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Lesson 12 The Loons. I. Background knowledge Author: Margaret Laurence, one of the major contemporary Canadian writers, was born in 1926 and died.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 12 The Loons. I. Background knowledge Author: Margaret Laurence, one of the major contemporary Canadian writers, was born in 1926 and died."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 12 The Loons

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5 I. Background knowledge Author: Margaret Laurence, one of the major contemporary Canadian writers, was born in 1926 and died of lung cancer in She was educated in Manitoba, a province in south central Canada. After marrying an engineer, she moved with her husband to Africa and lived there for a number of years.

6 I. Background knowledge About the Novel: THE LOONS is included in the 2nd section of her Norton Anthology (collection) of Short Fiction. Margaret Laurence wrote 5 separate short stories about this community. The Tonnerre family is one of the central families.

7 I. Background knowledge The touching story tells of the plight of Piquette Tonnerre, a girl from a French halfbreed of Indian Family.. Her people were marginalized by the white- dominating society. They were unable to exist independently in a respectable, decent and dignified way. They found it impossible to fit into the main currents of culture and difficult to be assimilated comfortably.

8 I. Background knowledge At school, Piquette felt out of place and ill at ease with the white children. When she had grown up she didn't have any chance to improve her life. In fact her situation became more and more messed up. In the end she was killed in a fire.

9 I. Background knowledge Her death is like the disappearance of the loons on Diamond Lake. Just as the narrator's father had predicted, the loons would go away when more cottages were built at the lake with more people moving in. The loons disappeared as nature was ruined by civilization. In a similar way, Piquette and her people failed to find their position in modern society.

10 I. Background knowledge 2. The comprehension and perception of the title: loon: any of several large fish-eating diving birds of the northern part of the northern hemisphere that have the legs placed far back under the body and as a result have a clumsy floundering gait on land

11 I. Background knowledge loon: distinctive Canadian bird, the bird of the lakes Several years ago, the Canadian government collected all the one- dollar paper notes and issued a one- dollar coin with a loon engraved on it. So, one dollar is slangily called a loony.

12 I. Background knowledge loony: (from lunatic)(person who is) crazy or eccentric; lunatic He does have some pretty loony ideas. From the above coincidence, one can easily perceive the underlying reason why the author chooses such a title for her novel.

13 II. Detailed Study 1. pebble: small stone made smooth and round by the action of water, eg. in a stream or on the seashore 2. scrub: underdeveloped trees or shrubs oak 橡树, 栎树 scrub oak: short, stunted (short, not- fully-grown) oak tree

14 II. Detailed Study cf: bush: (large) low growing plant with several or many woody stems coming out from the root tree: with a single trunk shrub: (small) plant with woody stem, lower than a tree, & usu. with several separate stems from the root

15 II. Detailed Study 3. chokecherry: North American wild cherry tree 4. thicket: a thick growth of shrubs, underbrush or small trees 5. clearing: open space from which trees have been cleared in a forest 6. shack: a small roughly built house, hut

16 II. Detailed Study 7. dwelling: (fml) place of residence, house, flat, etc. Welcome to my humble dwelling. dwelling-house (esp. law): house used as a residence, not as a place of work 8. cabin: small hut or shelter, usu made of wood cabin class: second highest standard of accommodation on a ship 二等舱

17 II. Detailed Study 9. poplar: 杨树 10. chink: close the narrow openings with, plaster 11. Batoche: 巴托什, a village at the centre of Saskatchewan Province, Canada. The battle ground where the Canadian militia beat the rebellious army in It’s been established as the National Park of History now.

18 II. Detailed Study 12. Métis: [mei’ti:s] half-breed, one of mixed blood, esp. (often cap.) half breed 混血儿,尤指法国人与印第安人的混血后裔,杂种 动物 13. chaos: complete disorder or confusion The burglars left the house in (a state of) chaos. The wintry weather has caused chaos on the roads.

19 II. Detailed Study chaotic: in a state of chaos; completely disorganized With no one to keep order, the situation in the classroom was chaotic.

20 II. Detailed Study 14. lean-to: small building or shed with its roof resting against the side of a larger building, wall or fence They keep hens in a lean-to at the end of the garden. a lean-to greenhouse

21 II. Detailed Study 15. warp: cause sth to become bent or twisted from the usual or natural shape, esp because of uneven shrinkage or expansion The damp wood began to warp. The hot sun had warped the cover of the book.

22 II. Detailed Study 16. lumber: (esp Brit) unwanted pieces of furniture, etc. that are stored away or take up space (esp US) = timber 17. coop: cage for small creature 18. tangle: (cause sth to) become twisted into a confused mass Her hair got all tangled up in the barbed wire fence.

23 II. Detailed Study 19. strand: a single piece or thread Many strands are twisted together to form a rope. 20. barb: the sharp point of a fish hook, arrow, etc, with a curved shape which prevents it from being easily pulled out

24 II. Detailed Study 21. rust: the reddish brown surface that forms on iron when attacked by water and air rusty: covered with rust 22. Patois  a dialect other than the standard illiterate or provincial speech, jargon 洋泾浜英 语

25 II. Detailed Study 23. broken: (of a foreign language) spoken imperfectly; not fluent speak in broken English (of land) having an uneven surface; rough an area of broken, rocky ground

26 II. Detailed Study (of a person) weakened and exhausted by illness or misfortune He was broken-hearted when his wife died. broken home: family in which the parents have divorced or separated He comes from a broken home.

27 II. Detailed Study 24. obscene: (of words, thoughts, books, pictures, etc) indecent, esp sexually; disgusting and offensive; likely to corrupt obscenity: offensive, repulsive remarks, cursing, vulgarity laws against obscenity on the television four letter words: fuck, shit, bull shit

28 II. Detailed Study 25. belong: to be suitable or advantageous, be in the right place I don't belong in a place like this. He doesn't belong in the beginner's class. I refuse to go abroad: I belong here.

29 II. Detailed Study 26. Cree: one of the Indian tribes in Canada 27. reservation: a piece of land set apart for N. American Indians cf: resort: (a) popular holiday centre seaside, skiing, health, etc resorts Beidaihe is a leading north coast resort. (b) (US) hotel or guest-house for holiday- makers

30 II. Detailed Study 28. neither fish, flesh nor good red herring / neither flesh, fowl, nor good salt herring: difficult to identify or classify; vague; ambiguous

31 II. Detailed Study fowl: a. domestic cock or hen We keep a few fowls and some goats. b. flesh of certain types of birds, eaten for food We had fish for the first course, followed by roast fowl and fresh vegetables. c. any bird: the fowls of the air waterfowl / barnyard fowl / wildfowl

32 II. Detailed Study herring: Atlantic fish, usu swimming in very large shoals ( 鱼群), used for food 鲱鱼 29. odd: not regular, occasional, casual, occasional, random Life would be very dull without the odd adventure now and then. 30. section hands / gang: a group of workmen keeping one section of a railway line repaired

33 II. Detailed Study 31. relief: aid in the form of goods, coupon or money given, as by a government agency, to persons unable to support themselves on relief: receiving government aid because of poverty, unemployment, etc. a relief teacher

34 II. Detailed Study 32. …with a face that seemed totally unfamiliar with laughter, would knock at the doors of the town’s brick houses… This suggests that the Tonnerres lived a very miserable life. They had never experienced happiness in their whole life. The “brick houses” indicates the wealthy people’s home.

35 II. Detailed Study 33. lard: pig fat made pure by melting, used in cookery 34. pail: a usu. round open vessel of metal or wood, with handles, used for carrying liquids, bucket 35. bruise: injury caused by a blow to the body or to a fruit, discolouring the skin but not breaking it He was covered in bruises after falling off his bicycle.

36 II. Detailed Study 36. quarter: 25 cents dime: 10 cents buck: 1 dollar, loon, loony yard: 100 / 1000 dollars 37. brawl: noisy quarrel or fight a drunken brawl in a bar

37 II. Detailed Study 38. howl: long loud wailing cry of a dog, wolf, etc, loud cry of a person expressing pain, scorn, amusement, etc let out a howl of laughter, agony, rage howl: v.‘ wolves howling in the forest to howl in agony syn: bawl, moan, scream, wail, sob

38 II. Detailed Study 39. Mountie: member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police mount: ~ sb (on sth) get onto or put (sb) onto a horse, etc for riding; provide (sb) with a horse for riding He quickly mounted (his horse) and rode away. He mounted the boy on the horse. The policemen were mounted on (ie rode) black horses.

39 II. Detailed Study 40. cell: a small room in a prison 41. sporadic: happening or seen only occasionally or in a few places; occurring irregularly sporadic showers sporadic raids, gunfire, fighting syn: irregular, infrequent, intermittent occasional

40 II. Detailed Study 42. negligible: too slight or unimportant to be worth any attention, of little importance or size; not worth considering a negligible amount, error, effect This year’s deficit in foreign trade is negligible.

41 II. Detailed Study 'negligent: not taking or showing enough care, careless He has been negligent in not locking the doors as he was told to. She was negligent in her work. He was negligent of his duty.

42 II. Detailed Study 43. She existed for me only as a vaguely embarrassing presence. As far as I am concerned, her presence would only make other people feel ill at ease / uncomfortable. 44. hoarse: sounding or growling rough and harsh He shouted himself hoarse.

43 II. Detailed Study 45. limp: walk unevenly, as when one foot or leg is hurt or stiff That dog must be hurt; he's limping. The injured footballer limped slowly off the field. cf: shuffle: walk without lifting the feet completely clear of the ground The prisoners shuffled along the corridor and into their cells.

44 II. Detailed Study totter: walk or move unsteadily hobble: walk with difficulty because the feet or legs hurt stagger: walk or move unsteadily as if about to fall (from carrying sth. heavy, being weak or drunk,etc) stumble: strike one’s foot against sth. and almost fall flop: move or fall clumsily

45 II. Detailed Study 46. grimy: dirty, messy, filthy grime: dirt, esp. in a layer on a surface 47. peculiar: odd or strange, eccentric, strange in a troubling or displeasing way a peculiar taste, smell, noise, etc a peculiar feeling that one has been here before. My keys have disappeared; it's most peculiar! He's a bit peculiar!

46 II. Detailed Study 48. flare: burn brightly but briefly or unsteadily The match flared in the darkness. flare up: burn suddenly more intensely The fire flared up as I put more logs on it. reach a more violent state, suddenly become angry Robbery has flared up again.

47 II. Detailed Study He flares up at the slightest provocation. (of an illness) recur, happen again My back trouble has flared up again. 49. It's under control all right all right:(infml) certainly; beyond doubt; expressing absolute certainty That's the man I saw in the car all right.

48 II. Detailed Study 50. the dickens: (infml euph) (used to give emphasis, esp in questions) the Devil Who / what / where the dickens is that? We had the dickens of a job finding the place. 51. take off: go away, depart I grabbed my hat and took off for the Town Hall.

49 II. Detailed Study 52. back: ago, into the past some few years back far back in the Middle ages 53. contagious: (of a disease) that can be spread by touch, infectious 54. distress: pain, agony, misery

50 II. Detailed Study 55. bet: I'll bet you $5 that they'll win the next election. He bet me that I couldn't do it. I bet it rains / will rain tomorrow. You bet: certainly Will you tell her? You bet.

51 II. Detailed Study 56. for Peter’s sake: for God's / goodness' / Heaven's / gosh’s / pity's, etc. sake used as an interjection before or after a command or request, or to express irritation For God's sake, stop that whining! For goodness' sake! How can you be so stupid?

52 II. Detailed Study 57. cross: rather angry I was cross with him for being late. What are you so cross about? She gave me a cross look. crossly: madly, angrily, irritably

53 II. Detailed Study 58. matron: woman in charge of the nurses in a hospital (now called a senior nursing officer) 59. rigid: stiff; not bending or yielding; strict; firm; unchanging Her face was rigid with terror. He is a man of very rigid principles practise rigid economy 厉行节约

54 II. Detailed Study 60. cameo: ['k  mi  ] ( 浮雕宝石 ) a piece of women's ornamental jewellery consisting of a raised shape or figure on the background of a small fine flat stone of a different colour 61. mauve: [‘m  v] (of) a pale purple colour vein (静脉) artery (动脉) blood capillary (毛细血管)

55 II. Detailed Study 62. stifle: hold back, suppress, restrain, inhibit, make unable to breathe The children were stifled (killed) by the smoke. I am stifling in this close room. She was getting sleepy and tried to stifle a yawn. cf: suffocate: to die as a result of not being to breathe

56 II. Detailed Study 63. at that: additionally, besides, as well It's an idea, and a good one at that. I made a mistake, and a very bad mistake at that. at that: perhaps She suggested we should bring the car, and it's not a bad idea at that.

57 II. Detailed Study 64. muse: reflect, ponder Ogilvie's voice took on a musing note. 65. roadway 1. the part of a road that is used by traffic 2. the strip of land over which a road passes.

58 II. Detailed Study 66. Bide-a-Wee: tolerate a little, stay with us a little while Bide: stay Wee: a little Boonie Doon: boonie: love, beautiful My Boonie lies over the Ocean Bonny: attractive, fair, excellent, fine A bonnie ship 美丽的小船

59 II. Detailed Study 67. bear: show (sth); carry visibly; display The document bore his signature. The ring bears an inscription. 68. austere: without ornament, plain an austere style of painting She dressed austerely rather than smartly.

60 II. Detailed Study 69. filigree: ornamental lace-like work of gold, silver or copper ware, delicate ornamental wire work 金、 银、铜丝细工饰品 silver filigree jewellery 银丝首饰 70. fern 蕨类植物 71. raspberry :覆盆子,山莓

61 II. Detailed Study 72. moss: very small green or yellow flowerless plant growing in thick masses on damp surfaces or trees or stones moss-covered rocks, walls 73. fragrant: aromatic, perfumed, having a sweet or pleasant smell (esp. of flowers) cf: flagrant

62 II. Detailed Study 74. miniature: very small detailed painting, usu. of a person miniature dogs miniature bottles of brandy, etc. a miniature railway, ie a small model one on which people may ride for short distances She is just like her mother in miniature.

63 II. Detailed Study 75. scarlet: bright red She blushed scarlet when I spat forth the obscenities. scarlet fever: infectious / contagious disease causing scarlet marks on the skin scarlet woman (dated derog) immoral woman; prostitute

64 II. Detailed Study 76. lantern: light for use outdoors in a transparent case that protects it from the wind, etc. 77. moose: a type of large deer, with very large flat horns, that lives in the northern parts of America (and in some northern countries of Europe, where it is called an elk) ( 麋鹿 )

65 II. Detailed Study 78. antler: either of the pair of branched horns of a male deer 79. bleach: whiten 80. fissure: long deep crack in rock or earth

66 II. Detailed Study 81. otherwise: in other or different respects; apart from that The rent is high, (but) otherwise the house is fine. Daddy still has a bit of his cold, but otherwise all are well. He has a brandy nose, but is otherwise a handsome fellow.

67 II. Detailed Study 82. cone: fruit of certain evergreen trees, such as fir, pine and cedar a solid object with a round base and a point at the top a hollow or solid object shaped like this Many children would rather eat ice cream from cones than from dishes.

68 II. Detailed Study 83. meticulous: giving or showing great precision and care; very attentive to detail a meticulous worker, researcher, etc. meticulous painting and free sketch painting 工笔 / 写意画 84. tote: (infml) carry to tote a gun

69 II. Detailed Study 85. winter: spend the winter It became fashionable for the rich to winter in the sun. birds wintering in the south 86. fell: to cut down (a tree)

70 II. Detailed Study 87. lame: unable to walk normally because of an injury or defect 88. scuff: scrape, to make a rough mark or marks, with one’s shoes, on the smooth surface of furniture, or floor, etc The floor was badly scuffed up where they had been dancing.

71 II. Detailed Study 89. coarse: not fine, rough or loose in texture, vulgar, crude, harsh a coarse complexion / skin coarse manners, laughter, tastes, etc

72 II. Detailed Study 90. stamp: put (one's foot) down heavily on (the ground, etc); walk with loud heavy steps stamping the ground to keep warm She stamped the soil flat round the plant. Don't stamp, you'll wake everyone up.

73 II. Detailed Study 91. bizarre: strange in appearance or effect; grotesque; eccentric 92. Unlikely it may seem: although it may seem not likely to happen,… It is unlikely to rain. His condition is unlikely to improve. In the unlikely event of a strike, production would be badly affected.

74 II. Detailed Study as…as: (introduces adverbial clause of comparison) You know as much as I do. Sometimes the subject of the subordinate clause can be omitted: He said the situation there was not as bad as had been reported. The 2 houses were as clean as could be.

75 II. Detailed Study 93. spring from: arise or come from He is sprung from (springs from) royal blood: of royal ancestry If you ask someone where they have sprung from you are asking them where they have come from in a rather surprised way, because they have appeared unexpectedly.

76 II. Detailed Study 94. Tecumseh, , chief of the Shawnee Indians; born in Ohio. A noted military leader, he planned a confederacy of tribes to resist U.S. encroachment, but the defeat of his brother, the Shawnee Prophet in 1811 ended the Indian military movement. Tecumseh then fought alongside the British against the Americans in the War of He died in the battle of the Thames.

77 II. Detailed Study 95. Iroquois: (易洛魁人) an American Indian confederacy of New York 96. Brebeuf, Jean de, Saint, , French Roman Catholic missionary. One of the Jesuit Martyrs of North America. A missionary to the Huron Indians, Brebeuf with his colleague Gabriel Lalemant was killed by the Iroquois. 圣 布雷伯夫, 法国天主教耶稣会传教士。

78 II. Detailed Study 97. Emily Pauline Johnson, , Canadian Indian. Daughter of an Indian tribe chief and a British woman. Her poems sang high praise of the Indian tradition and were very popular at her time. She traveled around Canada, America and Britain, giving recitals in deer skin robes, which won enormous fame for her.

79 II. Detailed Study 98. exalt: elevate, exhilarate 99. prophetess: female prophet prophet: a man who tells, or claims to be able to tell the nature or course of future events. A person who spoke for God and who communicated God’s message courageously to God’s Chosen People. Elisha, Abraham, Moses, David, Nathan, Solomon, etc. are prophets.

80 II. Detailed Study 100. impart: give, pass on (a secret, news, etc to sb.) A teacher's aim is to impart knowledge. The Prime Minister imparted the news at the conference.

81 II. Detailed Study 101. coyote: small wolf of the plains of western N America 102. She undoubtedly knew … whatever it was that it said in Hiawatha. It said this/ that/whatever in Hiawatha. It was whatever that it said in Hiawatha. She knew whatever it was that it said in Hiawatha.

82 II. Detailed Study 103. squash: flatten, crush 104. sullen: silently showing dislike, silently bad-tempered, unforgiving, dark, gloomy (Blackmail) look sullen, to wear a sullen look “Shut up”, D said. Sullenly, Ogilvie complied.

83 II. Detailed Study 105. lore: knowledge or wisdom, esp. of an unscientific kind, about a certain subject or possessed by a certain group of people bird lore, a countryman's weather lore

84 II. Detailed Study 106. reed: tall hollow stem of any of various types of grass-like plants growing near water cf: reef: ridge of rock, shingle, sand, etc at or near the surface of the sea a coral reef

85 II. Detailed Study 107. nut:(sl derog) (a) (Brit also nutter) foolish, eccentric or mad person He drives like a nut; he'll kill himself one day. b) (preceded by a n) person very interested in sth; fanatic a movie / fitness / health / soccer nut

86 II. Detailed Study 108. dogged: (apprec.) determined; not giving up easily a dogged defence of the city Although he's less talented, he won by sheer dogged persistence.

87 II. Detailed Study 109. perseverance: continual steady effort made to fulfil some aim, persistence 110. rebuff: rejection Mark Twain flirted with the colossal wealth available to the lucky and the persistent, and was rebuffed.

88 II. Detailed Study 111. give: used in the idiom: sb. doesn't/couldn't give a damn, a hoot(cry of an owl), etc (about sb/sth) (infml): sb does not care at all (about sb/sth) He couldn't give a damn whether he passes the exam or not. Cf: Blackmail Like letting me know what gives and where…

89 II. Detailed Study 112. dead loss: If you say that someone or something is a dead loss, you mean that they do not work properly or successfully, an infml expression. This pen is a dead loss: it just won't write properly. That goalkeeper is a dead loss.

90 II. Detailed Study 113. scramble: to move or climb quickly, esp. over a rough or steep surface I scrambled up the rock for a better look at the sea pier: an ornamental bridge-like framework built out into the sea at which boats can stop to take in or land their passengers or goods

91 II. Detailed Study 115. undergrowth: (US underbrush) mass of shrubs, bushes, etc growing closely on the ground, esp under trees clear a path through the undergrowth 116. bracken: a kind of fern, which grows in forests, on wasteland, and on the slopes of hills, and becomes a rich red-brown colour in autumn cf: bush, scrub, shrub

92 II. Detailed Study 117. streak: a line or mark of a different colour or texture from the ground, long, thin usu. irregular line or band 118. amber: hard clear yellowish- brown gum used for making ornaments or jewellery 琥珀

93 II. Detailed Study 119. flicker: shine with an unsteady light, wave, tremble, to move backwards and forwards unsteadily The self-assurance of Ogilvie flickered for an instant. flickering eyelid shadows flicked on the wall The wind blew the flickering candle out.

94 II. Detailed Study 120 . phantom: a shadowy likeness of a dead person that seems to appear on earth; sth. which exists only in one's imagination; ghostly image or figure; ghost the phantom of his dead father Phantom (鬼怪式) / Mirage (幻 影式) fighter plane.

95 II. Detailed Study 121. ululate: howl or wail the ululations of the mourning women 122. plaintive: expressing suffering and a desire for pity, lamentable, mournful, forlorn The plaintive cries of the child locked in the cupboard. a plaintive old song

96 II. Detailed Study 123. chill: refrigerate, to cause to become cold, esp. without freezing chilled beer cf: chilli

97 II. Detailed Study 124. mock. make fun of (sb/sth), esp by mimicking him / it contemptuously; ridicule; defy (sb/sth) contemptuously a mocking smile, voice, laugh It is wrong to mock cripples. mockery: ridicule, despising, open disrespect

98 II. Detailed Study 125. aeon / eon [‘i:  n] : a period of time too long to be measured The earth was formed aeons ago chipmunk: small striped squirrel-like N American animal 金 花鼠

99 II. Detailed Study 127. strike: If an idea or thought strikes you, it comes into your mind suddenly The next morning it struck me that there was no shower in the flat. If something strikes you in a particular way, it gives you a particular impression, usually a strong one. Betty strikes me as a very silly girl. How did London strike you?

100 II. Detailed Study 128. birch: a type of northern forest tree with smooth bark and thin branches 白 桦 129. catch: If you catch someone doing something, you find them doing what they should not be doing. He caught them in bed together. She caught him smoking at the toilet.

101 II. Detailed Study 130. squawk: (esp. of some birds) to make a loud rough-sounding cry hens squawking at the sight of the cat 131. be ill at ease: not comfortable because of lack of skill or understanding She was ill at ease as she had never been to such parties. I am terribly ill at ease with strangers.

102 II. Detailed Study 132. fail: neglect or be unable (to do sth) He never fails to write (ie always writes) to his mother every week. She did not fail to keep (ie She did keep) her word. Your promises have failed to (ie did not) materialize.

103 II. Detailed Study 123. reproach: blame, sth. that brings disgrace or discredit She remained as a reproach to me: I blame myself, because I could not reach her. The corrupt cadres are a reproach to the Party. The slums are a reproach to our city.

104 II. Detailed Study 134. immerse: to put deep under water I immersed myself in work so as to stop thinking about her jukebox: coin-operated record player, about two times the size of a home refrigerator

105 II. Detailed Study 136. boom: to make a deep hollow sound, roar 137. tune: melody, esp a well- marked one tuneful : having a pleasing tune; melodious

106 II. Detailed Study 138. chrome: ( 铬 ) an alloy of chromium (铬) with other metal (esp when used as a protective coating on other metals) Here: something plated / coated / gilded with chromium, it refers to the shining edge of the jukebox, which was made of chrome.

107 II. Detailed Study 139. rainbow glass: on top of the jukebox is the cabin for storing all the records, the front of which is a piece of glass of some fancy colour like rainbows 140. astound: amaze, astonish, surprise We were astounded to read your letter stolid: showing no excitement when strong feelings might be expected

108 II. Detailed Study 142. carmine: deep purplish red colour scarlet: bright red cardinal: bright red crimson: deep red florid: (face) red 143. frizzle: (of hair) to curl tightly, to set the hair in a mass of tight curls frizzy: (of hair) very curly, like wool

109 II. Detailed Study 144. perm: (also permanent wave, AmE. infml permanent) the putting of waves or curls into straight hair by chemical treatment so that they will last for several months 145. blunt: Here: not trying to be polite or tactful

110 II. Detailed Study 146. to advantage: in a way that shows its good points or merits The picture is seen to better advantage from a distance. Hang the picture opposite the window so that it will show up to advantage. Her tight-fitting skirt and sweater in orange colour displayed a soft and slender body in an effect good enough to be envied.

111 II. Detailed Study 147. teeter: to seesaw, to move up and down or to and fro, to move uncertainly or unsteadily The drunken man teetered on the edge of the pavement. She was teetering about in very high-heeled shoes.

112 II. Detailed Study 148. sore: (of a part of the body) tender and painful, sensitive, hurting when touched a sore knee 149. jerkwater: remote and unimportant, trivial

113 II. Detailed Study 150. stink: to give a strong bad smell the stinking ninth category (in addition to landlords, rich peasants, counter revolutionaries, bad elements, Rightists, traitors, spies, and capitalist roaders) 151. confide: to tell a secret, to tell sth. confidentially, reveal, disclose

114 II. Detailed Study 152. blur: become unclear, obscure, dim; that appears hazy and indistinct The town was just a blur on the horizon. Everything is a blur when I take my glasses off. Her eyes blurred with tears.

115 II. Detailed Study 153. repel: to cause feeling of dislike, to drive back by or as if by force Let go at once! You repel me. Her untidy appearance repelled him. His filthy hair and grimy clothes repelled her. Bryan carried a palm-fan like a sword to repel his enemy.

116 II. Detailed Study 154. despise: to regard as worthless, low, bad; dislike very angrily I despise such people; they've no character. He despises people who were lavish with their praises. cf: mockery

117 II. Detailed Study 155. biddy: a hired woman, esp. a cleaner, an eccentric woman 156. stockyard: a yard in which cattle, sheep, swine or horses are kept temporarily for slaughter, market or shipping

118 II. Detailed Study 157. handle: (sl) title: have a handle to one's name, ie have a title, eg ‘Sir' or ‘Lord’ Churchill has a handle to his name --- Sir. some handle: a special name Isn't that an impressive name? some: considerable

119 II. Detailed Study 158. mere: nothing more than the merest: as small or unimportant as possible The merest little thing makes him nervous defiant: showing defiance; openly opposing or resisting sb/sth a defiant manner, look, speech

120 II. Detailed Study 160. momentary: lasting for a very short time 161. swell: stylish, socially prominent, excellent 162. perturb: trouble, make anxious, agitate a perturbing rumour

121 II. Detailed Study 163. gauche: socially awkward, clumsy, lacking social experience or grace 164. slattern: an untidy slovenly woman, also slut, prostitute

122 II. Detailed Study 165. dressed any old how: dressed in a very careless way anyhow: without any regular order, in a careless manner You can arrange them anyhow. The well-groomed (taken good care of) woman can't wear her hair just anyhow. The books were lying on the shelves just/all anyhow.

123 II. Detailed Study He made notes anyhow across the page. Anyhow can be used as an adj. as well The room was all anyhow. old: used as an intensive Any old thing will do. Come any old time. We’re having a high old time (very good time).

124 II. Detailed Study 166. brew: to prepare beer, etc. by soaking or boiling grain, leaves, etc attributes: the accessories, modifiers, nowadays so called, in China, hardware; what is needed for a resort to be considered flourishing; objects recognized as symbols

125 II. Detailed Study 168. place of belonging: place they belong to 169. Perhaps they had been unable to find such a place...having ceased to care any longer whether they lived or not.

126 II. Detailed Study This obviously is an analogy ( 类比 ), in which the loons are compared to Piquette, who had been unable to find a place to live, and had simply died out, having ceased to care any longer whether SHE lived or not.

127 III. Structural Analysis Part I. Paras Introduction of the novel, when, where, who, etc. The general background. Part II. Paras. 3 – 4 (p. 218) The whole story Section 1. Paras. 3 (p.206) - 6 (p.208) Introducing Piquette.

128 I. II. Structural Analysis Section 2. Paras. 7 (p.208) – 2 (p.214) Days together with Piquette at Diamond Lake Section 3. Paras. 3 (p. 214) – 2 (p.217) Second meeting with Piquette several years later Section 4. Paras. 3 (p.217) – 4 (p.218) Piquette’s death

129 III. Structural Analysis Part III. Paras. 5(p. 218) – end. Analogy

130 IV. Rhetorical Devices Hyperbole …dresses that were always miles too long. …those voices belonged to a world separated by aeons from our neat world

131 IV. Rhetorical Devices Exaggeration by using numerals: 1. Thanks a million. 2. The middle eastern bazaar takes you back hundreds even thousands of years. 3. I see the ten thousand villages of Russia where the means of existence is wrung so hardly from the soil.

132 IV. Rhetorical Devices B. Exaggeration by using comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives 1. Sherlock Holmes is considered by many people as the greatest detective in fictional literature. 2. There was never a child who loved her father more than I do.

133 IV. Rhetorical Devices 3. I never saw a prettier sight. 4. You write ten times better than any man in the class.. Exaggeration by using extravagant adjectives: 1. … where goods of every conceivable kind are sold.

134 IV. Rhetorical Devices 2. The burnished copper containers catches the light of innumerable lamps and braziers. 3. The apprentices were incredibly young.

135 IV. Rhetorical Devices D. Exaggeration by using noun or verb phrases: 1. It is a vast cavern of a room, so thick with the dust of centuries that the mud-brick walls and vaulted roof are only dimly visible. 2. I am already in debt again, and moving heaven and earth to save myself from exposure and destruction.

136 IV. Rhetorical Devices 3. The sister cried her eyes out at the loss of the necklace. 4. They beat him into all the colors of rainbow. 5. Her dress was always miles too long. 6. I was scared to death.

137 IV. Rhetorical Devices 7. I sat there for a while, frozen with horror. 8. She was so beautiful--- her beauty made the bright world dim.

138 IV. Rhetorical Devices Metaphor …the filigree of the spruce trees daughter of the forest I tried another line A streak of amber

139 IV. Rhetorical Devices Personification The two grey squirrels were still there, gossiping… The news that somehow had not found its way into letters.

140 IV. Rhetorical Devices Transferred epithet All around, the spruce trees grew tall and close-set, branches blackly sharp against the sky which was lightened by a cold flickering of stars. I was ashamed, ashamed of my own timidity, the frightened tendency to look the other way.

141 IV. Rhetorical Devices My brother, Roderick, who had not been born when we were here last summer, sat on the car rug in the sunshine and examined a brown spruce core, meticulously turning it round and round in his small and curious hands.

142 IV. Rhetorical Devices Metonymy Those voices belonged to a world separated by aeons from our neat world of summer cottages and the lighted lamps of home. (our modern civilization)

143 IV. Rhetorical Devices Synecdoche the damn bone’s flared up again

144 The end

145


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