Presentation on theme: "Why do we need Tools? Tools are required in order to make our results more profitable. To make us more cultured, more quality cautious and self analytical."— Presentation transcript:
Tools are required in order to make our results more profitable. To make us more cultured, more quality cautious and self analytical and empowered to make our decision at the right place, at the right time, with proper documentation.
Tools Seven Tools of Elementary Statistical Methods are :- Check-sheet (for data collection) Stratification Graph and Control Chart Pareto Chart Cause and effect diagram (fish bone diagram) Histogram Scatter Diagram
An overview of ten problem solving tools / techniques 1.Flow Diagrams 2.Brain Storming 3.Data Collection 4.Graphs 5.Stratification 6.Cause & Effect Diagram 7.Pareto Chart 8.Histogram 9.Control Charts
1. Flow Diagram Activity Symbol Terminal Symbol Decision Symbol Examine each activity symbol. Examine each decision making symbol Examine each document or data base symbol. Evaluate the whole process and then only show the representation. Otherwise false diagram’s do not solve our purpose.
2. Brain Storming Brain Storming is a technique in which a problem is solved by asking every person related to that individual problem to sit together and share their ideas and views. It uses a few simple rules for discussion on a subject matter that Contributes to originality and innovation. 1.Creativity & Logical Thinking 2.Fluency 3.Flexibility 4.Originality 5.Awareness 6.Drive Why Who What Where When How
3. Data Collection It is a collection of required information in figures which gives us sound and appropriate basis for decision making and corrective actions required to be implemented. MonthYieldLast YearAhead By (%) Losing By (%) Jan.02 Feb.02 Mar.02 -------
Useful points for Data Collection:- Be clear about objective Prepare questionnaire to make it more clear and precise Collect all relevant data connected to that Use data sheet, check sheet Keep them simple and easy Reduce opportunities for error Capture data for analyses, reference & trace-ability Self Explanatory
4. Graphs -For explanation to others -For recording data -For understanding -For process control -For data analysis Types of Graphs:- 1.Line Graph 2.Bar Graph 3.Pie Graph
Benefits of Graphs 1.Numerical data is expressed in visual form. 2.Helps in comparison. 3.Easy to understand. 4.Creates interest. 5.Quick to understand 6.Helps in accurate analyses of cause.
Segregation of problem causing factors into various Categories and sub-categories. 5. Stratification
6. Cause & Effect Diagram (Fish Bone Diagram) Any defect in a component, a product or service could be due to one or more causes. To find out the relationship between the causes and effect, a diagram is drawn systematically by mapping out all the probable causes influencing the effect. Man Machine Method Material Result - Failure
Uses of Cause & Effect / Fish Bone Diagram Orderly arrangement of Theories. Must be consistent with logical casual relationships. Helpful in guiding further inquiry and listing its distinctive feature. But it is not a substitute for data.
7. Pareto Diagram Pareto Diagram is technique of arranging data according to priority or importance and using in to a problem solving frame work. It helps to distinguish between vital few and useful many. In order to find out the vital few factors we may have to stratify the data available with us. This helps us in establishing consciousness regarding priorities based on facts. Therefore, it leads us quickly to response area. Pareto also helps us to find out those items which are not profitable for us to worry about on an immediate basis.
Uses of Histogram a)To know the pattern of variation. b)To assess states of control. c)To assess conformance to specifications. d)To Assess spread or variation with reference to specification. e)To assess process capability. f)To get clues for bringing process under control whether to shift mean or to reduce variation or both. g) To get clues for possible assignable causes for observed variation - mixture of lots, suppliers. h) Instrument / measurement errors, basis of recording results etc.
9. Control Chart Y axis X axis Upper Control Limit Lower Control Limit
PLAN CHECK ACT DO Decide on the objective and targets Decide methods of achieving the objective Carryout Education & Training Do the work Check the results Take Action Deming Wheel / PDCA Cycle
P-D-C-A P-Plan Decide on objectives and targets -Control can not be performed until we have clearly defined objectives and targets. # The responsibilities and authorities should be clearly defined at each level. # Objectives and targets should be stated clearly and specifically. # Our priorities should be decided while settling policies.
Deciding on the means of achieving objectives: Standardization technology and administrator Techniques a) After objectives are decided the next step is deciding on the means of achieving these objectives. b) Proper guidance and education should be provided by technical and senior staff to other members. c) The objectives should be clearly stated. d) Standards must be properly documented. e) All standards must be mutually consistent. P-D-C-A
D-Do P-D-C-A Carry out education and training by Senior Members:- # Training is a structured way. # On job training of subordinates by Superiors. # Empowerment (letting people learn for themselves by boldly giving them full authority for their work). Do the work Execution of plan of action.
C-Check Check the results # To see the effectiveness of plan. # To see whether the work is being carried out in line with policies, instructions and objection. # Check the causes. # Take a walk around the work place and see whether everything is being carried out according to policies and standards. # Check through results. P-D-C-A
A-Action P-D-C-A Take Action # To notice the abnormalities. # The causes must be found and eliminated to ensure that the work proceeds smoothly. # Our motto should be not to remove symptoms but the causes of the symptoms.
i)The worker lacks awareness or is careless ii)Insufficient training and education imparted. iii)The standards are inadequate or impossible to follow. Do the work Execution of plan of action. # To see whether operating standard’s are being followed or not and if not why? P-D-C-A
Exercise-1 Mr.Balaji Sharma is an active member of Quality Circle. He was requested by one factory to make a presentation of a case study of his circle. Mr.Balaji Sharma reached the factory guest house one day earlier. He stayed in their guest house but did not bother to lock his suitcase. After the presentation was over he hired a taxi for station. On the way he stopped the vehicle and purchased sweets in a crowded shop. He handed over his unlocked suit case to the porter and went to checkup the reservation chart to find out his berth number as he was having a RAC Ticket. There was a big crowd, but he managed to push himself to find out his berth number. Part of his money was in his pocket and the balance was in his suitcase. He took out all the money and checked up. To his dismay he found Rs.2000/- missing. He was unable to find out where he could have lost the money. Please make a Cause & Effect Diagram showing the possible causes for this problem.
Exercise on Flow Diagram Make a flow diagram of your daily routine comprising of awakening in the morning till you go to bed.