Presentation on theme: "Foundation of Accounting"— Presentation transcript:
1Foundation of Accounting B.Com (Professional)Sharda UniversityK.R.Gola
2ACCOUNTIG- INTRODUCTION After going through this chapter you should be able toUnderstanding the meaning of accounting & need for accountingUnderstanding accounting as a measurement discipline & its objectivesHow does it differ from book keepingDetermine the groups or parties interested in accounting information
3Accounting-? Need to study It is a common experience of all of us that money must be spend carefully. If u careless, a day will come you will be left with no money.the firm should manage its affairs in such a way as will enable it to receive more than its spends
4Need of accountingThe need of accounting for a person to run a businessTo know fundamental assumptions of accounting which help to run the businessto know profit and loss account of running businessTo know the financial position of business
5AccountingConceptAccounting is the language of business. The affairs and the results of the business are communicated to others through accounting information, which has to be systematically recorded and presented.
6Accounting-definition Accounting may be defined as a process of recording, classifying, summarizing, analysis and interpreting the financial transactions and also communicate to the interested person in such information.Recording means- transaction in journal.Classifying means- transaction in ledger.Summarizing-transaction in final account
7Accounting…Accounting is a science of recording and classifying business transactions & events.Book-keeping-?Book-keeping is a primary stage of accounting. It concerned mainly recording of financial transaction of business.
8Book-keeping vs. accounting Primary stage of accountingHigher stage of book-keepingMainly concerned recording the financial transactionsIt concerned designed the scientific system of recording, classifying & summarizing.A book-keeper work is a clerical natureAn accountant work is based on conceptual and analytical skillsDoes not produce financial statementConcerned with preparation financial statement.
9Users of Accounting Information Different categories of users need different kinds of information for making decisions. These users can be divided into :Internal Users; andExternal Users.
10Internal usersThese are the persons who manage the business, i.e. management at the top, middle, and lower levels. Their requirements of information are different because they make different types of decisions.
12External users of accounting All persons other than internal users come in the group of external users. External users can be divided into two groups:· those having direct interest; and· those having indirect interestin a business organization.
13External usersInvestors and creditors are the external users having direct interest.
14conti...Tax authorities, regulatory agencies, customers, stock exchanges, etc are indirectly interested in the company’s financial strength, its ability to meet short-term and long-term obligations, its future earning power, etc for making various decisions.
15External Users of accounting Investors, government, banks, creditors, and suppliers ….?Accounting provides quantitative information of financial nature to both management & other users for making rational economic decisions.External users
16Objective/advantage of accounting To keep systematic record of businessTo protect business propertiesAssistance to the managementMaintenance of business record
17Objective/advantage of accounting To Helpful in decision makingGood evidence in courts.Provides information to interested groupsTo helpful in taxation and valuation of business
18Management accounting of accountingbranchesbAccountingFinancial accountingManagement accountingCost accounting
19Management accounting Is the presentation of planning of accounting information to assist management in the creation of policy and day to day operation of an undertaking.Management accounting
20Cost Accounting- Definition Cost accounting is a branch of Accounting. It is the classification, recording and appropriate allocation of expenditure for the determination of the costs of product or services.
21Difference between financial accounting and cost accounting Internal & external part of organizationInternal part of organizationGives information about P&L and Financial positionTo management for proper planning & control of expenditure to manufacture a product
22distinguish Prepare report, mostly annually Half yearly, quarterly, or monthlyMonetary information used only in F.ABoth monetary & non-monetary (quantitative)Mandatory statementNot or May be Mandatory
23It is emphasizes only on recording of transaction of data in the financial statement It emphasizes on cost control with help of standards budgetsThe F.A data is historical in natureHistorical & futuristic in approach
24Conti……… F.A system can be installed without proper cost A/C system C.A system can not be installed without proper F.A system
26ASSETSThese are economic resources of an enterprise that can be usefully expressed in monetary terms. Assets are things of value used by the business in its operations.· Fixed Assets · Current Assets
27ASSETS continue… Fixed Assets are assets held on a long-term basis. e.g. Land, Building, Machinery, Plant, Furniture etc. Current Assets are assets held on a short-term basis.
28Current assets.e.g. Debtors, Bills receivable, Stock (Inventory), Cash and Bank balances, prepaid expenses , short term investment, etc.
29LIABILITIESThese are obligations or debts that the enterprise must pay in money at some time in the future.Long-term liabilitiesShort-term liabilitiesLong-term liabilities are those that are usually payable after a period of one year.e.g. A term loan from a financial institution, debentures (bonds) issued by a company.
30LIABILITIES continue..Short-term liabilities are obligations that are payable within a period of one year.e.g. Creditors, bills payable, overdraft from a bank for a short period, outstanding expenses, etc
31CAPITALInvestment by the owner for use in the firm is known as capital. Owner’s equity is the ownership claim on total assets. It is equal to total assets minus total liabilities.
32REVENUESThese are the amounts the business earns by selling its products or providing services to customers.exp: sales, fees, commission, interest, dividends, royalties, rent received, etc.
33EXPENSESThese are costs incurred by a business in the process of earning revenue. Generally, expenses are measured by the cost of assets consumed or services used during an accounting period.exp: depreciation, rent, wages, salaries, interest, light and water, telephone, etc.
34PURCHASESPurchases are total amount of goods procured by a business on credit and for cash, for use or sale.In a manufacturing concern, raw materials are purchased, processed further into finished goods and then sold. Purchases may be cash purchase or credit purchase.
35SALESSales are total revenues from goods or services sold or provided to customers. Sales may be cash sales or credit sales.
36STOCKStock (Inventory) is a measure of something on hand – goods, spares and other items – in a business.It is called stock on hand.In a trading concern, the stock on hand is the amount of goods which have not been sold on the date on which the balance sheet is prepared. This is also called closing stock.
37Conti…In a manufacturing concern, closing stock comprises raw materials, semi-finished goods and finished goods on hand on the closing date.Similarly, opening stock is the amount of stock at the beginning of the accounting year.
38DEBTORSDebtors are persons and/or other entities who owe to an enterprise an amount for receiving goods and services on credit.The total amount standing against such persons and/or entities on the closing date, is shown in the Balance Sheet as Sundry Debtors on the asset side.
39CREDITORSCreditors are persons and/or other entities who have to be paid by an enterprise an amount for providing the enterprise goods and services on credit.The total amount standing to the favour of such persons and/or entities on the closing date, is shown in the Balance Sheet as Sundry Creditors on the liability side.
40DrawingsThe value of goods or cash withdrawn by the owner from the business for the personal use is called drawings.
41Assignment-1. B.Com(Prof) Which decision-makers use accounting information.Accounting is said to be the language of business. What does it try to communicate and how.Write the name of commerce & finance minister of India. What is difference between commerce ministry and finance ministry.
42Format of assignment Submitted by submitted to Rahul Kumar K.R.Gola Foundation of AccountingSHARDA UNIVERSITYSubmitted by submitted toRahul Kumar K.R.GolaB.Com(Prof) Term-1
43Unit-II Theory based accounting Accounting principles: these principle are the assumptions and rules of accounting, procedure of accounting and the application of these rules, methods and procedure to actual practice of accounting.
44Types of accounting principles conventionsAccountingconcepts
45Necessary assumption and conditions upon which accounting is based. Accounting conceptsNecessary assumption and conditions upon which accounting is based.(a) Separate business entity concepts: business is treated as separate entity from its owner.exp: when a person invests Rs into business, it will be shown as liability & if withdraws Rs from the business, it will be charged to him
46(b) going concern concept: accounting to this concept business will continue for long time to come. (c) dual aspect concept: it is based on the principle the ‘for every debit transaction there is a corresponding credit transaction,exp: liabilities+ capital= assets
47Accounting concepts(d) cost concept: assets is recorded in the books of accounts at the price paid to acquire it. Any change in the value of asset due to change in the price level (inflation) is not considered.exp: an asset is purchased for Rs & if at the time of preparation of final accounts its market value is Rs or yet it will be recorded on the basis of its purchase price, Rs
48Conti…(e) Money measurement concept: according to this concept accounting records only those transactions we can express in the term of money.Exp: cash, stock, furniture, etc.a fact which can not be expressed in term of money, exp: efficiency of worker, sales policy pursued by the enterprise, value of human resources
49Conti..(f) Accounting period concept: a particular period of 12 months is called accounting period. It is generally of a year such as from 1 April up to 31st march (financial year) & January 1 to 31st Dec ( calendar year)(g) Realization concept: according to this concept revenue is completed when a sale is made. Sale is considered to be made at the point when it property in goods passes to the buyer and he become liable to pay
50Conti..Matching concept: it is necessary revenue of the period should be matched with the cost for the period .
51Accounting Conventions The term ‘convention’ is used to signify customs and traditions as a guide to the presentation of accounting statements.
52Convention of Conservatism Conservatism means tendency to maintain a state of affairs without a sudden change.According to this convention accountant follow the rule that, anticipate no profit but profit but provide all possible losses.Exp: discount on debtors is provided while not provide on creditors.
53Convention of Consistency it is essential that accounting practices and methods remain unchanged from one accounting period to another.A particular practice once adopted for some accounting aspect should be maintained form year to year.Exp: charging Dep method under diminishing balance method, it should be carrying on year to year.
54Convention of Full Disclosure This principle implies that accountant should prepare & present the report disclose full information regarding financial result & position.
55Convention of materiality ‘Materiality means important’ according to this conventions accountant is expect to disclose all important fact & ignore unimportant fact to avoid burden of unnecessary small details in accounting.