16 supplements this teaching when read as a family album: God calls us to be lights and commands us to “let our light shine before others, so that they may see our good works and give glory to our Father who is in heaven” (vs. 16).  The deacon can then see that the purpose of the Bible study is to let the young singles know the content of the Bible and hear the Word; and that the rest is in God’s hands, not his.

36  1) Garland comments on Matt 13:1-9 that the farmer/sower is careless; he lacks the knowledge that the kind of soil directly affects the seed;  2) For Garland (148): “The reason for the failure of the seed is the lamentable spiritual state of the hearer’s heart … Bearing fruit depends on hearing rightly, and that depends on the nature of the soil (=individual’s heart).” Failure is not due to “a lack of intellectual insight and understanding.” “The right instinct for understanding, it opens the door to further illumination.”  If one has the knowledge and chooses as an individual to be a member of the family of the kingdom of heaven one is able to receive the gift in order that one may have more.

37  Now, the deacon/sower does NOT KNOW  - what he must do in his role as teacher  -that being a member of the family of the kingdom of heaven is a choice by the individual.  -the reason d’être or purpose of the sower is not to be by the side of the young singles at every step along the way/plowing/growing.  -that his role parallels that of the sower--sowing and letting the young singles know the content of the Bible and thus promoting the will to do God’s will.  -that how each of the young people (soils) receives the “seed” is his/her responsibility. 

38  = Teaching the Deacon what he does not know  - his role as teacher  -that individuals choose to become members of the family of the kingdom of heaven  -the reason d’être or purpose of his teaching is not to be by the side of the young singles at every step along the way/plowing/growing.  -that his role is to sow and let the young singles know the content of the Bible and to promote the will to do God’s will (by pointing to the rewards).  -that how each of the young people (soils) receives the “seed” is his/her responsibility. 

39  Right: 1) Garland comments on Matt 13:1-9 that the sower lacks the knowledge about soil/seed  2) Also: Garland entitles his comments on Matt 13 “The Mysteries of the Kingdom Revealed” = Matt 13 provides an understanding, a theological knowledge of what these mysteries are about  For him it is NOT a lack of WILL [corrected by emphasizing rewards or punishments] NOR an issue of a vision or ideology [addressed by taking seriously the mysterious reality of “mystery”] NOR a problem of powerlessness [addressed by an empowering word transforming weak, oppressed people into active disciples])

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41  1) Our group leader, Megan, sees the root problem for her context in Matthew 13:1-22 as being a lack of vision and the role of scripture being family album. She believes that her scholar, Garland, identified the root problem to be a lack of knowledge with the role of scripture being rule of the community.  By looking at Garland’s root problem for the sower, which is how Megan uses Garland’s commentary because her context involves a deacon who is like the sower of seeds, I agree with Megan’s assessment of the root-problem being a lack of knowledge.

42  Garland claims that parable involves “a sower who sows with abandon, hoping for the best” (147). He has to hope for the best because the sower does not know how the different soils will affect the seed and the deacon does not know how those of his study will interpret and understand the word.  The sower (and deacon) lacks the knowledge that the “yield from the seed is directly affected by the condition of the soil” (147). If they understood how each soil/person would be affected by the soil then they might sow differently or lead differently, but they do not, and that is why their root problem is a lack of knowledge. ◦ However, if we were looking at the root problem of the seeds, we would have a different root problem but due to Megan’s context, we only need to look at the sower.

43  2) My context: A Christian girl in college struggles with comparing her faith with others. She has lots of friends who are very strong believers; so as a result, she feels that her faith is not enough. On the other hand, she cannot come to terms with the fact that her friend, who used to drink and party a lot and who has more recently become a Christian sins through her actions but still receives the same payment from God. She knows that God forgives all of our sins and loves us all the same, but she feels that she deserves more for always staying on the right path. She does not drink or break the law; she loves her parents, has integrity, follows the rules, and serves others in the community often. Consequently, she feels that she deserves more. She cannot wrap her head around the fact that a sinner and someone like her who has never done anything big wrong could be on the same playing field in God’s eyes. 

44  I do not think that the root problem of lack of knowledge applies to my context because the girl does have knowledge about how to reach salvation. She has been a dutiful Christian all of her life, so she has read the bible in regards to what Jesus has to say about salvation.  Megan has for her context of lack of/wrong faith/vision applies to my context as well. According to this girl’s faith system, certain people deserve more from God than other people due to their deeds here on earth, but this is not the case and that is why she has a wrong faith. God promises salvation to all believers regardless of their good works or anything that they do, and this is the belief that she is lacking.

45  Due to looking at my context as wrong faith/vision and applying Megan’s teaching to my context, the new role of scripture would be Family Album.  The girl of my context would then be provided with a vision of her identity as a member of God’s family, in which she is called to a special vocation in his kingdom. More importantly, it provides a true sense of her relationship to others and to God. God loves all of his family members in the same way for we are all his children. In this case, her new identity would be as an equal to all other believers because the only special person is Jesus, and her new vocation is to love all of God’s family, just as he does. By acting in this way, she, like the deacon of Megan’s context, can help promote the will to do God’s will to other Christians, for it is God’s will to be loving and accepting of all people

46  3:10-3:15 How we shall proceed  3:15 – 3:40 ERIC BURTON-KRIEGER Matt13:44-53 & 5:38-48. Formal Respondent: ROB KNOX  3:42-4:07 MICHAEL D. BROADNAX, SR._ Matt 13:47-52. And 4:13-22 Formal Respondent: _SAM MALLICK  4:09-4:34 MEGAN YOHE Matthew 13:1-9 & 5:13- 16 & 7:15-20 Formal Respondent: BRYANNA JEW  4:36-5:01 JESSIE LIGHT Matt 13: 1-9 & 6: 25-34, Formal Respondent: KYLE FROHOCK  5:03-5:28 EUGENE SE’BREE Matt 13:1-13 &7:13- 23 Formal Respondent: SKYLER HUTTO  5:28-5:30 Conclusion

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48  "Listen! A sower went out to sow. 4 And as he sowed, some seeds fell on the path, and the birds came and ate them up. 5 Other seeds fell on rocky ground, where they did not have much soil, and they sprang up quickly, since they had no depth of soil. 6 But when the sun rose, they were scorched; and since they had no root, they withered away. 7 Other seeds fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked them. 8 Other seeds fell on good soil and brought forth grain, some a hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty. 9 Let anyone with ears listen!"  6:25-34 25 "Therefore I tell you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat or what you will drink, or about your body, what you will wear. Is not life more than food, and the body more than clothing? 26 Look at the birds of the air …Consider the lilies of the field, … 34 "So do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will bring worries of its own. Today's trouble is enough for today.

49  Context: A group of college students serving as counselors at an overnight Christian summer camp. The level of commitment to faith in their daily lives varies among the members, but all are enthused about sharing their faith with campers. However, many staff members are overly concerned with provoking external affirmations of faith in their campers rather than inspiring internal growth.  Root-Problem: Wrong Vision  Role of Scripture: Corrective Glasses

50  Teaching (a): In interpreting 13:1-9 we should not forget the astonishing result: a bountiful harvest of “a hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty” (13:8) = the Kingdom of heaven, bigger and more astonishing than anything we can ever imagine.  What really matters is that we recognize the work that God is doing to us, around us and through us.  It is NOT our job to create experiences that provoke an external affirmation of faith in our campers; RATHER, we must promote internal growth. God brought these campers to this place to be loved. In loving them and therefore practicing Kingdom living, the Kingdom of God is revealed to all of us.

51  Teaching (b): If we simply try to get our campers to express their faith, we are not loving them, we are putting pressure on them.  6:34: “So do not worry about tomorrow”. We must trust that there will be a bountiful harvest and that God takes care of our needs: let us look for how God does it.  When we observe seeds which “fell on good soil and brought forth grain” (Matt. 13:8), let us not praise ourselves, but rather, point out to one another and our campers the work that God has done and is doing around us. When we notice positive changes in the behavior of our roughest campers, or a teenage girl finally coming out of her shell and making friends, or a middle schooler with a new enthusiasm for Bible study, this is God’s doing and not all our own.

52  See Carter, pp. 280-283. Regarding Ch. 13 Carter “explains that this lack of receptivity derives not from God’s or Jesus’ failure but from human sinfulness and Satan’s activity” (p. 280)  then Carter explains that this is a matter of “reign/empire”  See again Carter’s introduction, pp. 43-49, about Matthew “Advocating a Marginal Existence” i.e. advocating a different ideology = a different perception/conception of existence

53  Rethinking My Context/Problem in terms of Carter’s root-problem: The college staff members not only hope but also expect to see external affirmations of faith from their campers.  They believe that if their campers are not verbally expressing a true belief in Christ by the end of their camp experience, they have done something wrong.  The problem with this scenario is that the staff does not take into account the process of faith development, as an ideological problem (= a countercultural view of life)  Staff wants to see quick results rather than just planting the seeds for growth and later development.

54  As sowers of seeds, we cannot expect immediate results. In holding such expectations, we forget about “the obstacles” ◦ (Carter, p. 282 = ideological problems in society/life of sowers/farmers where people are confronted by rent, taxes, borrowed money, indebtedness, etc.).  We forget that seeds often fall on “rocky ground” or “among thorns” or are “scorched” by the sun or even eaten by birds (Matt. 13:4-7).  Many of our campers will be facing tremendous obstacles in faith development this summer, but our duty as sowers of seeds is merely to plant seeds for growth, and trust that God will provide sustenance and nourishment.

55  As sowers of seeds we will encounter seeds which fall on good soil and bring forth grain, “some a hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty” (Matt. 13:8). In these instances, we must give credit to God, who has removed obstacles so that the seed may grow.  There is no room for praise of individual sowers of seeds, because God is the one who takes scattered seeds and allows them to grow  through a process of faith development, that overcomes “the obstacles” that campers confront … imagine obstacles for teenagers camping

56  Carter’s Root-Problem: The failure of would-be disciples of Jesus Christ to assimilate into the marginal community(ies) such as those to which Matthew’s text addresses. Carter lists the first three failures of seed growth to the devil’s schemes, persecution, and one’s failure to renounce the cares of the world and lure of materialism (287). Would-be disciples fail to embrace and live the “vision [which] means being a part of a marginal community because it exists ‘in-both’ its larger cultural context of urban-rural, hierarchical Antioch as well as in the ethos of its own community, [“being marginal to the dominant cultural context, or normative scheme”] (45). Choosing a different, status-quo, existence, would-be disciples suffer from a wrong ideology (287).

57  Ms. Light’s Root-Problem: College students serving as counselors at a Christian summer camp who focus their attention in the parable of the sower on the failed seed, bringing about anxiety and remorse in the sower for what was lost (or seed evidently not growing). Their perspective highlights the loss; Ms. Light draws attention to the abundant yield produced by the seed on good soil. Ms. Light’s use of the text as Corrective Glasses focuses on seed which produces an extensive yield by the chance of finding good soil (which only God can know and prepare ahead of time) and awaiting the germination of fruit over time (“planting the seeds for growth and later development”).

58  Analysis of Divergent Interpretation (Carter) by Ms. Light: Ms. Light correctly identifies Carter’s root-problem with hearers of Matthew’s text who fail to become disciples of Jesus Christ—wrong ideology. In Ms. Light’s context seed fails to germinate because of circumstances beyond the counselors’ control; “God brought [the] campers to [the camp] to be loved…[and] when we notice positive changes in the[ir] behavior…we must remember that this is God’s doing and not all our own.” She encourages counselors with the Matthean texts “not to worry” about observing seed growing and celebrate the later realization of bountiful fruit from at least one forth of seed which indeed fell on good soil.  Carter’s ideological claim for the Matthean texts pressures any acquiescence to powerlessness. In fact, Carter’s scheme of marginal communitas is an instantiation by the marginal to regain their power in the particular empire revealed in Jesus Christ.

59  Circumstances, he might argue, are often beyond our control but there are many causes for seeds’ destruction which are the result of the dominant empire—personified today in majority groups who create socio-economic cultures stratified by unevenly distributed wealth and power (284). Carter names some of the obstacles to seed growth that are within the realm of human intervention: “rent, tithes, taxes and tolls, seed for the next year, a family to support” (282). The cause for a seed’s destruction needs to be interrogated, Carter argues, which can illuminate many subversive, systemic (imperial) oppressions that may destroy the word of God. Those within the marginal community by their marginality are resisting oppressive imperial reign(s) in favor of God’s life-giving reign, an “empire of heaven” (286). 

60  In my proposal, I am examining Matthew 5:17-26 (Jesus Fulfills the Law) and 15:1-20 (Jesus’ Teaches Purity) within the context of young adult Christians attending moderate/conservative Christian liberal arts institutions of higher learning holding the general belief that Jesus fulfilled the Judaic Law which thereby rendered it obsolete for the Christian life today. What can occur among these young adult Christians is that they see the distinct teaching of Jesus as outside of the Jewish tradition of interpreting a text (i.e., wrong vision), render that practice by Jesus as a differentiation by him from the religious ethos of the Pharisees (i.e., wrong judgment), and see his presence and teaching as a replacement to other Jewish voices on the Law and Prophets (i.e., wrong ideology).

61  Ms. Light’s root-problem with her camp counselors engages my own root-problem because of the particular way both of our contexts are “focusing on” a particular part of the Matthean text in a particular way. We are both emphasizing different aspects than what is found in our context.

62  Ms. Light cautions in her teaching a reading of Matthew that elevates some textual fragments and pericopes above others (which resulted in the detriment of her camp counselors and their anxiety over absent external signs of spiritual development). Were her counselors to notice the abundant harvest yielded in the fourth seed scenario in comparison to what was lost in the first three, they would have a correct vision that God brings about a bountiful harvest in God’s time through the work of the laborers (9:38). By comparing Jesus’ assertion to fulfill the Law—and seeing that his disciples did the same (5:19-20)—with his teaching on purity in 15:1-20, we can better interpret Jesus’ intent in his teaching and intended relationship with his Jewish (and Gentile disciple) dialogue partners.

63  3:10-3:15 How we shall proceed  3:15 – 3:40 ERIC BURTON-KRIEGER Matt13:44-53 & 5:38-48. Formal Respondent: ROB KNOX  3:42-4:07 MICHAEL D. BROADNAX, SR._ Matt 13:47-52. And 4:13-22 Formal Respondent: _SAM MALLICK  4:09-4:34 MEGAN YOHE Matthew 13:1-9 & 5:13- 16 & 7:15-20 Formal Respondent: BRYANNA JEW  4:36-5:01 JESSIE LIGHT Matt 13: 1-9 & 6: 25-34, Formal Respondent: KYLE FROHOCK  5:03-5:28 EUGENE SE’BREE Matt 13:1-13 &7:13- 23 Formal Respondent: SKYLER HUTTO  5:28-5:30 Conclusion

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65  13:11-13 11 He answered, "To you it has been given to know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been given. 12 For to those who have, more will be given, and they will have an abundance; but from those who have nothing, even what they have will be taken away. 13 The reason I speak to them in parables is that 'seeing they do not perceive, and hearing they do not listen, nor do they understand.‘  7:13-15 13 "Enter through the narrow gate; for the gate is wide and the road is easy that leads to destruction, and there are many who take it. 14 For the gate is narrow and the road is hard that leads to life, and there are few who find it. 15 "Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep's clothing but inwardly are ravenous wolves.

66  The context a community that is forced to exist on and in the margins of society. This is due in large part to the oppressive nature of the teaching that this community receives about itself from the larger community. The members of this community are believers in Christ, but there is a lack of ability to escape their marginalized state of existence due to their belief that they are powerless in their situation.  Root Problem: Lack of Ability  Role of Scripture: Empowering 

67  Teaching (a): With 7:13-15 the community empowered to make their own decision as to what gate they will chose to enter. Jesus informs of the two gates and of the consequences of choosing each gate, but ultimately he has left the decision up to the one who has to deal with the consequences of that choice and warns them to “beware” of false prophets (7:15) who mislead them into thinking that they cannot make this decision on their own.  In 13:11-13 the empowering moment comes when Jesus says to them “unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not.” Jesus goes on to say unto those who have, more shall be given, but to those who do not have it; what they do have shall be taken away from them (v. 12). Jesus concludes: “blessed are your eyes, for they see, and your ears, for they hear” (v. 16

68  Teaching (b): These verses immediately empower the believers, i.e. the community that is marginalized, directly addressing the root problem of lack of ability. Through Jesus’ teaching they can see themselves as those to whom God gave (whom God enabled) to “know the mysteries of the kingdom” (13:11). Through this belief they are empowered, therefore they are able to see and to hear, because they are “blessed” (13:16) by God with “eyes” that see and “ears” that hear. ◦ Unbelief blocks the hearing and seeing of those who are outside of the community’s ability to see and/or hear.  contrary to their marginalization imposed on them by the rest of society, they are affirmed in their own right and are enabled to see themselves as the “blessed” ones who “know the mysteries of the kingdom” (while those who pretend to marginalize them do not know these mysteries).

69  EXCELLENT, yet note that since it is through their belief (= faith/vision) that they are EMPOWERED to see and to hear (and it is the unbelief that blocks the hearing and seeing),  HERE you actually a use 13:11-16 as “Corrective Glasses” ◦ Rather than as “Empowering word as you use for 7:13- 16)  allowing them to see what God is doing in their lives (“giving them to know the mysteries of the Kingdom”). This is quite appropriate (corrective glasses also empower).

70  For Hagner (in his own words!) “The rootproblem is the unwillingness of the people to receive the message of Jesus” (p. 373, on 13:13) or lack of will  “Only people of faith and commitment are given to know the mysteries of the kingdom” (374; ◦ for him “faith” is the same as “faithful” commitment, willingly accepting to serve God faithfully, as he underscores pp. 373-374 = on 13:12  “the apparent injustice of God giving to those who have and taking away from those who have not is alleviated when it is realized that Jesus simply refers to receptivity and unreceptivity” (373) then explains that “those who have” are “those who have willingly welcomed the word”

71  To make Hagner’s root problem (unwillingness) applicable to my context the focus of the teaching for my context would then have to be shifted ◦ from liberation through the gaining of ability and empowerment by recognizing that one is empowered by God,  to the believers gaining a new willingness to have a worthy life and role within their environment/society.  For this, the members of the community who are actually marginalized and oppressed have to assume personally their responsibility for their own marginalization ◦ they are marginalized (“those who have nothing”) because of their own lack of faithfulness… Their marginalization is their responsibility; their fault! This also leads to a new understand of the role of scripture: rule of the community.

72  This leads to a teaching to the marginalized community of the importance of agency within their lives as individuals and as a community.  Also they are being taught that the true power of determination – their will – demand that they assume responsibility for changing their present status for which they can only blame themselves.  Be good and you will no longer be marginalized!

73  Represented in the teachings of Eugene Se’Bree and Donald Hagner is the dichotomous and multifaceted nature of any piece of scripture. These two men have read the same verses of the Bible in Matthew and found entirely different messages. While neither has a teaching that is obviously superior to the other, there are distinctions in the two that make each helpful in varied situations.  Eugene focuses on the difficulties of a lack of ability, as opposed to a lack of will which is presupposed by Hagner. The deficit in ability as addressed by our leader is due to a sense that marginalization is inescapable. The population with whom he is communicating believes itself to be stuck in a cycle of poverty and abandonment. Eugene posits that Matthew 7:13 through 7:15 can be made directly applicable to the lives of those involved by illustrating the choice they have to follow the road less travelled or the road of false prophets.  The context that I attempted to address was at its root a concern of fundamentalism versus interpretation. I envisioned a church (one that I know to exist) in a state of turmoil. The conflict stems from the argument over whether or not women should be allowed to be a part of the church’s leadership. The divide was threatening to literally create a second church on the other side of a small town. Here, I believed the problem to be a wrong ideology, one that could be righted with corrective glasses. This was done my showing members of the congregation who tried to take seemingly misogynistic verses out of context that Jesus himself was an interpreter of scripture, which shows its fluid nature  It is simple enough to take the root-problem of a lack of ability and apply it to this situation. While I believed that there was a wrong ideology stemming from those members of the congregation who were upset with the possibility of a female leader, it may be possible that they lack the ability to correctly interpret the Bible. As pointed out in our lectures, a novice or even a malevolent expert can easily overlook important elements of scripture to accentuate eccentricities in order to advance an invalid agenda supposedly based upon scripture. In my context, I could adjust my initial presuppositions to show that some of the readers had a simple lack of ability rather than an incorrect ideology.  As Eugene shows, there is a moment, presented in 7:13-15, when Jesus shows that people must take the narrow, difficult gate and path (here representing difficult but prosperous interpretation), or the wide, but deceitful gate (in this context, fundamentalism). He wants his followers to make the difficult yet discerning choice and choose the narrow gate, the one not pointed to by false prophets. Furthermore, in chapter 13, Jesus demonstrates that his followers must look for deep meaning in the things that he says. Every parable given has an alternative meaning which is ultimately more meaningful. We, as those who attempt to act in the manner of Christ, have an obligation to also seek the deeper meaning in scripture rather than taking it out of context.

74  Eugene Se’Bree and Donald Hagner  These two men have read the same verses of the Bible in Matthew and found entirely different messages. While neither has a teaching that is obviously superior to the other, there are distinctions in the two that make each helpful in varied situations.  Eugene focuses on the difficulties of a lack of ability, as opposed to a lack of will which is presupposed by Hagner. The deficit in ability as addressed by our leader is due to a sense that marginalization is inescapable. The population with whom he is communicating believes itself to be stuck in a cycle of poverty and abandonment. Eugene posits that Matthew 7:13 through 7:15 can be made directly applicable to the lives of those involved by illustrating the choice they have to follow the road less travelled or the road of false prophets.

75  The context that I attempted to address was at its root a concern of fundamentalism versus interpretation. I envisioned a church (one that I know to exist) in a state of turmoil. The conflict stems from the argument over whether or not women should be allowed to be a part of the church’s leadership. The divide was threatening to literally create a second church on the other side of a small town. Here, I believed the problem to be a wrong ideology, one that could be righted with corrective glasses. This was done my showing members of the congregation who tried to take seemingly misogynistic verses out of context that Jesus himself was an interpreter of scripture, which shows its fluid nature  It is simple enough to take the root-problem of a lack of ability and apply it to this situation. While I believed that there was a wrong ideology stemming from those members of the congregation who were upset with the possibility of a female leader, it may be possible that they lack the ability to correctly interpret the Bible. As pointed out in our lectures, a novice or even a malevolent expert can easily overlook important elements of scripture to accentuate eccentricities in order to advance an invalid agenda supposedly based upon scripture. In my context, I could adjust my initial presuppositions to show that some of the readers had a simple lack of ability rather than an incorrect ideology.

76  As Eugene shows, there is a moment, presented in 7:13-15, when Jesus shows that people must take the narrow, difficult gate and path (here representing difficult but prosperous interpretation), or the wide, but deceitful gate (in this context, fundamentalism). He wants his followers to make the difficult yet discerning choice and choose the narrow gate, the one not pointed to by false prophets. Furthermore, in chapter 13, Jesus demonstrates that his followers must look for deep meaning in the things that he says. Every parable given has an alternative meaning which is ultimately more meaningful. We, as those who attempt to act in the manner of Christ, have an obligation to also seek the deeper meaning in scripture rather than taking it out of context.

77  3:10-3:15 How we shall proceed  3:15 – 3:40 ERIC BURTON-KRIEGER Matt13:44-53 & 5:38-48. Formal Respondent: ROB KNOX  3:42-4:07 MICHAEL D. BROADNAX, SR._ Matt 13:47-52. And 4:13-22 Formal Respondent: _SAM MALLICK  4:09-4:34 MEGAN YOHE Matthew 13:1-9 & 5:13- 16 & 7:15-20 Formal Respondent: BRYANNA JEW  4:36-5:01 JESSIE LIGHT Matt 13: 1-9 & 6: 25-34, Formal Respondent: KYLE FROHOCK  5:03-5:28 EUGENE SE’BREE Matt 13:1-13 &7:13- 23 Formal Respondent: SKYLER HUTTO  5:28-5:30 Conclusion

78  3:10-3:15 How we shall proceed  3:15 – 3:40 ERIC BURTON-KRIEGER Matt13:44-53 & 5:38-48. Formal Respondent: ROB KNOX  3:42-4:07 MICHAEL D. BROADNAX, SR._ Matt 13:47-52. And 4:13-22 Formal Respondent: _SAM MALLICK  4:09-4:34 MEGAN YOHE Matthew 13:1-9 & 5:13- 16 & 7:15-20 Formal Respondent: BRYANNA JEW  4:36-5:01 JESSIE LIGHT Matt 13: 1-9 & 6: 25-34, Formal Respondent: KYLE FROHOCK  5:03-5:28 EUGENE SE’BREE Matt 13:1-13 &7:13- 23 Formal Respondent: SKYLER HUTTO  5:28-5:30 Conclusion

79   The context that I attempted to address was at its root a concern of fundamentalism versus interpretation. I envisioned a church (one that I know to exist) in a state of turmoil. The conflict stems from the argument over whether or not women should be allowed to be a part of the church’s leadership. The divide was threatening to literally create a second church on the other side of a small town. Here, I believed the problem to be a wrong ideology, one that could be righted with corrective glasses. This was done my showing members of the congregation who tried to take seemingly misogynistic verses out of context that Jesus himself was an interpreter of scripture, which shows its fluid nature  It is simple enough to take the root-problem of a lack of ability and apply it to this situation. While I believed that there was a wrong ideology stemming from those members of the congregation who were upset with the possibility of a female leader, it may be possible that they lack the ability to correctly interpret the Bible. As pointed out in our lectures, a novice or even a malevolent expert can easily overlook important elements of scripture to accentuate eccentricities in order to advance an invalid agenda supposedly based upon scripture. In my context, I could adjust my initial presuppositions to show that some of the readers had a simple lack of ability rather than an incorrect ideology.  As Eugene shows, there is a moment, presented in 7:13-15, when Jesus shows that people must take the narrow, difficult gate and path (here representing difficult but prosperous interpretation), or the wide, but deceitful gate (in this context, fundamentalism). He wants his followers to make the difficult yet discerning choice and choose the narrow gate, the one not pointed to by false prophets. Furthermore, in chapter 13, Jesus demonstrates that his followers must look for deep meaning in the things that he says. Every parable given has an alternative meaning which is ultimately more meaningful. We, as those who attempt to act in the manner of Christ, have an obligation to also seek the deeper meaning in scripture rather than taking it out of context.

80  3:10-3:15 How we shall proceed  3:15 – 3:40 ERIC BURTON-KRIEGER Matt13:44-53 & 5:38-48. Formal Respondent: ROB KNOX  3:42-4:07 MICHAEL D. BROADNAX, SR._ Matt 13:47-52. And 4:13-22 Formal Respondent: _SAM MALLICK  4:09-4:34 MEGAN YOHE Matthew 13:1-9 & 5:13- 16 & 7:15-20 Formal Respondent: BRYANNA JEW  4:36-5:01 JESSIE LIGHT Matt 13: 1-9 & 6: 25-34, Formal Respondent: KYLE FROHOCK  5:03-5:28 EUGENE SE’BREE Matt 13:1-13 &7:13- 23 Formal Respondent: SKYLER HUTTO  5:28-5:30 Conclusion

81  3:10-3:15 How we shall proceed  3:15 – 3:40 ERIC BURTON-KRIEGER Matt13:44-53 & 5:38-48. Formal Respondent: ROB KNOX  3:42-4:07 MICHAEL D. BROADNAX, SR._ Matt 13:47-52. And 4:13-22 Formal Respondent: _SAM MALLICK  4:09-4:34 MEGAN YOHE Matthew 13:1-9 & 5:13- 16 & 7:15-20 Formal Respondent: BRYANNA JEW  4:36-5:01 JESSIE LIGHT Matt 13: 1-9 & 6: 25-34, Formal Respondent: KYLE FROHOCK  5:03-5:28 EUGENE SE’BREE Matt 13:1-13 &7:13- 23 Formal Respondent: SKYLER HUTTO  5:28-5:30 Conclusion

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