Presentation on theme: "Paragraph development by cause and effect is the basis of logical reasoning, a widely used device in both the general and applied writing. It is believed."— Presentation transcript:
Paragraph development by cause and effect is the basis of logical reasoning, a widely used device in both the general and applied writing. It is believed that every effect should have a cause either immediate or remote. So we need to acquire this skill to develop our writing ability. Paragraph Development by Cause and Effect
Although fear of math is not a purely female phenomenon, girls tend to drop out of math sooner than boys. Why the differences in performance? One reason is the amount of math learned and used at play. Another may be the difference in male-female maturation. If girls do better than boys at all elementary school tasks, then they may compute better for no other reason than that arithmetic is part of the elementary curriculum. As boys and girls grow older, girls become, under pressure of the sex-role assigned by the society, academically less competitive. Sample Exercises
Exercise 16 Exercise 17
Ex. 16Read the given paragraph and identify the causes and effects that lead to the poor performance on tests.
Many of my students have difficulty taking tests. For some, the test situation causes great stress and tension. The minds of these students “go blank” when they receive the test paper. Others do not know how to study and, thus come to the test ill-prepared to answer the questions. Some students study correctly but do not follow directions on the test. They usually do not finish the exam. These are some of the factors that contribute to the poor performance of certain students on tests.
· The first group of students’ problem on tests: Cause: _______________________________________________ Effect: _______________________________________________ · The second group of students’ problem on tests: Cause: _______________________________________________ Effect: _______________________________________________ · The third groups of students’ problem on tests: Cause: _______________________________________________ Effect: ___________________________________________ Key
· The first group of students’ problem on tests: Cause: Stress and tension from the test situation. Effect: Their minds “go blank”. · The second group of students’ problem on tests: Cause: Not knowing how to study. Effect: They are ill-prepared to answer the questions. · The third groups of students’ problem on tests: Cause: Not following the directions on the test. Effect: They do not finish the exam.
Ex. 17Write a paragraph on one of the following topics, using cause and effect to support the topic. 1.Take action now to protect our Earth before it is too late. 2.More and more people are overweight. Reference
We have been too careless in the pursuit of development at the cost of our environment. Forests have been cleared for farming and other purposes, which has enabled deserts to spread at an almost uncontrollable rate. Automobiles and factories keep sending poisonous substances into the air, which in turn will come back to threaten our health. Facing the worsening situation of our polluted rivers, we can’t help but wondering where we can find our drinking water in the future. We have only one Earth, and we can not afford to lose it.
A public warning message can be issused either by an organization or by an individual. As the purpose of such a message is for the public to be alert to a danger, convincing facts or information are stated. Public Warning Message
Effects of Heroin Heroin is produced from opium and is perhaps the most dangerous of narcotic drugs that you can find on the streets today. Dangers and Effects: Because most heroin abusers inject the drug and often share needles, they take massive risk for HIV infection, an incurable disease which can kill. Blood pressure, pulse, breathing, and temperature all elevate. If users overdose on heroin, it reduces the number of messages the brain sends to the chest muscles. The breathing slows, and, if the dose is high enough, stops. (To be continued on next page.) Sample
Common Street Names: White girl, horse, black tar, brown sugar, smack, goods, H, junk. Legal Status: It is illegal to grow, process, sell or use heroin. Exercises Sample
Ex. 18Use the given data below to write a public warning message on the effects of Ecstasy. You can model your writing on the one given above about Effects of Heroine.
Reference Properties: a synthetic drug that damages brain cells Dangers and effects: brain damage, elevating the heart rate and blood pressure, heart stroke, leading to blurred vision, faintness, chills, sweating, and muscle tension Common street names: Wonder drug, XTC. Legal status: illegal to manufacture, sell or use
Effects of Ecstasy Ecstasy (MDMA) is a synthetic drug that damages brain cells. On the street, Ecstasy is sometimes called “the wonder drug”, but researchers label it as a killer. Dangers and Effects: Brain damage is only one potential problem. Ecstasy has a long list of known and suspected negative effects on abusers. It pumps up the heart rate and blood pressure, so users may become hyperactive and end up with heart stroke. It can produce blurred vision, faintness, chills, sweating, and muscle tension due to such effects as panic, anxiety, depression, and paranoid thinking. (To be continued on next page.)
Youngsters who take Ecstasy take an immense health risk. Common Street Names: Wonder drug, XTC. Legal Status: It is illegal to manufacture, sell or use this drug.