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Corporate Governance Chapter 2
Learning Objectives Describe the role and responsibilities of the board of directors in corporate governance Understand how the composition of a board can affect its operation Describe the impact of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act on corporate governance in the United States Discuss trends in corporate governance Explain how executive leadership is an important part of strategic management Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-2
Role of the Board of Directors Corporation a mechanism established to allow different parties to contribute capital, expertise and labor for their mutual benefit The corporation is governed by the board of directors that oversees top management with the concurrence of the shareholders. 2-3 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Role of the Board of Directors Corporate governance refers to the relationship among the board of directors, top management and shareholders in determining the direction and performance of the corporation Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-4
Responsibilities of the Board Effective Board Leadership Strategy of the Organization Risk vs. Initiative Succession Planning Sustainability Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-5
Responsibilities of the Board Due care the board is required to direct the affairs of the corporation but not to manage them If a director or the board as a whole fails to act with due care and, as a result, the corporation is in some way harmed, the careless director or directors can be held personally liable for the harm done. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-6
Role of the Board in Strategic Management Monitor developments inside and outside the corporation Evaluate and Influence management proposals, decisions and actions Initiate and Determine the corporation’s mission and strategies Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-7
Board of Directors’ Continuum Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-8
Members of a Board of Directors Inside directors typically officers or executives employed by the corporation Outside directors may be executives of other firms but are not employees of the board’s corporation Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-9
Members of a Board of Directors Agency theory states that problems arise in corporations because the agents (top management) are not willing to bear responsibility for their decisions unless they own a substantial amount of stock in the corporation Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-10
Members of a Board of Directors Stewardship theory proposes that, because of their long tenure with the corporation, insiders (senior executives) tend to identify with the corporation and its success Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-11
Members of a Board of Directors Affiliated directors not employed by the corporation, handle legal or insurance work Retired executive directors used to work for the corporation, partly responsible for past decisions affecting current strategy Family directors descendants of the founder and own significant blocks of stock Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-12
Codetermination: Should Employees Serve on Boards? Codetermination the inclusion of a corporation’s workers on its board, began only recently in the United States Although the movement to place employees on the boards of directors of U.S. companies shows little likelihood of increasing, the European experience reveals an increasing acceptance of worker participation on corporate boards. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-13
Interlocking Directorates Direct interlocking directorate when two firms share a director or when an executive of one firm sits on the board of a second Indirect interlocking directorate when two corporations have directors who serve on the board of a third firm Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-14
Interlocking Directorates Interlocking directorates useful for gaining both inside information about an uncertain environment and objective expertise about potential strategies and tactics Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-15
Nomination and Election of Board Members 97% of U.S. boards use nominating committees to identify potential board members Staggered boards only a portion of board members stand for re- election when directors serve more than one year terms Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-16
Nomination and Election of Board Members Criteria for a good director include: Willingness to challenge management when necessary Special expertise that is important to the company Available for outside meetings to advise management Expertise on global issues Understands the firm’s key technologies and processes Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-17
Organization of the Board The size of a board in the United States is determined by the corporation’s charter and its by- laws, in compliance with state laws. Although some states require a minimum number of board members, most corporations have quite a bit of discretion in determining board size. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-18
Organization of the Board The average large, publicly held U.S. firm has 10 directors on its board The average small, privately-held company has four to five members. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-19
Organization of the Board Lead director consulted by the Chair/CEO regarding board affairs and coordinates the annual evaluation of the CEO 96% of U.S. companies that combine the Chairman and CEO positions had a lead director. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-20
Organization of the Board The most effective boards accomplish much of their work through committees. Although they do not usually have legal duties, most committees are granted full power to act with the authority of the board between board meetings. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-21
Impact of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act on U.S. Corporate Governance Sarbanes–Oxley Act designed to protect shareholders from excesses and failed oversight of boards of directors whistleblower procedures improved corporate financial statements Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-22
Evaluating Governance S&P Corporate Governance Scoring System Ownership Structure and Influence Financial Stakeholder Rights and Relations Financial Transparency and Information Disclosure Board Structure and Processes Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-23
Avoiding Governance Improvements Multiple classes of stock Public to private ownership Controlled companies Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-24
Trends in Corporate Governance Boards shaping company strategy Institutional investors active on boards Shareholder demands that directors and top management own significant stock More involvement of non-affiliated outside directors Increased representation of women and minorities Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-25
Trends in Corporate Governance Boards evaluating individual directors Smaller boards Splitting the Chairman and CEO positions Shareholders may begin to nominate board members Society expects boards to balance profitability with social needs of society Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-26
The Role of Top Management Top management responsibilities involve getting things accomplished through and with others in order to meet the corporate objectives. are multidimensional and are oriented toward the welfare of the total organization Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-27
Executive Leadership and Strategic Vision Executive leadership the directing of activities toward the accomplishment of corporate objectives, sets the tone for the entire corporation Strategic vision description of what the company is capable of becoming Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-28
Executive Leadership and Strategic Vision Transformational leaders provide change and movement in an organization by providing a vision for that change Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-29
Executive Leadership and Strategic Vision Characteristics of effective CEOs include: 1. The CEO articulates a strategic vision for the corporation. 2. The CEO presents a role for others to identify with and to follow. 3. The CEO communicates high performance standards and also show confidence in the followers’ abilities to meet these standards. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-30
Managing the Strategic Planning Process Strategic planning staff charged with supporting both top management and the business units in the strategic planning process Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-31
Managing the Strategic Planning Process Strategic planning staff responsibilities include: 1. Identify and analyze company-wide strategic issues, and suggest corporate strategic alternatives to top management 2. Work as facilitators with business units to guide them through the strategic planning process Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-32
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-33
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