Presentation on theme: "Judith Jarvis Thomson “A Defense of Abortion” (1971)"— Presentation transcript:
1Judith Jarvis Thomson “A Defense of Abortion” (1971)
2NO Before Thomson The fetus is a person starting at conception. The standard conservative argumentLiberals:NOThe fetus is a person starting at conception.Every person has a right to life.THEREFOREA fetus has a right to life.A mother has a right to control her own body.The fetus’s right to life outweighs the mother’s right to control her own body.The fetus may not be killed, abortion is wrong.
3Thomson’s novel approach The standard conservative argumentThomson:AssumeThe fetus is a person starting at conception.Every person has a right to life.THEREFOREA fetus has a right to life.A mother has a right to control her own body.The fetus’s right to life outweighs the mother’s right to control her own body.The fetus may not be killed, abortion is wrong.Thomson:What is it? What does it buy you?
4Thomson: what follows?Pperson with rightsPperson with rights
6Violinist analogy (p. 103) Pperson with rights Pperson with rights The famous violinistYOU!!!!
7Violinist analogy (p. 103) The famous violinist YOU!!!! You may disconnect yourself, so the violinist dies (even though he is a person with a right to life).So right to life of fetus does not necessarily stop abortion from being permissible.
8The right to life The famous violinist YOU!!!! Violinist has a right to life, but not a right to use your body.The right to life ≠ the right to everything you need to sustain your lifeFetus has a right to life, but not necessarily a right to use pregnant woman’s body.
9A supporting example (p. 106) She has a person with a right to life.What if she needs a visit from Henry Fonda Paul McCartney to keep on living?Her right to life doesn’t give her a right to that!The right to life ≠ the right to everything you need to sustain your life.
10Not a question of weighing The famous violinistYOU!!!!Point is simply: the right to life ≠ the right to everything you need to sustain your life.Issue is what the right to life encompasses, not whose rights have the greatest weight. Thomson says the weighing talk is misleading.
11Important!The violinist analogy isn’t the whole argument. She doesn’t think the violinist case (as initially stated) makes for a good analogy with every case of pregnancy, no matter how it comes about. That’s why there are a lot more analogies in the second half of the article.
12CASES, CASES, CASESThomson uses different analogies to deal with abortion under different circumstances
13Cases I. Pregnancy due to rape II. Pregnancy when woman’s life threatenedSelf-abortion (RU486)Third-party abortion (doctor performs)III. Pregnancy due to failed contraceptionIV. Pregnancy due to no contraceptionCarelessDeliberate pregnancy, changed mind
14Case I. Pregnancy due to rape Conservatives disagree about pregnancy in cases of rape. How can it be justified, if the fetus is an innocent person with a right to life?
15Case I. Pregnancy due to rape original violinist analogy (p. 104) YOU!!!!The famous violinistWoman raped, did nothing to make fetus dependent on her for life.You were kidnapped, did nothing to make violinist dependent on you for life.
16Violinist argument GOOD ARGUMENT??? Pregnancy due to rape is like being involuntarily hooked up to the famous violinist.You’re entitled to unplug yourself from the violinist, even if it causes his death.THEREFOREA woman is entitled to an abortion after rape.GOOD ARGUMENT???
17Case II. Woman’s life threatened Many conservatives think abortion is justified when woman’s life is threatened, but the Catholic position is that it’s always wrong to intentionally kill an innocent human being. In Catholic hospitals, most abortions are prohibited, even if woman’s life is endangered.
18Case II. Woman’s life threatened, A. may she self-abort Case II. Woman’s life threatened, A. may she self-abort? violinist analogy, revised (p. 105)The famous violinistYOU!!!!REMAINING WILL CAUSE YOUR DEATH. YOU WANT TO UNPLUG YOURSELF.
19Violinist argument, version 2 Life-threatening pregnancy is like being hooked up to the violinist and thereby threatened with death.You’re entitled to unplug yourself from the violinist, even if it causes his death.THEREFOREA woman is entitled to self-abort if her life is threatened by pregnancy.GOOD ARGUMENT???
20Case II. Mother’s life threatened, A. may she self-abort Case II. Mother’s life threatened, A. may she self-abort? tiny house, growing child (p. 105)
21Tiny house argumentTaking RU486* to save your life, in case of life-threatening pregnancy, is like killing the expanding baby in self-defense.It’s permissible to kill the expanding baby in self-defense.THEREFORE,It’s permissible to take RU486 to save your life.*New drug used to induce miscarriage, not developed yet when Thomson wrote the article.
22Case II. Mother’s life threatened, B. may doctor perform abortion Case II. Mother’s life threatened, B. may doctor perform abortion? tiny house, growing child, third party (p. 105)
23Tiny house argument, version 2 A doctor performing an abortion in case of life-threatening pregnancy is like a third party killing the expanding baby.It’s permissible for a third party to kill the expanding baby.THEREFORE,A doctor may perform an abortion in case of a life-threatening pregnancy.GOOD ARGUMENT???
24Case III. Contraceptive failure sex was voluntary, risks were knownwoman’s life not threatenedpregnancy occurred because of a broken condomThomson: “Is she not in part responsible for the presence, in fact the very existence, of the unborn person insider her? No doubt she did not invite it in. But doesn’t her partial responsibility for its being there itself give it a right to the use of her body” (p. 108)To answer her question, she introduces more analogies
25Case III. Contraceptive failure burglars and burglar bars (p. 109)
26Burglar bar argumentA burglar has no right to enter my room, just because I open the windows (it’s stuffy inside, and there are burglar bars).A fetus entering uterus, despite contraception, is like a burglar entering my room, despite burglar bars.THEREFORE,A fetus has no right to remain in uterus.
27Case III. Contraceptive failure people-seeds, fine-meshed screens
28People seed argumentSuppose people seeds drift around and can take root in carpets, if you don’t use fine meshed screens. You use screens, but one gets into your carpet. The seed doesn’t have a right to use your house.Sex with contraception is analogous.THEREFORE,Fetus doesn’t have a right to use woman’s uterus.
29Case IV. No contraception “It seems to me that the argument we are looking at can establish at most that there are some cases in which the unborn person has a right to the use of its mother’s body, and therefore some cases in which abortion is unjust killing. There is room for much discussion and argument as to precisely which, if any. But I think we should sidestep this issue and leave it open, for at any rate the argument certainly does not establish that all abortion is unjust killing.” (p. 108)
30What about these situations? Juno. They are simply careless. Does that mean fetus has a right to her body?Changed mind. Woman gets pregnant deliberately, but relationship goes bad. Wants to abort. Does fetus have right to use her body?
32Two different questions RIGHTS QUESTION. Does fetus have a right to uterus in this particular case? Would the woman have a right to abort?SUPPOSE WOMAN DOES HAVE RIGHTSHOULD SHE DO IT?She should respect rightsShe should be a minimally decent Samaritan
33Minimally decent Samaritans GOOD Samaritans make huge sacrifices for others. Too much to expect! MINIMALLY DECENT Samaritans make relatively small sacrifices.
34More cases! Violinist needs you briefly – for just an hour You should respect rightsYou should be a minimally decent SamaritanYou’re entitled to unplug yourself, but you shouldn’t.
35More cases! Quick pregnancy, would take an hour You should respect rightsYou should be a minimally decent SamaritanYou’re entitled to have an abortion, but you shouldn’t.
36More cases! 7th month, you want to take a trip abroad You should respect rightsYou should be a minimally decent SamaritanYou’re entitled to have an abortion, but you shouldn’t.
37Summary Must examine meaning of “right to life” Fetus has no right to woman’s body in many cases, even assuming fetus is a personBut we should be “minimally decent Samaritans” – support fetus if sacrifice is smallCan’t generalize – abortion not always wrong, not always rightOnly “pretending” (p. 110) fetus is a person from conception—she thinks this is not true early on.