4Phase 1 Analyze: Anticipate: Adapt: Define your purpose Select the most appropriate channelVisualize the audienceAnticipate:Put yourself in the reader’s position and predict his/her reactions to the messageAdapt:Shape message to benefit reader
5Phase 2 Research: Organize: Compose: Collect data formally and informallyOrganize:Group ideas into a list or outline; choose a strategyCompose:Write a first draft; consider using a word processor
6Phase 3 Revise: for clarity, tone, and vigor; improve readability Proofread: for spelling, grammar, punctuation and format; check overall appearanceEvaluate: Will the final product achieve its purpose?
7Analyzing and Anticipating Analyze the task by identifying the purpose and selecting the best channelAnticipate the audience by visualizing primary and secondary readers
8Develop: Reader Benefits: Receiver-Focused Vs. Sender-Focused You Attitude: “You” View Vs. “I” and/or “We” View
9Reader Benefits: Receiver Focused E.g.Sender-focused: “We are requiring all staffers to complete these forms in compliance with company policy.”Receiver-focused: “Please complete these forms so that you will be eligible for health and dental benefits.”
10Reader Benefits: Receiver Focused E.g.Sender-focused: “Because we need more space for our new inventory, we’re staging a two-for-one sale.”Receiver-focused: “This two-for-one sale makes it possible for you to buy a year’s supply of paper and pay for only six months’ worth.”
11You Attitude“I”/“We”: “We take pleasure in announcing an agreement we made with HP to allow us to offer discounted printers in the student store.”“You”: “An agreement with HP allows you and other students to buy discounted printers at your convenient student store.”
12You Attitude “I”/ “We”: “We are issuing a refund.” “You”: “You will receive a refund.”
13Adapting to Task and Audience Use reader benefits: the warranty starts working immediatelyCultivate “you” attitude: you will receive your orderUse sensitive language avoiding gender, race, age and disability biases: office workersExpress thoughts positively: you will be happy toUse precise, vigorous words: fax me, meUse familiar words: salary not remuneration
14Eliminating Sexist Language Career WomanMan and WifeThe Little WomanCommon ManBest Man for the JobMothers should watch…ProfessionalHusband and WifeWifeAverage PersonBest Person for the JobParents should watch…
15Avoid Negative Expressions Writers are sometimes unaware of the hidden messages that they send:You overlooked…you are carelessYou state that…but I don’t believe youYou failed to…you are carelessYou claim that…it’s probably untrueI am right…you do not understandYour delay…you are at fault
16Creating Forceful Sentences Recognize Phrases and ClausesClauses have subjects and verbs; phrases don’tIndependent clauses are complete; dependent clauses are notPhrases and dependent clauses cannot function as sentencesIndependent Clause: They eat cold pizza.Dependent Clause: that they want to return for a refundPhrase: to return for a refund
17Creating Forceful Sentences Use the Active voice in most sentences: We lost money.Use the passive voice to de-emphasize the performer and/or to be tactful: Money was lost by us.Avoid dangling phrases: An autopsy revealed that the cause of death was strangulation by the coroner.Emphasize important pointsPut main ideas first, using them as subjectsPut them in short sentences
18Drafting Effective Paragraphs Discuss only one topicGroup similar ideas togetherStart a new paragraph for each new topicArrange sentences in one of three strategic formatsDirect Plan: main sentence followed by supporting sentencesPivoting Plan: limiting sentences, main sentence, supporting sentencesIndirect Plan: supporting sentences, main sentence
19Drafting Effective Paragraphs Link ideas to build coherenceRepeat idea or rephrase itUse a pronoun: these, this etc.Dovetail sentencesUse transitional expressions: additionally, however, as a result, also, for example etc.Compose short paragraphs: fewer than eight lines
20Revising for Clarity Keep it simple Keep it conversational Remove opening fillersEliminate redundanciesReduce compound prepositionsPurge empty wordsKick the noun habitDump trite business phrasesDevelop parallelismApply graphicsMeasure readability
21Revision Techniques Keep it simple: avoid indirect pompous language E.g. It would not be inadvisable for you to affix your signature at this point in time.I.e. You may sign now.
22Revision Techniques Keep it conversational: Formal: Our Accounting Department takes this opportunity to inform you that we have credited your account with the aforementioned amount.Conversational: We’re pleased to credit your account for $100.
23Revision Techniques Remove Opening Fillers Wordy: There are four new menu items that we must promote.Improved: We must promote four new menu items.Eliminate Redundancies: collect together, contributing factor, personal opinion etc.Reduce Compound Prepositionsat such time, at which time…whendue to the fact that, inasmuch as…because
24Revision Techniques Purge Empty Words As for the field of athletic shoes, the degree of profits sagged.This is to inform you that we have a toll-free service line.
25Revision Techniques Kick the Noun Habit Wordy: We must conduct an investigation of all parking violations before we can give consideration to your fine.Improved: We must investigate all parking violations before we can consider your fine.
26Revision Techniques Dump Trite Business Phrases Wordy: Pursuant to your request, enclosed please find a job application.Improved: As requested, we have enclosed a job application.Develop Parallelism: balanced constructionNot parallel: We can collect information, store it, and later it can be updated.Parallel: We can collect, store and update information.
27Revision Techniques Apply Graphic Highlighting Letters, such as (a) and (b) within the textNumerals, like 1, 2 and 3 listed verticallyBulletsHeadings using Print optionsCAPITAL LETTERSUnderscoresBoldfaceItalicsFont size
29Proofreading – What to look for SpellingGrammarPunctuationNames and numbersFormat
30How to Proofread Print a copy…preferably double-spaced Set it aside for a breatherAllow adequate time for careful proofreadingCongratulate yourself when finding errorsRead the message at least twice…for meaning and grammar/mechanicsReduce reading speed…focus on each word
31Evaluating the Outcome How successful will this communication be?Does the message say what you want it to?Will it achieve its purpose?Did you obtain the intended feedback?