1 Think Safety First Not Speed First Bus Safety Program Children are our most important resource Defensive Driving
Defensive Driving Safety Training Presentation Mustafa Abdullah Safety & Training Instructor
3 What Is Defensive Driving Traffic is a social situation. Unlike most groups however, a traffic group is composed of strangers who are interacting with each other. 1.Traffic is like a war because the number of dead and wounded are more than the number of America’s war casualties. 2.People seem at times to play at driving as if it were a game. As a social game, it’s not private, but public. You can’t choose, you have to play with whomever shows up. 3.It’s not a game where you know all the chances nor is it considered all chance, it’s part skill and part chance. N
4 The game of traffic is played with : Memory Luck Experience Knowledge Human Behavior The stakes are the highest you have to offer. You must drive each block and each area with the odds constantly changing. Unlike Las Vegas however, you can to a great deal, change the odds in your favor through defensive driving techniques.
5 You basically drive with your personality. Your mental and emotional state has a great deal to do with your success and safety as a driver. Inattention, boredom, anger, hostility and anxiety, along with knowing your limits and the vehicle you drive play a part in safe defensive driving techniques. If you know (and understand) your limits and your vehicle, and you maintain the proper state of mind you will have the ability to compensate for or counteract the mistakes of others. That is the key to defensive driving.
6 What is a “Defensive Driver”? A defensive driver is defined as a person ready to avoid the mistakes of others, as well as the entrapments that await the inattentive driver.
7 The most effective safety device known to a driver is their own ingenuity and determination for self- preservation, coupled with good defensive driving techniques. The following, if used properly, will allow you and those that you transport to have the safest transportation possible. Spot the clues to danger Never Assume Yield the right of way Know your vehicle limitations Know your exact position Use your brain, the vehicle has none Have a good attitude, no one likes a bad one Don’t become overly familiar with the area Use the “five sees” of driving N
8 SPOT THE CLUES TO DANGER An inattentive driver, who is not concentrating on driving may not be able to spot the necessary clues to a potentially dangerous situation in enough time to execute the proper defensive driving maneuver needed to prevent an accident NEVER ASSUME You can’t use the phrase “I thought they were going to…….” as an excuse for having an accident. You cannot assume that another driver is going to do what you expect them to do. Defensive driving requires that you drive being prepared for the unexpected.
9 YIELD THE RIGHT OF WAY Courtesy and common sense are paramount to defensive driving. Never try to force your way into a traffic pattern. Defensive driving requires that you use good judgment at intersections, crosswalks or any situation where you may have to contend with oncoming traffic. KNOW YOUR VEHICLE LIMITATIONS There is a big difference in the operational performance of your school bus and your personal vehicle. You must be able to recognize this difference and make the necessary change in your driving techniques when operating a school bus. Can you name some of the differences in vehicle operation between your bus and your car?
10 The vehicle cannot think, but you can. A defensive driver will keep his / her mind on the task of driving, constantly scanning the environment for potential danger or hazards. THINK before you act, even the most instantaneous act requires some thinking before it is performed. KNOW YOUR EXACT POSITION Stay alert, a defensive driver will always know exactly where his / her vehicle is in relation to the surrounding traffic environment. USE YOUR BRAIN HAVE A GOOD ATTITUDE The defensive driver must maintain a good state of mind in order to concentrate on the objective. A good attitude reflects a good state of mind
11 DO NOT BECOME OVERLY FAMILIAR WITH AN AREA Most accidents happen within 25 miles of home or within surroundings that are familiar to you: same streets, trees, stores and cars you see every day. You become more relaxed and thus you start thinking or daydreaming about other things and not spotting the clues to danger. Think about how you feel when you travel to a new area or city. You are alert and attentive because you are not sure of the area, thus less likely to have a problem. The defensive driver applies this concept to his / her daily driving habits.
12 The Five Sees Of Driving 1.See high 2.See All 3.See an out 4.See that you are seen 5.See with a smile
13 SEE HIGH Seeing down the roadway far and high enough to spot danger and entrapments before you arrive. See one, two, three blocks down the road. Seeing 12 seconds down the road is best. SEE THAT STALE GREEN LIGHT SEE THAT CROSSWALK SEE THAT BICYCLIST SEE THAT CHILD BETWEEN PARKED CARS SEE THAT LOW OVERHEAD CLEARANCE
14 SEE ALL behind you. By seeing all, you are using all mirrors, windshield, and reference points etc., you are also keeping your mind active so that preoccupation and daydreaming do not set in. A parked car with wheels turned towards the street, a drivers head in the window. See that you have a space cushion in front of you See that you are in the proper lane See the vehicles alongside of you See the car passing ahead of you See the vehicle pulling out of the parking space See that your mirrors are adjusted to SEE ALL See what’s ahead of you, alongside of you and
15 SEE AN OUT See constantly what options you have if something happens in front, beside, or behind you. See that you slow down in time and plan your stop. See that you have allowed room behind the vehicle in front of you so that you don’t have to back up. SEE THE STALE GREEN LIGHT IN TIME SEE THAT SHOULDER SEE THAT DITCH, TREE, OR WATER SEE THAT YOU COVER YOUR BRAKES BEFORE ENTERING AN INTERSECTION
16 SEE THAT YOU ARE SEEN Just because you see them doesn’t mean they see you, tap your horn (lightly). SEE THAT YOUR HEADLIGHTS ARE ON SEE THAT YOU USE YOUR TURN SIGNALS SEE THAT THEY SEE YOU IN TIME
17 SEE WITH A SMILE Do not allow other drivers to make you an angry and aggressive driver. Be ready to compensate for their mistakes but do not become angry with them. An angry driver is an aggressive driver and until the aggressiveness wears off you are incapable of following the other four sees of safe driving. You charge to stops, shift or start hard and fast and are eligible for an accident. SMILE, and think how much better they would drive if they had your training and attitude. REMEMBER
18 Stopping Your Bus REACTION DISTANCE Generally most people really do not fully understand all the factors related to braking and its importance in order to better understand what makes up a stopping decision. It takes the average person ¾ of a second from the time they see a problem to the time the brakes are applied. This is the average time for an ALERT driver. This ¾ of a second will involve your vehicle traveling some distance. The time it takes for you to remove your foot from the gas and touch the brake peddle is called the “reaction time”. The distance that your bus travels during that time is called the “reaction distance.
19 A simple but accurate way to find the reaction distance is by taking the first digit of your speed and adding it to your speed. For example if your speed is 30 MPH your reaction distance would be 33 feet. If your speed was 48 MPH your reaction distance would be 52 feet. Thus if you were traveling at a speed of 35 mph and recognized a situation that required you to stop, you would travel 38 feet before you even start to apply your brakes This is only half of the problem, now you must add the distance the vehicle will travel after the brakes are applied.
20 BRAKING DISTANCE To arrive at your braking distance, take the first digit of your speed and multiply it by your speed. For example if your speed is 50 mph, 50 X 5=250 feet. If your speed is 30 mph 30 X 3= 90 feet. To stop the vehicle you now have to add the two distances together to get the actual STOPPING DISTANCE. For example; At a speed of 35 mph what would your stopping distance be? 143 feet
22 Judging Stopping Distances When judging stopping distances, it is important to think in terms of traveling feet per second, rather than miles per hour. Our driving decisions and maneuvers are made in the span of seconds. At no time while driving are you farther than three seconds from an accident. What good will it do you to know how many miles per hour you are traveling if you have to stop within 50 feet of something? Feet/second is easily computed using 1 ½ times the mph to get feet/second 20mph X 1.5=30 ft./second 50mph X 1.5=75 ft./second
23 INTERSECTIONS The average width of a four lane intersection is 60 feet. Let’s say you enter the intersection at 25 mph and a child ran across the street, (left to right) on the far side of the intersection. Would you have enough time to stop safely? Think about it….You can reduce greatly the distance traveled if you enter the intersection with your foot covering the brake pedal. You would not lose that much speed, yet you would eliminate the reaction distance. COVERING YOUR BRAKES Reaction distance = 27 feet Braking Distance = 50 feet Stopping Distance = 77 feet Stopping Distance = 50 feet
24 FOLLOWING BEHIND OTHER VEHICLES The old rule used to be one car length for each ten feet of vehicle. The new rule is one second for each ten feet of vehicle. Let’s say you are in a 40 foot vehicle, at no time should your distance be closer than 4 seconds to the vehicle in front of you (more if it’s wet). At 50 mph, you’re traveling at 75 feet per second. 75 feet per second times 4 seconds equals 300 feet distance, the distance of a football field for stopping distance. 4 second count 2 second count
25 VISION To what extent does vision effect defensive driving? Defensive driving is highly dependant upon good judgment and good judgment is highly dependant upon good vision. Among the vision variables studies, dynamic visual acuity shows the strongest and the most consistent relationship with driving records. There is substantial but not conclusive evidence that static visual acuity, glare recovery, and visual field also are related to driving records. What does this mean to you, the driver? “I DIDN’T SEE HIM”
26 VISION REQUIREMENTS VISUAL ACUITY Let us consider the acuity factor. Many states show a 20 / 40 level as passing in a driver testing program. What does 20 / 40 mean? Good acuity, 20 / 20 or better, permits the detection of hazardous situations earlier and provides more time for study and action. An acuity of 20 / 10 would permit twice as much time to act as 20 / 20. With 20 /40, only one fourth as much time would be available compared to excellent 20 / 10 acuity. N PERIPHERAL VISION The importance of peripheral vision to driving can be appreciated from the following: At 60 mph we cover 90 feet of road per second. With 0.25 second fixations we can inspect the road only at points every 22feet. The remainder of the scene must be sensed by peripheral vision.
27 As was previously stated, visual acuity and peripheral vision are the main aspects of vision effecting your driving. However there are other aspects of vision that do contribute to it. Unfortunately, time does not permit us to discuss all of them. They include: Dark adaptation; the ability of the eyes to increase their sensitivity so that tiny amounts of light are effective in causing visual responses. Night Myopia; nearsightedness caused by the inability to focus due to low light levels. Anisocoria; a condition in which one pupil is significantly larger than the other, which results in stereoscopic error for moving objects. Hyperphorias; ocular muscle imbalance
28 Conclusion More than 41,000 people lose their lives in motor vehicle crashes each year and over two million more suffer disabling injuries, according to the National Safety Council. The triple threat of high speeds, impaired or careless driving and not using occupant restraints threatens every driver—regardless of how careful or how skilled. Driving defensively means not only taking responsibility for yourself and your actions but also keeping an eye on "the other guy." Remember that driving too fast or too slow can increase the likelihood of collisions Be alert! If you notice that a car is straddling the center line, weaving, making wide turns, stopping abruptly or responding slowly to traffic signals, the driver may be impaired.
29 Follow the rules of the road. Don't contest the "right of way" or try to race another car during a merge. Be respectful of other motorists. Don't follow too closely. Always use a "three-second following distance" or a "three-second plus following distance." While driving, be cautious, aware and responsible. The problem with accident prevention endeavors is that people do not fear speed per se. We caution people about the inherent danger but our persuasion is on the horizontal plane. If it were on a vertical plane (falling), our persuasion would be much greater because we have an inherent fear of falling. Let’s equate the fear of falling; vertical (IMPACT!) to its counterpart; the horizontal (IMPACT!)
30 The following impact warning sign should put the idea to all: A 30 MPH Horizontal Impact = Falling 30 feet A 40 MPH Horizontal Impact = Falling 53 feet A 50 MPH Horizontal Impact = Falling 84 feet A 60 MPH Horizontal Impact = Falling 121 feet A 70 MPH Horizontal Impact = Falling 164 feet *A 1 story building is approximately 10 feet high
31 If it were unavoidable and you had to hit a brick wall Would you rather hit it at 100 MPH or 10 MPH? Practice Driving Defensively Why risk you life to save a few minutes