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Business Communications

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Presentation on theme: "Business Communications"— Presentation transcript:

1 Business Communications
Writing Effectively

2 Business Writing is: Purposeful: it solves problems and conveys information Economical: it is concise Reader-oriented: it focuses on the receiver, not the sender

3 3-x-3 Writing Process Phase 1: analyzing, anticipating, adapting
Phase 2: researching, organizing, composing Phase 3: revising, proofreading, evaluating

4 Phase 1 Analyze: Anticipate: Adapt: Define your purpose
Select the most appropriate channel Visualize the audience Anticipate: Put yourself in the reader’s position and predict his/her reactions to the message Adapt: Shape message to benefit reader

5 Phase 2 Research: Organize: Compose:
Collect data formally and informally Organize: Group ideas into a list or outline; choose a strategy Compose: Write a first draft; consider using a word processor

6 Phase 3 Revise: for clarity, tone, and vigor; improve readability
Proofread: for spelling, grammar, punctuation and format; check overall appearance Evaluate: Will the final product achieve its purpose?

7 Analyzing and Anticipating
Analyze the task by identifying the purpose and selecting the best channel Anticipate the audience by visualizing primary and secondary readers

8 Develop: Reader Benefits: Receiver-Focused Vs. Sender-Focused
You Attitude: “You” View Vs. “I” and/or “We” View

9 Reader Benefits: Receiver Focused
E.g. Sender-focused: “We are requiring all staffers to complete these forms in compliance with company policy.” Receiver-focused: “Please complete these forms so that you will be eligible for health and dental benefits.”

10 Reader Benefits: Receiver Focused
E.g. Sender-focused: “Because we need more space for our new inventory, we’re staging a two-for-one sale.” Receiver-focused: “This two-for-one sale makes it possible for you to buy a year’s supply of paper and pay for only six months’ worth.”

11 You Attitude “I”/“We”: “We take pleasure in announcing an agreement we made with HP to allow us to offer discounted printers in the student store.” “You”: “An agreement with HP allows you and other students to buy discounted printers at your convenient student store.”

12 You Attitude “I”/ “We”: “We are issuing a refund.”
“You”: “You will receive a refund.”

13 Adapting to Task and Audience
Use reader benefits: the warranty starts working immediately Cultivate “you” attitude: you will receive your order Use sensitive language avoiding gender, race, age and disability biases: office workers Express thoughts positively: you will be happy to Use precise, vigorous words: fax me, me Use familiar words: salary not remuneration

14 Eliminating Sexist Language
Career Woman Man and Wife The Little Woman Common Man Best Man for the Job Mothers should watch… Professional Husband and Wife Wife Average Person Best Person for the Job Parents should watch…

15 Avoid Negative Expressions
Writers are sometimes unaware of the hidden messages that they send: You overlooked…you are careless You state that…but I don’t believe you You failed to…you are careless You claim that…it’s probably untrue I am right…you do not understand Your delay…you are at fault

16 Creating Forceful Sentences
Recognize Phrases and Clauses Clauses have subjects and verbs; phrases don’t Independent clauses are complete; dependent clauses are not Phrases and dependent clauses cannot function as sentences Independent Clause: They eat cold pizza. Dependent Clause: that they want to return for a refund Phrase: to return for a refund

17 Creating Forceful Sentences
Use the Active voice in most sentences: We lost money. Use the passive voice to de-emphasize the performer and/or to be tactful: Money was lost by us. Avoid dangling phrases: An autopsy revealed that the cause of death was strangulation by the coroner. Emphasize important points Put main ideas first, using them as subjects Put them in short sentences

18 Drafting Effective Paragraphs
Discuss only one topic Group similar ideas together Start a new paragraph for each new topic Arrange sentences in one of three strategic formats Direct Plan: main sentence followed by supporting sentences Pivoting Plan: limiting sentences, main sentence, supporting sentences Indirect Plan: supporting sentences, main sentence

19 Drafting Effective Paragraphs
Link ideas to build coherence Repeat idea or rephrase it Use a pronoun: these, this etc. Dovetail sentences Use transitional expressions: additionally, however, as a result, also, for example etc. Compose short paragraphs: fewer than eight lines

20 Revising for Clarity Keep it simple Keep it conversational
Remove opening fillers Eliminate redundancies Reduce compound prepositions Purge empty words Kick the noun habit Dump trite business phrases Develop parallelism Apply graphics Measure readability

21 Revision Techniques Keep it simple: avoid indirect pompous language
E.g. It would not be inadvisable for you to affix your signature at this point in time. I.e. You may sign now.

22 Revision Techniques Keep it conversational:
Formal: Our Accounting Department takes this opportunity to inform you that we have credited your account with the aforementioned amount. Conversational: We’re pleased to credit your account for $100.

23 Revision Techniques Remove Opening Fillers
Wordy: There are four new menu items that we must promote. Improved: We must promote four new menu items. Eliminate Redundancies: collect together, contributing factor, personal opinion etc. Reduce Compound Prepositions at such time, at which time…when due to the fact that, inasmuch as…because

24 Revision Techniques Purge Empty Words
As for the field of athletic shoes, the degree of profits sagged. This is to inform you that we have a toll-free service line.

25 Revision Techniques Kick the Noun Habit
Wordy: We must conduct an investigation of all parking violations before we can give consideration to your fine. Improved: We must investigate all parking violations before we can consider your fine.

26 Revision Techniques Dump Trite Business Phrases
Wordy: Pursuant to your request, enclosed please find a job application. Improved: As requested, we have enclosed a job application. Develop Parallelism: balanced construction Not parallel: We can collect information, store it, and later it can be updated. Parallel: We can collect, store and update information.

27 Revision Techniques Apply Graphic Highlighting
Letters, such as (a) and (b) within the text Numerals, like 1, 2 and 3 listed vertically Bullets Headings using Print options CAPITAL LETTERS Underscores Boldface Italics Font size

28 Revision Techniques Bloopers…from church

29 Proofreading – What to look for
Spelling Grammar Punctuation Names and numbers Format

30 How to Proofread Print a copy…preferably double-spaced
Set it aside for a breather Allow adequate time for careful proofreading Congratulate yourself when finding errors Read the message at least twice…for meaning and grammar/mechanics Reduce reading speed…focus on each word

31 Evaluating the Outcome
How successful will this communication be? Does the message say what you want it to? Will it achieve its purpose? Did you obtain the intended feedback?

32 3-x-3 Writing Process Phase 1: analyzing, anticipating, adapting
Phase 2: researching, organizing, composing Phase 3: revising, proofreading, evaluating

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