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Argentia Bay.  Argentia is a community on the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is situated on a flat.

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Presentation on theme: "Argentia Bay.  Argentia is a community on the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is situated on a flat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Argentia Bay

2  Argentia is a community on the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is situated on a flat headland located along the southwest coast of the Avalon Peninsula on Placentia Bay. Originally a small fishing village called Little Placentia, the community adopted its present name in 1904 after a silver deposit was located nearby.NewfoundlandCanadianNewfoundland and LabradorAvalon Peninsula Placentia Bay1904

3 Argentia Bay  better known as Placentia Bay, wide inlet of Atlantic Ocean, SE Newfoundland, Canada. Here on the British battleship Prince of Wales the Atlantic Charter was signed on Aug. 14, 1941 by President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

4 The winds of War  The story is a fiction with the main character, Pug Victor Henry being a mid-rank officer who witnesses all the major events during World War II.  Plot: Europe, 1939: the rumblings of war grow to a terrible roar. In America the Henry clan-Navy to the bone-finds itself drawn into the very center of the maelstrom: the father at the right hand of Roosevelt, his oldest son flying over the Pacific, his youngest falling in love in Europe. From conference table to battlefield, from the rise of the Reich to the horror of Pearl Harbor, this is America's great World War II novel, Pulitzer Prize-winner Herman Wouk's classic epic of monumental events-and human courage and passions.

5 Herman Wouk  American novelist. After graduation from Columbia University, he became a radio scriptwriter. During World War II he served in the United States Navy and began his first novel during off-duty hours at sea. His novels include The Caine Mutiny (1951), a Pulitzer Prize novel of events aboard a naval vessel, The Winds of War (1971) and War and Remembrance (1977).

6 Bismarck  German battleship of 45 000 tons, completed early in 1940, for operations against British convoys in the North Atlantic. In an en- counter with the British fleet on 24 May, 1940, it sank the British cruiser Hood and damaged the Prince of Wales; the Bismarck was also hit by the guns of the Prince of Wales. The Bismarck was finally sunk on 27 May, 1940

7 Prince of Wales  British battleship Prince of Wales is the place that the Atlantic Charter was signed on Aug. 14, 1941 by President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill  sunk by the Japanese in the South China Sea in December 1941

8 Additional Background Knowledge  1. Herman Wouk  2. Argentia Bay  3. Bismarck  4 Prince of Wales

9 Rhetorical Devices  1. sarcasm  2. synecdoche  3. alliteration  4. metonymy  5 Transferred epithet

10 Special Difficulties  1. paraphrasing some sentences  2. translating some sentences  3. understanding some specific terms  4. the skill of comment writing

11 Type of literature  A piece of objective desription  Purpose: to record and reproduce a true picture with opinions and emotions with the author excluded  Ways of developing: to begin with a brief general picture, divide the object into parts and organize the detailed description in order of space or time

12 Questions  1. What was Hopkins' estimate of the situation on the Eastern front? What did the Soviet Union need most? What was Hopkins' stand on the problem of assistance to the Soviet Union?  2. Why did Burne-Wilke invite Henry into his cabin? What was the request from the British? How was the request put to Henry?  3. What was Britain's immediate need? Why did the author consider this need pathetic?

13 Argentia Bay  Gray peace pervaded the wilderness-ringed Argentia Bay  Pervaded:spread to and be perceived in every part of The smell of the kebab pervaded the house. Her song is pervaded by nostalgia for a past age  charge, imbue, impregnate, permeate, pervade, saturate, suffuse: These verbs mean to cause to be filled with a particular mood or tone:  an atmosphere charged with excitement;  poetry imbued with lyricism;  a spirit impregnated with lofty ideals;  optimism that permeates a group;  letters pervaded with gloom;  a play saturated with imagination;  a heart suffused with love

14 Argentia Bay  Wilderness:desolate expanse, waste, uninhabitated land  Ring:meaning to make a ring round or surround Ring the spelling mistakes with red ink Police ringed the building An old house ringed with trees  Gray peace: figure of speech  Argentia Bay was surrounded by a vast expanse of wild uninhabited where there was no human activity. The whole place looked gray and it was very quiet there

15 Argentia Bay  Haze and mist blended all into gray…a tint of green  haze: thin mist  Fog, mist and haze are all clouds of water vapour at ground level and above. They indicate different degrees of thickness. Fog is the thickest and haze the least thick. Haze also occurs when it is very hot. a heat-haze (热天的薄雾) Smog is an unhealthy mixture of smoke and fog in the air of some industrial cities

16 synonym  Blend:go well together; cause to mix together  mix, blend, mingle, merge, amalgamate, coalesce, fuse. These verbs mean to put into or come together in one mass so that constituent parts or elements are diffused or commingled

17 synonym  Mix is the least specific: The cook mixed eggs, flour, and sugar. Greed and charity don't mix.  To blend is to mix intimately and harmoniously so that the components lose their original definition: The clerk blended mocha and java coffee beans. Snow-covered mountains blended into the clouds.  Mingle implies combination without loss of individual characteristics: “Respect was mingled with surprise” “His companions mingled freely and joyously with the natives”

18 synonym  Merge and amalgamate imply resultant homogeneity: Tradition and innovation are merged in this new composition. Twilight merged into night. “The four sentences of the original are amalgamated into two”  Coalesce implies a slow merging: Indigenous peoples and conquerors coalesced into the present-day population.  Fuse emphasizes an enduring union, as that formed by heating metals: “He diffuses a tone and spirit of unity, that blends, and (as it were) fuses, each into each”

19 Argentia Bay  Tint of green: shade or slight degree of green color tint: shade or variety of a colour 色度,颜色的浓 淡  Thin smoke and mist mixed making everything look gray

20 Argentia Bay  Sailors and officers…loudspeaker squawks Go about: move from one place to another, or be in the habit of doing sth Chores: any daily or routine tasks; a daily necessary job Piping: the sound of a boatswain’s whistle squawk: (esp. of birds) utter a loud harsh cry (e.g. when hurt or frightened) Sailors and officers were carrying on their routine duties with whistling and louderspeaker noises in the background

21 Argentia Bay  But a primeval hush…normal ships noises  primeval: of the earliest period of the history of the world, very ancient primeval forests, i.e. natural forests, where trees have never been cut down based on instinct rather than reason, as if from the earliest period of the human race It aroused strange primeval yearnings in him.

22 Argentia Bay  hush: become silent, quieten Hush! He hushed the baby to sleep. The government hushed the affair up to avoid a public outcry. hush: n. stillness; silence in the hush of the night There was a sudden deathly hush. hush-hush: adj. (infml.) very secret or confidential His job is very hush-hush. hush-money: n. money paid to prevent sth scandalous from becoming known publicly

23 Argentia Bay  With the routine chores going on, some noise could be heard on the ships in the bay, but beyond that it was all silent  Peace pervaded—ringed by wilderness—a primeval hush

24 2  At nine o’clock…like snakeskin Steam into view: move rapidly into view (driven by the power of steam) camouflage: way of hiding or disguising soldiers, military equipment, etc., e.g. with paint, netting or leaves, so that they look like part of their surroundings; such a disguise The polar bear's white fur is a natural camouflage. swirl of sth: swirling movement; twists and curls Dancers spun in a swirl of skirts

25 2  Bigger than…that had hit the Bismarck In sight: able to be seen Bigger than any other ship present, carrying the guns that had helped sink the Bismarck As it steamed past… “God Save the King” The Augusta: the American cruiser shatter: cause sth to break suddenly and violently into small pieces The pot shattered as it hit the floor. The explosion shattered all the windows. This event shattered all my previous ideas. We were totally shattered after the long journey

26 synonym  break, crack, fracture, burst, split, splinter, shatter, smash. These verbs mean to separate or cause to separate into parts or pieces, either by the sudden application of force or by the pressure of internal stress.  Break is the most general: The window was broken by vandals. I broke my arm when I fell. That delicate ornament will break easily.  To crack is to break, often with a sharp snapping sound, without dividing into parts: I cracked the coffeepot, but it didn't leak. The building's foundation cracked during the earthquake. Fracture applies to a break or crack in a rigid body: She fractured her skull in the accident.

27 synonym Burst implies a sudden coming apart, especially from internal pressure, and the dispersion of contents: The child burst the balloon with a pin.  Split refers to a division longitudinally or with the grain: She split the log with an ax.  Splinter implies splitting into long, thin, sharp pieces: Repeated blows splintered the door.  To shatter is to break into many scattered pieces: The bullet shattered the mirror upon impact.  Smash stresses force of blow or impact and suggests complete destruction: He angrily smashed the vase against the wall.

28 2 Strike up: to begin to play The band struck up (a waltz). Spangle: ~ sth (with sth) cover or decorate sth with spangles or small bright objects like spangles a dress spangled with tiny silver sequins (small circular shiny disc sewn onto clothing as an ornament) quarterdeck: 军舰上舷门附近留给舰长使用的)后甲板仪式区 GOD SAVE THE KING THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER

29 Paragraph 3  Pug Henry…Sumner Welles  1) Pug Henry:Victor Pug Henry, a navy captain and presedential aide. He is in a way the narrator of this story, and the hero of the book The Winds of War  2) awning: canvas or plastic sheet fixed to a wall above a door or window and stretched out as a protection against rain or sun 雨阳蓬  3) rig: set up (a structure, etc) quickly and / or with makeshift materials rig up a shelter for the night  4)turret: (on a ship, an aircraft, a fort or a tank) low flat (often revolving) steel structure where the guns are fixed and which protects the gunners a warship armed with twin turrets  5)august: inspiring feelings of respect and awe; majestic and imposing

30 Paragraph 3_Churchill  Churchill was plain to see…gestureing with a big cigar  apparent, clear, clear-cut, distinct, evident, manifest, obvious, patent, plain. These adjectives mean readily seen, perceived, or understood: angry for no apparent reason; a clear danger; clear-cut evidence of tampering; distinct fingerprints; evident hostility; manifest pleasure; obvious errors; patent advantages; making my meaning plain. Churchill could be seen clearlly since he was only five hundreds yard away

31 Paragraph 3  odd: strange; unusual; peculiar What an odd man! She wears rather odd clothes.  strange, peculiar, odd, queer, quaint, outlandish, singular, eccentric, curious. These adjectives describe what deviates from the usual or customary.  Strange refers especially to what is unfamiliar, unknown, or inexplicable: All summer I traveled through strange lands.  Peculiar particularly describes what is distinct from all others: Cloves have a peculiar aromatic odor.

32 synonym  Something that is odd or queer fails to accord with what is ordinary, usual, or expected; both terms can suggest strangeness or peculiarity: I find it odd that his name is never mentioned. “Now, my suspicion is that the universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we can suppose”  Quaint refers to pleasing or old-fashioned peculiarity: “the quaint streets of New Orleans, that most foreign of American cities” (Winston Churchill).

33 synonym  Outlandish suggests alien or bizarre strangeness: The partygoers wore outlandish costumes.  Singular describes what is unique or unparalleled; the term often suggests a quality that arouses curiosity or wonder: Such poise is singular in one so young.  Eccentric refers particularly to what is strange and departs strikingly from the conventional: His musical compositions were innovative but eccentric.  Curious suggests strangeness that excites interest: Americans living abroad often acquire a curious hybrid accent

34 Paragraph 3_President  The president towered over everybody, …resembled him  Tower over: much taller than  brace: (device that clamps things together or holds and supports them in position) Roosevelt had to wear steel braces on his legs, because an attack of polio in 1921 had paralyzed him from the waist. v. support (sth) with a brace n. wire device worn inside the mouth (esp. by children) for straightening the teeth My daughter has to wear a brace on her teeth. braces: (US suspenders) straps for holding trousers up, fastened to the waistband at the front and the back and passing over the shoulders a pair of braces

35 Paragraph 3_President  Clutching: taking hold of with the hand, usually with some force  corps: (a) military force made up of two or more divisions 军,军团 one of the technical branches of an army 特种部队  Strongly resembled him: looked very much like him Look like Take after  Roosevelt’s large pink face was self-consciously grave Roosevelt put on a grave expression because the band was playing the national anthem and he knew he was wearing a grave expression

36 Paragraph 4  The president’s face relaxed: The president’s expression became less stiff  Well! I’ve never heard…and Roosevelt laughted too My country,' tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing; land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrims' pride, from every mountainside let freedom ring! Why a joke?

37 Paragraph 4  The squeal of boatswains’ pipes broke up the dress parade on the cruiser’s deck  squeal: high-pitched cry or sound, longer and louder than a squeak (often indicating terror or pain) There were squeals of excitement from the children  boatswain: senior seaman on a ship who supervises the crew and is responsible for the ship's equipment  The dress parade: requiring or permitting formal dress, a dress affair, a dress dinner  warships: air-craft carrier: 25,000 - 35000 tons, some with nuclear locomotive helicopter carrier battle-ship: 30,000 - 70,000 tons, out-of-date in the second world war, esp. after Japan’s surprise on Pearl Harbour cruiser: 10,000 – 15,000 tons, out-of-date now with destroyers bigger and equipped with missles destroyer

38 Harry Hopkins  During the war years, Hopkins acted as FDR's unofficial emissary to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. He had a major voice in making policy for the vast $50 billion Lend-Lease program, especially regarding supplies for Britain and Russia. Hopkins promoted an aggressive war against Germany and successfully urged Roosevelt to use the Navy to protect convoys before the US entered the war in December 1941. Roosevelt brought him along as advisor at the Big Three conferences at Cairo, Tehran and Casablanca in 1942-43. Winston ChurchillJoseph StalinBig ThreeCairo TehranCasablanca  Hopkins died in New York City in January 1946, succumbing to a long and debilitating battle with stomach cancer. stomach cancer

39 Paragraph 1  beckon: to call, order or signal with a movement of the head, hand, etc I could see her beckon (to) me from the other side of the room. He beckoned me with his finger and the child cam running.  Put yourself at Mr. Harry Hopkins’s service Put: to cause ( a person or animal) to be busy; set to some kind of regular arrangement or work At one’s service: ready to serve or cooperate with one; ready to obey orders or be used Do whatever Mr. Harry Hopkins might ask you to do

40 Paragraph 3  expedite: to make (a plan or arrangement) go faster We appealed to the government to expedite the procedure for the release of the prisoners.  Beckoned-- Put yourself at Mr. Harry Hopkins’s service– expedite  Aye, aye, Sir: a nautical term, yes  Passing from the Augusta to the Prince of Wales…Victor Henry went from America to England and from peace to war(???)  It was a shocking jump(???)

41 Paragraph 3  King’s spick-and-span flagship belonged to a different world than the storm-whipped vessel  spick-and-span: (of a room, house, etc) completely clean and tidy again  Different and various both mean "not the same", but various is used about several things which are not the same. The minister gave various reasons (= a number of different reasons) for the government's decision. This time the minister gave different reasons (= not the same as last time) for the government's decision.

42 Paragraph 3- appearance  The accommodation ladder was salt-crusted:  accommodation ladder: a ladder or stairway hung over a ship’s side 舷梯 There was a hard layer of salt on the surface of the accommodation ladder, showing that it had been through a long sea voyage  The camouflage was peeling: the paint which was used in painting the camouflage was coming off  Even the main battery guns looked pitted and rusty battery: set of guns fixed in a warship or fort ( 排炮 ) Pit: mark with small scars Rusty: coated with rust, as a result of exposure to air moisture

43 Paragraph 3- appearance  Pug was aghast to see …in the scuppers aghast: suddenly filled with great surprise, fear, and shock scuppers: (usu. plu.) an opening in the side of a ship at the level of the deck (upper floor) to allow water to run off it into the sea  Droves of bluejackets were doing an animated scrub-down drove: a crowd of people moving together droves of sightseers The tourist came in droves. bluejacket: an enlisted man in the navy: sailor animate: (rather fml) to give life or excitement to, enliven (the Loons) Laughter animated his face for a moment. animated: full of spirit and excitement, lively scrub: to rub hard at (something) in order to clean, eg. with a stiff brush You'll have to scrub hard to get that stain out A group of British navymen were cleaning the deck in a spirited way

44 Paragraph 3 - appearance  On the superstructure…sticking plaster for wounds from the Bismark’s salvos superstructure: the structural part of a ship above the main deck raw: imperfectly prepared, disagreeable, ugly weld: to unite metallic parts by heating and allowing the metals to flow together or by hammering or compressing with or without previous heating sticking plaster: an adhesive plaster esp. for closing superficial wounds salvo: a simultaneous discharge of two or more guns in military action or as a salute  At places on the part above the main deck there were new welds. These were damages caused by the gunfire of the German battleship Bismarck. The welds looked like sticking plaster put to new wounds

45 Paragraph 4  Smartly returning the salute in a different British palm- out style  smart: bright, shrewd, witty, clever, neat  quartermaster: 军需官 a petty officer who attends to a ship's helm, binnacle (a housing for a ship's compass and a lamp 罗经柜 ), and signals, any army officer who provides clothing and subsistence for a body of troops, a military officer in charge of provisions quarterback quarterdeck, quarterfinal quarterly

46 Paragraph 4  escort: n. a person or group of persons accompanying another to give protection or as a courtesy, the man who goes on a date with a woman, one or more people, ships, cars, or aircraft, who go or travel with someone or something as a guard or as an honour The prisoner travelled under police escort. to go with someone as an escort The queen was escorted by the directors as she toured the factory. The drunken man was escorted firmly to the door. A group of motorcyclists escorted the presidential limousine

47 Paragraph 6  Meantime Hopkins had travelled to London and Moscow in a blaze of worldwide newspaper attention  Blaze:(the sudden sharp shooting up of) a bright flame The fire burned slowly at first, but soon burst into a blaze. In a blaze of anger she shouted: "You unspeakable blackguard! How dare you!"  in a blaze of worldwide newspaper attention: His visit to London and Moscow were widely covered by newspapers all over the world  Hopkins flew to London in late July and arranged with Churchill the date and rendezvous of the conference between Roosevelt and Churchill. Then he took a British flying boat to Moscow to hold talks with Stalin

48 Paragraph 7  Am I riding over with you? Am I to take the barge and go over to the Augsta with you?

49 Paragraph 8  Hopkins had two bags open on his bunk in a small cabin off the wardroom bunk: a narrow bed that is usu. fixed to the wall (as on a ship or train) wardroom: the space in a warship where the officers live and eat, except for the captain 军官起居室  In one he carefully placed..; in the other he threw…as they came to hand He was very careful, very meticulous about official papers but very careless about his own things. This throws light on the character of Hopkins Come to hand: to be found without one’s having to make a special search

50 Paragraph 8  A bent figure with a gray double-breasted suit flapping loosely on him  flap: to wave (sth. large and soft) or move slowly up and down or backwards and forwards, usu., making a noise The bird flapped its wings. The sails flapped in the wind  What does this sentence indicate?

51 Paragraph 9  the time of one's life: (colloquial) an experience of great pleasure for one have the time of one's life: to enjoy oneself greatly

52 Paragraph 10  cram: to force into a small space, stuff to cram people into a railway carriage Hungry children crammed food down their throats.  scrounge : (infml., often derog.) to get sth. without work or payment or by persuading others 乞讨, ( 向人索取 ) Can I scrounge a cigarette off you?

53 Paragraph 12  Hopkins pauses, a stack of papers…and pursed his mouth before speaking decisively  Stack:an orderly pile or heap  purse: to bring (esp. the lips) together in little folds She purse up her lips with digust.  The Russians will hold. But it will be a near thing The Russians will hold: the Russians will be able to fight on near thing / close thing: a situation in which something dangerous or very unpleasant is only just avoided That was a near thing - we almost hit that car! What a near thing that was! My enemies nearly got me. a game, election, risk taken, etc., which comes close to failing before it succeeds We won, but it was a near thing. They will barely manage to carry on the fight

54 Paragraph 12  Hitler’s bitten off a big bite this time This time Hitler has attacked a country too big for him to conquer; Hitler bas bitten off more than he can chew  He was struggling with the clasp on his suitcase, and Pug gave him a hand clasp: device for fastening things (eg the ends of a belt or a necklace) together The clasp of my belt is broken

55 Questions  What was Hopkins' estimate of the situation on the Eastern front? What did the Soviet Union need most? What was Hopkins' stand on the problem of assistance to the Soviet Union?

56 Paragraph 16  The stern rose high on a swell, then dropped away from under him  stern: back end of a ship or boat standing at/in the stern of the boat rear part of anything, esp. a person's bottom Move your stern, I want to sit down.  swell: slow heaving / lift of the sea with waves that do not break  A wave raised in the tail of the barge high and when the wave subsided, the tail of the barge dropped down suddenly

57 Paragraph 16  He lost his balance and toppled into the arms of the coxswain  topple: ~ (over) be unsteady and fall The pile of books toppled over onto the floor. The explosion toppled the old chimney. a crisis which threatens to topple the government (from power)  Coxswain: man in charge of a ship's rowing-boat and its crew

58 Paragraph 17  Hopkins staggered inside, settling with a sigh on the cushion  stagger: walk or move unsteadily as if about to fall (from carrying sth. heavy, being weak or drunk, etc) She staggered and fell. He picked up the heavy suitcase and set off with a stagger.

59 There are a number of verbs which describe abnormal ways of walking. Shuffle and shamble indicate moving without lifting the feet completely off the ground. Shuffle suggests a slow, tired movement; shamble may be faster and more careless The queue of prisoners shuffled towards the door. The beggar shambled past us. Stagger and stumble suggest unsteady or uncontrolled movement. A person staggers when carrying a heavy load or when drunk. We stumble when we hit our feet against unseen objects. Waddle is used humorously to describe someone swaying from side to side like a duck because of fatness or while carrying heavy bags. Hobble and limp describe the uneven movement of someone whose legs are injured. Limp is used especially when only one leg is damaged or stiff.

60 Paragraph 17  I flopped on my face…ended my misssion over there  flop: move or fall clumsily, helplessly or loosely The pile of books flopped noisily onto the floor. The fish we'd caught flopped around in the bottom of the boat. Her hair flopped (about) over her shoulders. Exhausted, he flopped (down) into the nearest chair  When he boarded the plane, he fell. If he were seriously hurt, he could not have gone on to Moscow and that would have been the end of his mission

61 Paragraph 17  He glanced at the flawlessly appointed barge  flaw: crack or fault (in an object or in material); imperfection This vase would be perfect but for a few small flaws in its base. an argument full of flaws a flaw in a contract Pride was the greatest flaw in his personality. a flawless complexion a flawless performance

62 blemish, imperfection, fault, defect, flaw. These nouns denote loss or absence of perfection. A blemish is something thought to mar the appearance or character of a thing: “Industry in art is a necessity—not a virtue—and any evidence of the same, in the production, is a blemish” Imperfection and fault apply more comprehensively to any deficiency or shortcoming: “A true critic ought to dwell rather upon excellencies than imperfections” “Each of us would point out to the other her most serious faults, and thereby help her to remedy them”. Defect denotes a serious functional or structural shortcoming: “Ill breeding... is not a single defect, it is the result of many” Flaw refers to an often small but always fundamental weakness: Experiments revealed a very basic flaw in the theory.

63 Paragraph 19  Hopkins held out one wasted hand and ticked off points on skeletal fingers  held out: to put forward; reach out; extend; offer  waste: cause (sb/sth) to become weaker and thinner His body was wasted by long illness. a wasting disease limbs wasted by hunger  tick off: to check off (an item, etc) with a tick tick off the names of those present  skeleton: framework of bones supporting an animal or a human body The child was reduced to a skeleton, ie very thin because of hunger, illness, etc. skeletal  Hopkins extended one of his weak and feeble hands and used his thin bony fingers to count the things the British wanted to have

64 Points An immediate declaration of war on Germany A warning by the U.S. to Japan Big war supplies to their people in Egypt and the Middle East Understanding in getting aid ahead of Russia

65 Paragraph 19  They’ll press for an immediate declaration of war on Germany They’ll persistently urge us to declare war on Germany  It soften the ground for the second demand It will make it difficult for the Americans to reject their second demand  Their empire is mighty rickety at this point Their empire is very weak in that area  They hope such a warning will shore it up shore sth. up: support sth. with a wooden beam, etc propped against it shore up the side of an old house to stop it falling down The villagers shored up sagging huts. Engineers are trying to shore up the Leaning Tower of Pisa. She used this evidence to shore up her argument.

66 Paragraph 19  If Hitler pokes downs there and closes the canal, the empire strangles  Pokes: makes troubles down there in the Middle East  strangle: kill sb. by squeezing or gripping the throat tightly; throttle He strangled her with her own scarf. This stiff collar is strangling me.  Bomb the hell out of Germany: bomb Germany heavily  Stuff we give Russia, it will be hinted, may be turned around and pointed against us in a few weeks(????)

67 Paragraph 21-23  What was the situation in Eastern front like?  The Russians have taken a shellacking Shellac: (AmE. infml) defeat (sb) soundly or severely shellacking: n (AmE. infml) sound or severe defeat We gave their team a real shellacking. The Russians have suffered decisive defeat so far  Hopkins gave Victor a sad smile(???)  Also, Pug, this is the changing of the guard(???)

68 3.Churchill calls  Which saw the dramatic handshakes of Roosevelt and Churchill at eh gangway  1976 saw the downfall of the “gang of four” The turn of the century found the country united 1848 witnessed another revolutionary upsurge in Europe  gangway: movable bridge for entering or leaving a ship (Brit) passage between two rows of seats in a theatre, concert-hall, etc  Why dramatic?

69 Paragraph 1  They prolonged their clasp…smiling words  The two leaders made their handshake last longer than usual to give photographers time to take pictures. At the same time they smiled and greeted each other.

70 Paragraph 2  In an odd…each other  diminish: (cause sth. to) become smaller or less; decrease His strength has diminished over the years. Nothing could diminish her enthusiasm for the project. make (sb. / sth.) seem less important than it really is; devalue The opposition are trying to diminish our achievements.  When they met face to face, the two leaders made each other smaller

71 Who was Number 1 RooseveltChurchill advantages A full head taller Much older More dignified More assured disadvantages Pathetically braced on lifeless leg frames Bent; A trace of deference Clinging to his son’s arm Full trousers drooped and flapping

72 Paragraph 2  He was pathetically braced on lifeless leg frames  pathetic: causing one to feel pity or sadness pathetic cries for help the pathetic sight of starving children His tears were pathetic to witness. pathetically thin His answers were pathetically inadequate.  He managed to stand only with the help of the leg frames, which was a pitiful sight

73 Paragraph 2  His full trousers drooped and flapping  droop: bend or hang downwards through tiredness or weakness flowers drooping for lack of water Her head drooped sadly. His spirits drooped at the news. (He became sad.)  His wide trousers hung downward and were too big for his thin legs

74 Paragraph 2  A bent Pickwick in blue uniform  Pickwick: main character in The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens, who was short, stout, benevolent (good-hearted), stubborn, and often the target of humor, but also a representative of moral qualities, such as a determination to stand by the values of truth and justice.  Antonomasia: the use of a proper name to designate a member of a class

75 Paragraph 2  A trace of deference… Deference: giving way to the wishes, accepting the opinions or judgements of another or others; yielding in opinions, judgements, wishes The prime Minister was either ready to yield to the wishes and opinions of the President, or was somehow respectful of him  By shade of shade…: Shade: very slight difference or variation Both them are number one,but somehow Roosevelt looked just a litle more of Number 1

76 Paragraph 3  The erect frontpage president became the cripple more familiar to Pug erect: standing on end; upright; vertical Frontpage: the pictures that appeared on the frontpages of the newspaper :the usual image of the president people had cripple: person who is unable to walk or move properly because of disease or injury to the spine or legs crippled by polio their crippled daughter a ship crippled by a storm The business has been crippled by losses. The country has crippling (ie extremely large) debts.

77 Paragraph 3  Hobbling a step or two and sinking with relief into the chair  hobble: walk with difficulty because the feet or legs hurt or are disabled; walk lamely; limp The old man hobbled along (the road) with the aid of his stick.  Roosevelt was glad that the strain and discomfort of standing came to end and he could sit down

78 Conference level 1SummitPresident; prime minister;advisor s 2Chiefs and StaffChiefs and Staff; deputies 3PlannersPlanners like Henry

79 Problems emerging 1Excessive and contradictory requests from British services 2Unreal plans 3Unfilled contracts 4Jumbled priorities 5Fouled communication

80 Paragraph 4  The staffs got right to business and conferred all day  got right to business: got down right away to business  confer: have discussions (esp. in order to exchange opinions or get advice) She withdrew to confer with her advisers before announcing a decision.  Excessive and contradictory requests from British services  Excessive: being too much or too great, immoderate, inordinate  service: branch of the armed forces the three services, ie the Navy, the Army, the Air Force  Unreal plans: plans put forward not on a realistic basis  Unfilled contracts: contracts that failed to be carried out

81 Paragraph 4  Jumbled priorities: jumble: mix (things) in a confused way Toys, books, shoes and clothes were jumbled (up) on the floor. Details of the accident were all jumbled up in his mind. Many different items all listed as top priorities  Fouled communication foul : spoil sth, usu. by behaving in a thoughtless or foolish way; mess sth up Everything was just fine until Fred came along and fouled things up. Dogs are not permitted to foul (ie excrete on) the pavement. The factories are responsible for fouling up the air for miles around. Coded messages wrongly deciphered (decoded or translated); message mislaid or not clearly stated

82 Paragraph 4  One cardinal point the planners hammered out first  Cardinal:pinciple, chief, of main importance  hammered out: to develop or work out by careful thought or repeated effort or serious discussions  Building new ships to replace U-boat sinking came first  U-boat sinking: the ships which had been sunk by U-boats (by the Axis, by German, Japanese or Italian submarines)

83 Paragraph 4  No war materiel could be used against Hitler until it had crossed the oceans  materiel : equipment, apparatus and supplies used by an organization or institution  War materiel had to be shipped to England if they were to be used in the fight against Hitler. This could be done only if they had enough ships and the Atlantic Ocean was made safe for the Allies. This sentence indicates that the importance of building new ships to replace those being sunk in great numbers, because at that time the Allies still could not successfully defend their ships against U-boats. Later, new technology broke the blockade

84 Paragraph 4  This plain truth … every projection red line: a recommended safety limie: the fastest, farthest or highest point or degree considered safe As soon as the two parties agreed that priority should be given to the building of ships, all other requests and programs would have to be crossed out  The simple yardstick … and tools yardstick: standard of comparison Durability is one yardstick of quality. We need a yardstick to measure our performance by. arsenal: place where weapons and ammunition are made or stored Dictate: lay down authoritatively The simple yardstick rapidly revealed what were lacking in the US war industry at the time, and showed the urgent need for building new steel mills and plants

85 Paragraph 5  Through all…thousand fifles  hypothesis: (pl. -ses) idea or suggestion that is based on known facts and is used as a basis for reasoning or further investigation put sth forward as a hypothesis hypothesize: form a hypothesis; assume sth. as a hypothesis hypothetical: of or based on a hypothesis; not necessarily true or real  Through all the talk of suppositional plans, one modest and almost pitiable request kept cropping up, that is an immediate need for a hundred fifty thousand rifles

86 Paragraph 5  If Russia collapsed..from the air  wrap sth. up: (infml) complete (a task, a discussion, an agreement, etc) The salesman had already wrapped up a couple of deals by lunch-time.  Crete: SE Greece, in the E Mediterranean Sea and marking the southern limit of the Aegean Sea. A British military base in World War II, it was attacked on May 20-30, 1941 by Germany in the first and only successful all-air invasion of the war.  Crete-like invasion: a larg-scale airborne attack was successfully launched by the Germans on this eastern Mediterranean Island, May 1941, the first of its kind in history

87 Paragraph 5  The stupendous materiel … rifles now stupendous: amazingly large, impressive, good, etc. a stupendous mistake, achievement The opera was quite stupendous! plea: earnest request; appeal a plea for forgiveness, money, more time He was deaf to her pleas. (law) statement made by or for a person charged with an offence in court( 法庭中被告一方的抗辩, 答辩 ) enter a plea of guilty / not guilty 承认有罪 / 不承认有罪 Compared with the huge figures for future joint British-U.S. invasion of North Africa or the French coast, the present request of a hundred fifty thousand rifles immediately was sadly sall

88 Roosevelt hobbles across  Boats from all over the sparkling bay came clustering to the Prince of Wales  cluster: number of things of the same kind growing closely together a cluster of berries, flowers, curls ivy growing in thick clusters a cluster of houses, spectators, bees, islands, diamonds, stars form a cluster round sb. / sth.; surround sb. / sth. closely roses clustering round the window The village clusters round the church. Reporters (were) clustered round the Prime Minister.  Boats… came grouping around the Prince of Wales

89 Paragraph 1  In sunlight that seemed almost blinding The sun shone so brightly that one could hardly see; the sunlight was most dazzling  In sunlight… the forests of larch and fir glowed a rich green Glow: to show brilliant, conspicuous colors Rich: deep, intense, vivid The forests showed a brilliant, deep green in the sunshine

90 Paragraph 2  An American destroyer slowly nosed its bridge alongside the battleship, … was thrown across nose: (cause sth to) go forward slowly The car nosed carefully round the corner. The plane nosed into the hangar. He nosed the car into the garage. The ship nosed its way slowly through the ice. bridge: raised platform across the deck of a ship, from which it is controlled and navigated by the captain and officers 船桥,舰桥(船 长或高级船员操纵及导航之处) gangplank: movable plank for walking into or out of a boat; (small) gangway An American destroyer slowly moved parallel with the battleship so that its bridge was side by side with the main deck of the battleship

91 Paragraph 2  Lurched out on the gangplank … then the other Lurch: To stagger. laborious: showing signs of great effort; not fluent or natural hitch: pull up He hitched up his trousers before sitting down. Roosevelt ’ s legs could not function so he had to rely on the movement of the hip to hitch his leg forward  The bay was calm, but both ships were moving on long swells Swell: a large wave that moves steadily without breaking Both boats were tossed slightly up and down by waves that moved steadily without breaking

92 Paragraph 2  With each step, the tall president tottered and swayed totter: walk or move unsteadily; stagger The child tottered across the room. She tottered to her feet. rock or shake as if about to fall The tall chimney tottered (to and fro) and then collapsed.

93 Paragraph 3  Churchill saluted him and offered his hand Churchill held out his hand to help  His face stiff with strain strain: condition of being stretched or pulled tightly The rope broke under the strain. It was with great effort that he stood at attention, hence a stiff face Hitched and hobbled

94 Paragraph 4  The British chaplain, his white and crimson vestments flapping chaplain: clergyman attached to the chapel of a school, prison, etc, or serving in the armed forces vestment: ceremonial garment, esp. one worn by a priest in church  Preserve us from the dangers of the sea: protect us so that we would not get drowned; so that our ships would not get sunk  That we may be a security for such as pass upon the sea upon their lawful occasions: This is biblical English, meaning so that we may give protection to those who sail upon the sea on lawful business

95 Paragraph 5  Sneaked cameras from their blouses blouses :type of jacket worn by soldiers as part of their uniform Took out secretly cameras from their jackets(jumpers) … swarmed into a laughing, cheering ring around the two men More and more sailors came and they surrounded the two men, laughing, cheering

96 Paragraph 5  Pug Henry, … felt a touch on his elbow  wont: (dated or rhet.) in the habit of doing sth.; accustomed to doing sth. He was wont to give lengthy speeches. n. (fml. or rhet.) custom; habit She went for a walk after breakfast, as was her wont. wonted: customary He drove with his wonted carefulessness.  A touch on his elbow; a tap on the shoulder; a slap in the face; a blow on the head

97 A request from the British  den: animal's hidden home, eg a cave a bear's / lion's den (infml) room in a home where a person can work or study without being disturbed retire to one's den  What ’ s your position … What ’ s your attitude towards drinking on board?  I have a fair bottle of sherry here I have nearly a full bottle of sherry here  I ’ m for it I ’ m in favour of drinking on board  You ’ re dry as a bone in your service, aren ’ t you? dry: (of a country or region) where it is illegal to buy or sell alcoholic drink Some parts of Wales are dry on Sundays. dry as a bone: completely dry You are not allowed to drink on board, are you?

98 A request from the British  The president … his desires tailor: make or adapt sth. for a special purpose These homes are tailored to the needs of the elderly We can tailor the insurance policy according to your special needs The president is the man who lays down all Navy regulations and he can adapt them as he wishes  Jolly convenient: very convenient  We ran into a whole gale gale: very strong wind (force 8 on the Beaufort Scale); storm (at sea) It's blowing a gale outside. The ship lost its masts in the gale. We entered an area where there was a strong wind

99 A request from the British  Our destroyers couldn’t maintain speed, so we zigzagged on alone zigzag: (of a line, path, etc) turning right and left alternately at sharp angles a zigzag road, course, flash of lightning  I was appalled to hear about it appall / appal: fill (sb) with horror or dismay; shock deeply The newspaper reports of starving children appalled me. We were appalled at the prospect of having to miss our holiday

100 A request from the British  Rather sporting of the British Prime Minister … on the open sea sporting: showing fairness; generous; sportsmanlike It's very sporting of you to give me an initial advantage. (开局先让一步) He made me a sporting offer, ie one that involved some risk of his losing. It was rather risky and daring of Churchill to give the German soldiers a good chance to attack him on the high seas  Three thousand miles without air cover or surface escort … submarine fleet The ship went three thousand miles without air cover or surface escort and went straight through the entire submarine fleet (U-boats)

101 A request from the British  You had your good angels escorting you. That ’ s all I can say The only reason I can offer is that some sort of supernatural force was helping you  at any rate: whatever may happen; in any case That's one part of the job done at any rate.  But it might be prudent not to overwork those good angel, what? prudent: acting with or showing care and foresight; showing good judgement; careful prudent housekeeping It would be prudent to save some of the money. That was a prudent decision. One can rely on the prudence of his decisions. What: what do you say We would have to be careful not to make excessive use of those good angel, otherwise theywould refuse to protect us

102 A request from the British  On our way back … be on battle alert  On battle alert: on the outlook and ready to attack  We shall have to run the gamut  gamut : complete range or scale (of sth.) the whole gamut of human emotions from joy to despair run the gamut (of sth): experience or perform the complete range of sth. In his short life he had run the entire gamut of crime, from petty theft to murder.  We shall have to face all the U-boat risks that will be there on our way back

103 A request from the British  We’re stretched thin for escorts: we have a very weak, insufficient escort force  We have rounded up four destroyers: We have only collected four destroyers  Admiral Pound would be happier with six We would do with two more destroyers on the escort force on our return journey

104 Lesson Plan 5 Jiang Zhao-zi

105 A request from the British  Three thousand miles without air cover or surface escort … submarine fleet The ship went three thousand miles without air cover or surface escort and went straight through the entire submarine fleet (U-boats)

106 A request from the British  You had your good angels escorting you. That ’ s all I can say The only reason I can offer is that some sort of supernatural force was helping you  at any rate: whatever may happen; in any case That's one part of the job done at any rate.  But it might be prudent not to overwork those good angel, what? prudent: acting with or showing care and foresight; showing good judgement; careful prudent housekeeping It would be prudent to save some of the money. That was a prudent decision. One can rely on the prudence of his decisions. What: what do you say We would have to be careful not to make excessive use of those good angel, otherwise theywould refuse to protect us

107 A request from the British  On our way back … be on battle alert  On battle alert: on the outlook and ready to attack  We shall have to run the gamut  gamut : complete range or scale (of sth.) the whole gamut of human emotions from joy to despair run the gamut (of sth): experience or perform the complete range of sth. In his short life he had run the entire gamut of crime, from petty theft to murder.  We shall have to face all the U-boat risks that will be there on our way back

108 A request from the British  We’re stretched thin for escorts: we have a very weak, insufficient escort force  We have rounded up four destroyers: We have only collected four destroyers  Admiral Pound would be happier with six We would do with two more destroyers on the escort force on our return journey

109 Paragraph 11-14  You understand that this cannot be a request from us … downright annoyed  downright: (of sth. undesirable) thorough, complete, frank, straightforward a downright lie downright stupidity  annoy: cause slight anger to (sb); irritate  Hopkins, squinting out at the sunny water, wore a pained expression  squint: look at sth. with eyes half shut or turned sideways, or through a narrow opening squinting in the bright sunlight  Pug walked up..The lines along King ’ s lean jaws deepened..it was just a gesture of dismissal, and a convincing one

110 Paragraph 15-a speech by Churchill  One night Churchill took the floor … delivered a rolling, rich word picture of how the war would go  took the floor: get up to speak or address an audience I now invite the President to take the floor. get up and start to dance She took the floor with her husband.  1. Blockade, ever-growing air bombardment, and subversion..weaken the grip of Nazi claws in Europe (figure of speech)  2 Russia and England would “ close the ring ” and slowly, inexorably tighten it close the ring: surround, form an encirclement inexorable :relentless

111 Paragraph 15-a speech by Churchill  3.If the United States became a full-fledged ally, it would all go much faster  fledged: (of birds) having fully developed wing feathers for flying; able to fly full-fledged / fully-fledged: (of a young bird) having grown all its feathers, and now able to fly, completely trained  4. No big invasion or long land campaign would be needed in the West.  5. Landing of a few armored columns in the occupied countries would bring mass uprisings.  Landing of a few tank or motorized units in the Euopean countries occupied by Nazi would result in large scale uprising of the people in those countries

112 Paragraph 15-a speech by Churchill  6. Hitler ’ s black empire would suddenly collapse in rubble, blood, and flame rubble: bits of broken stone, rock or bricks The explosion reduced the building to (a pile of) rubble. (totally demolished it) Hitler ’ s evil empire would be completely destroyed.  Franklin Roosevelt listened with bright-eyed smiling attention Bright-eyed: so exited, so inspired that his eyes were shining

113 Paragraph 16  task force: group of people and resources specially organized for a particular (esp military) task task unit: 特混舰队  Task unit 26 point 3 point 1: the name of a group of ships

114 Paragraph 18  You’ll have no written orders  written orders—authorizing officially— discovered—an act of belligerency

115 Paragraph 20-25  Possible mission for Pug  Expertise on landing craft — service record (a “ poor to fair ” )knowledge of Russian Expertise:expert knowledge or skill, esp. in a particular field Customers will be impressed by the expertise of our highly trained employees. We were amazed at his expertise on the ski slopes. a “ poor to fair ” knowledge of Russian:ranging from poor to fairly good; neither too good or too bad; average

116 Paragraph 20-25  Preparation for the mission: detached from war plans with an intensive refresher course in Russian  Detached: separate  refresh: give new strength or vigour to, refresh oneself with a cup of tea / a hot bath She felt refreshed after her sleep. Just refresh my memory: were you born in York? This breeze is very refreshing.  revive, restore, resuscitate, revivify. These verbs mean to give renewed well-being, vitality, or strength to: rains that revive lawns; an invalid restored by fresh air; resuscitating old hopes; a celebration that revivified our spirits.  )

117 Paragraph 20-25  refresher course: course of instruction for eg. teachers to learn about new techniques and developments in their field (进修课程 )  But with even a smattering, your intelligence value will be greater smattering: slight knowledge, esp. of a language have a smattering of French, German, intelligence value: Pug ’ s value in the gathering of secret information for military purpose

118 U-boat Sightings  U-boat: (Germ. undersseeboot) undersea boat sighting: instance of sb./ sth. being seen several reported sightings of the escaped prisoner the first sighting of a new star Here, U-boat sighting means the German undersea boats that are shown on the chart.

119 Paragraph 1  To brass band … in a brisk breeze smelling of green hills and gunpower … brisk: quick; active; energetic prince of Wales left Argentia Bay to the accompaniemnt of brass band anthems, booming gun salutes and in a cool, bracing breeze with the smell of green hills and gunpower  What it indicates by smell of green hills and gunpower?

120 Paragraph 2  In the wardroom..sense the subtle gloom hanging over the ship Be vaguely aware of a feeling of helplessness which was difficult to perceive but which permeated the place  In itself … as a bad sign: the fact itself made them believe that it was a bad omen  Veterans of two combat years … had a subdued dismal air despite the grandeur of their ship and the stuffy luxury of their wardroom veteran: person with much or long experience, esp. as a soldier war veterans veterans of two World Wars veterans of the civil rights campaign subdue: bring sb. / sth. under control by force; defeat subdue the rebels calm (esp. one's emotions) He managed to subdue his mounting anger

121 Paragraph 2  defeat, conquer, vanquish, beat, rout, subdue, subjugate, overcome. These verbs mean to triumph over an adversary.  Defeat is the most general: “ Whether we defeat the enemy in one battle, or by degrees, the consequences will be the same ”  Conquer suggests decisive and often wide-scale victory: “ The Franks... having conquered the Gauls, established the kingdom which has taken its name from them ”  Vanquish emphasizes total mastery: Napoleon's forces were vanquished at Waterloo.

122 Paragraph 2  Beat is similar to defeat, though less formal and often more emphatic: “ To win battles... you beat the soul... of the enemy man ”  Rout implies complete victory followed by the disorderly flight of the defeated force: The enemy was routed in the first battle.  Subdue suggests mastery and control achieved by overpowering: “ It cost [the Romans] two great wars, and three great battles, to subdue that little kingdom [Macedonia] ”  Subjugate more strongly implies reducing an opponent to submission: “ The last foreigner to subjugate England was a Norman duke in the Middle Ages named William ”  To overcome is to prevail over, often by persevering: He overcame his injury after months of physical therapy

123 Paragraph 2  Dismal:causing or showing sadness; gloomy; miserable dismal weather, countryside The news was as dismal as ever.  grandeur: greatness; magnificence; impressiveness the grandeur of Mount Tai  stuffy: (of a room, etc) not having much fresh air a smoky, stuffy pub

124 Paragraph 2  The predicament of England seemed soaked in their bones predicament: difficult or unpleasant situation, esp. one in which sb. is uncertain what to do Your refusal puts me in an awkward predicament. A loan of money would help me out of my predicament. Soaked: to pass or penetrate as a liquid does; permeate They were over conscious of their country’s plight They could not believe …risked the best ship in their strained navy..empty-handed Strained navy: the navy which is already hard pressed; the navy had suffered great losses They could not believe that Churchill had risked the best ship in their already inadequate, weak navy and his oown life for nothing


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