Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byJazmyn Hodges Modified over 2 years ago

1
Lifelong Competence Development: On the Advantages of Formal Competence-Performance Modeling Michael D. Kickmeier-Rust, Dietrich Albert, & Christina Steiner Cognitive Science Section, Department of Psychology University of Graz, Austria Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development March 30 – 31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria

2
Lifelong Competence Development - Lifelong competence development is undoubtedly an important and ambitious aim for the information and knowledge society - This presentation intends to introduce and motivate Knowledge Space Theory and the Competence-Performance Approach as tools to facilitate the development and assessment of competencies over time

3
Introduction: Competence vs. Competency - Competence - vague - broad and intangible - complex vs. simple - hard to be modeled on a formal basis - Competency - small and unique - still intangible - easy to be modeled on a formal basis

4
Introduction: Competence vs. Performance - Often the terms competence/y and performance are mixed-up - Often it is assumed that competencies could directly be observed or assessed - Inflation of competencies because different assessment methods measure different competencies or sets of competencies - e.g., maintain an aircraft, write a scientific article, pass a certain school exam - Incomparability of different assessment methods - e.g., school exam vs. assessment on the job

5
Introduction: Competence vs. Performance - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language states: “Competence means the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified; a specific range of skill, knowledge or ability” - This and many other definitions have in common that they describe competence as - abstract - latent - not directly observable

6
Introduction: Competence vs. Performance - Chomsky (1965) distinguished latent competence and observable performance in linguistic theory - Today, this distinction between competence and performance has a much wider application e.g., in the field of knowledge and learning psychology - competence is an unobservable quality or ability - performance is the observable behavior in specific situations (e.g., an exam), which is determined by one specific competency or by a set of competencies

7
Why distinguish competence and performance? - Example 1: Exam in trigonometry Students might be allowed to use a mathematical formulary and a pocket calculator (1) If two students master a certain task of the exam, can we conclude that these students do have the same competencies with regard to the task? - Student 1 might have the necessary competencies to master the task without using the formulary - Student 2 maybe mastered the task only by chance, incidentally choosing the right formula from the formulary

8
Why distinguish competence and performance? - Example 2: Exam in trigonometry Students might be allowed to use a mathematical formulary and a pocket calculator (2) If three students fail in a certain task, can we conclude that these students lack the same competencies? - Student 1 might lack the competence to fully understand the task and its formulation - Student 2 might fully understand the task and also might be able to choose the right formula, but maybe this student is not able to use a required function of the calculator - Student 3 might have the necessary competencies to master the entire task but might have problems to concentrate on the tasks during an exam

9
Lifelong learning? - In terms of tracking and assessing lifelong competence development - we should make sure to measure competencies independent from assessment methods - refer to probably standardized competencies - refer to defined developmental / learning paths

10
Knowledge Space Theory - A well-elaborated theory that may help to achieve these goals is Knowledge Space Theory by Doignon & Falmagne (1985, 1999) and its extensions - KST provides a set-theoretic framework to organize and model the knowledge / competencies in a given domain of knowledge by utilizing Surmise Relations, which establish Knowledge Spaces - KST in its initial form is only a behavoristic approach focusing on problems (e.g., test tasks), which can be mastered or not - From mastering a certain problem, KST allows to assume the mastering of other problems and from failing in a certain problem, KST allows to assume a failing in other problems

11
Knowledge Space Theory - Example: Five problems from the domain “basic algebra”: - a: addition - b: subtraction - c: multiplication - d: division - e: simple linear equations Q = {a, b, c, d, e}

12
Knowledge Space Theory - Example: Prerequisite Relation for the domain Q = {a, b, c, d, e}

13
Knowledge Space Theory - Example: We can establish a Knowledge Space, which does not contain all of the 2 5 possible Knowledge States but only 8

14
Knowledge Space Theory - Advantages: - Reduction of the number of possible Knowledge States and definition of meaningful learning paths - Mathematical properties: - reflexive - transitive - anti-symmetric

15
Competence-Performance Approach - KST is purely behavioristic focusing on observable performance - CPA (Korrosy, 1997, 1999) is an extension of KST, which distinguishes latent competencies and observable performance - We have a set E of abstract competencies that are relevant for a domain - The Competence State is the collection of a person’s competencies - As in KST, Prerequisite Relations are described on the set of competencies establishing a competence structure C, which contains all possible competence states

16
Competence-Performance Approach - Example: Four competencies from the domain “basic algebra”: - A: addition - B: subtraction - C: multiplication - D: division E = {A, B, C, D}

17
Competence-Performance Approach - Example: Prerequisite Relation for the competencies in the domain E = {A,B,C,D}

18
Competence-Performance Approach - Example: We can establish a Competence Space, which does not contain all of the 2 4 possible Competence States but only 7

19
Competence-Performance Approach - Unfortunately, we cannot observe this… Representation and Interpretation Functions enable to map test items / tasks to the competencies We can determine a person’s Competence State We can determine the required competencies to master a specific task No 1-to-1 mapping required

20
Competence-Performance Approach - Example: Two tasks from the domain “basic algebra”: - a: multiplication problem - b: solving linear equations Q = {a, b} Representation Function ProblemCompetence State a{A, B, C} b{A, B, C, D}

21
Competence-Performance Approach - Example: - Solved a but not b - Solved a and b - Solved not a and not b - Solved b and not a

22
Advantages - Modeling a domain of knowledge on a formal basis - Referring to clearly defined and unique competencies - Mapping different assessment methods to the same set of competencies - Efficient adaptive testing - Efficient adaptive teaching - Modeling of individual learning path - Computable

23
So what about errors? Careless errors Lucky Guesses - Besides the deterministic approach there are also probabilistic approaches

24
Applications - Adaptive, personalized eLearning (RATH, APeLS, EASEL, iCLASS, ELeGI, ELEKTRA) - Organizational competencies / knowledge (Know-Center) - Research tool (e.g., in child development)

25
Applications - Commercial eLearning platform ALEKS (www.aleks.com) Image courtesy of ALEKS Corporation Santa Ana, CA, USA

26
THANK YOU

Similar presentations

Presentation is loading. Please wait....

OK

National Academic Reference Standards

National Academic Reference Standards

© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google

Ppt on electricity for class 10th physics Ppt on you can win lyrics Ppt on pricing policy objectives Ppt on world environment day slogans Ppt on c language fundamentals grade Ppt on waxes definition Ppt on seven ages of man Ppt on formal education quotes Ppt on logo quiz Ppt on business communication