Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

BUDHI GUNAWAN, M.A., Ph.D. Jurusan Antropologi FISIP, Unpad Program Studi Magister dan Doktor Ilmu Lingkungan, Program Pascasarjana Unpad Materi untuk.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "BUDHI GUNAWAN, M.A., Ph.D. Jurusan Antropologi FISIP, Unpad Program Studi Magister dan Doktor Ilmu Lingkungan, Program Pascasarjana Unpad Materi untuk."— Presentation transcript:

1 BUDHI GUNAWAN, M.A., Ph.D. Jurusan Antropologi FISIP, Unpad Program Studi Magister dan Doktor Ilmu Lingkungan, Program Pascasarjana Unpad Materi untuk kegiatan Prapasca bagi mahasiswa Program Studi Doktor Ilmu Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Unpad Bandung, 6-10 Agustus 2012

2 Type of Academic Writing EssaysDissertationSynthesis paper Critical reviewsAcademic posterAbstract Literature reviewsCall for papersPresentation Research paperProgression reportMonograph Papers to be published in academic journals Technical reportEncyclopedia Papers to be published in conference proceedings Position paperAnnotated bibliography Term paperSurvey paper/review article Book TesisWorking paper

3 Dengan PLAGIARISME (PLAGIARISM) 1

4 PlagiarismE 2

5 Sutherland-Sith, Wendy Plagiarism, the Internet and Student Learning Improving Academic Integrity. New York: Routledge Definition of Plagiarism The term “plagiarism” is derived from the Latin term for plundering. Common definitions of plagiarism (p.57): 1. Take and use another person’s thoughts, writings, inventions as one’s own (Australian Concise Oxford Dictionary) 2. Take and use (the thoughts, writings, inventions etc.) of another person as one’s own. (2) pass off the thoughts etc. of another person as one’s own [L. plagiarius, kidnapper] (Concise Oxford Dictionary) 3. Appropriate or use (ideas, passages, etc.) from (another work or author). From Latin plagiarus plundered, from plagium kidnapping (Collins Dictionary of the English Language) 4. Steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own: use another’s production without crediting the source; to commit literary theft: present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source (Webster’s Online Dictionary). 3

6 Roberts Tim S Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference. Plagiarism... (p.2; italic mine):...is the act of representing as one’s own original work the creative works of another, without appropriate acknowledgment of the author or source (University of Melbourne, 2007)....is the theft of someone else’s ideas and work. Whether a student copies verbatim or simply rephrases the ideas of another without properly acknowledging the source, the theft is the same (Harvard University Extension School, 2007)....is the copying or paraphrasing of other people’s work or ideas into your own work without full acknowledgement (University of Oxford, 2007). 4

7 Erik J. Eriksson and Kirk P. H. Sullivan Controlling plagiarism: A study of lecturer attitudes. In, Tim S. Roberts, Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference Plagiarism is defined as (p.31): Plagiarism is the act of claiming the work of others as your own work. ‘Others’ in this context can include fellow students and the authors of books, journals, and Internet material. (University of Wales, Validation Handbook of Quality Assessment: p. 91, online) The use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person’s original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing, or other form(s). (Standford University, online) 5

8 Sutherland-Sith, Wendy Plagiarism, the Internet and Student Learning Improving Academic Integrity. New York: Routledge The six elements of Diane Pecorari (2002) definitional model of plagiarism are: an object (i.e. language, words, text) which has been taken (or borrowed, stolen etc.) from a particular source (books, journals, Internet) by an agent (student, person, academic) without (adequate) acknowledgement and with or without intention to deceive. 6

9 Barbara Cogdell and Dorothy Aidulis Controlling plagiarism: A study of lecturer attitudes. In, Tim S. Roberts, Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference Plagiarism has always existed, but the growth of the Internet in an online world has made it much easier to do and, therefore, more of a temptation to students (BBC news, 2006a, 2006b). 7

10 Source: Why Students Plagiarize? Intentional Plagiarism Making the Grade "Everyone else is doing it" Poor Planning Unintentional Plagiarism Citation Confusion "I was just copying my notes" "I couldn't find the source" "I thought we didn't have to quote facts" Confusion About Expectations Cultural Perspectives on Plagiarism 8

11 Teri Thomson Maddox Plagiarism and the community college. In, Tim S. Roberts, Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference On its Web site, The University of Alberta lists the following reasons why students plagiarize, all of which may be exacerbated by underprepared students’ lack of academic experience: Lack of research skills Problems evaluating Internet sources Confusion between plagiarism and paraphrasing Careless note taking Confusion about how to properly cite sources Misconception of plagiarism Misconception of intellectual property, copyright, and public domain Misconception of common knowledge Perception of online information as public knowledge Poor time management and organizational skills The commodification of knowledge and education (p.128) 9

12 Teresa Chen and Nai-Kuang Teresa Ku Controlling plagiarism: A study of lecturer attitudes. In, Tim S. Roberts, Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference Factors that contributed to the students’ plagiarism: Personal Factors: History and proficiency of computer use, English proficiency, and Self-efficacy. > In general: easy access to the Internet. Situational Factors: policies on, and enforcement of, disciplinary measures for cheating and plagiarism and the availability of the Internet. Cultural Factors and Students’ Perceptions of Text Borrowing 10

13 Teri Thomson Maddox Plagiarism and the community college. In, Tim S. Roberts, Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference Standler (2000), “the intent of a plagiarist is irrelevant. The act of quoting material without including the indicia of a quotation is sufficient to convict someone of plagiarism. The Purdue OWL Web site,... warns students that even “inadvertent mistakes can lead to charges of plagiarism … The Georgetown University... informs students that “even using one of [a source’s] small, characteristic phrases without quotation marks is considered plagiarism.” Similarly, McLemee (2004) defines plagiarism in this way: “A writer who fails to give appropriate acknowledgment when repeating another’s wording or particularly apt term, paraphrasing another’s argument, or presenting another’s line of thinking is guilty of plagiarism.” These definitions make no distinction between deliberate plagiarism and inadvertent plagiarism or misuse of sources. (p.126). 11

14 Plagiarism = wrong, inacceptable! Is it fair? 12

15 Lucas D. Introna and Niall Hayes Controlling plagiarism: A study of lecturer attitudes. In, Tim S. Roberts, Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference A reactive punitive response to plagiarism based on an algorithmic detection approach is unfair for the following reasons: 1. It makes inappropriate assumptions about plagiarism, for example, copy = plagiarism. 2. International students are predisposed to the use of exact copies in their writing practice (in patch-writing and keeping the master’s voice) and are therefore inappropriately identified as plagiarists. This often leads to further more detailed and meticulous scrutiny, something other students are not subjected to. 3. Thus, international students tend to be disproportionately identified as plagiarists to the benefit of native speakers who may plagiarise through the unattributed copying of ideas and arguments of others and yet remain undetected. 4. Plagiarism algorithms, or more specifically the assumptions embedded in them, are developed within a western cultural context which makes particular assumptions about the nature of teaching and learning. As such they may unfairly discriminate against those from non-western backgrounds (p.118). 13

16 Teri Thomson Maddox Plagiarism and the community college. In, Tim S. Roberts, Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference The Council of Writing Program Administrators (WPA Council) distinguishes between plagiarism and misuse of sources: students are not guilty of plagiarism when they try in good faith to acknowledge others’ work but fail to do so accurately or fully. These failures are largely the result of failures in prior teaching and learning: students lack the knowledge of and ability to use the conventions of authorial attribution (p.126). 14

17 Janet Salmons Expect originality! Using taxonomy to structure assignments that support original work. In, Tim S. Roberts, Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference Figure : Plagiarism as a continuum (p.212) 15

18 Janet Salmons Expect originality! Using taxonomy to structure assignments that support original work. In, Tim S. Roberts, Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference Academic Dishonesty: When learners purposefully appropriate all or part of an assignment from another source and represent it as their own, they do not benefit from the learning intended for the assignment. This kind of intentional plagiarism constitutes academic dishonesty. Inappropriate Paraphrasing: When learners simply rearrange the order of words in sentences or change words to synonyms, they may present their own words but not their own ideas (APA, 2001; Share, 2006). This type of paraphrasing is a purposeful misrepresentation of someone else’s work. Misuse of Sources: When learners do not use proper citation protocols, they may inadvertently plagiarize another’s work. Learners may cite the source material somewhere in the assignment, but it is not clear which passages are original and which are not (Braumoeller & Gaines, 2001). While this may be less critical in terms of academic honesty, the learner is not achieving learning objectives (Defining and avoiding plagiarism, 2003). [p.212] 16

19 Janet Salmons Expect originality! Using taxonomy to structure assignments that support original work. In, Tim S. Roberts, Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference Uncritical Citing: Even when students use proper citation techniques and avoid plagiarism, they may still achieve limited learning outcomes when their work lacks analysis and synthesis of main ideas from the sources they are referencing. Intertextuality: The term “intertextuality” can be used to describe an educationally productive process of building on or synthesizing others’ ideas, and adding new perspectives or interpretations. The term was coined by Julia Kristeva in the context of literary analysis. She proposed that “any text is constructed of a mosaic of quotations; any text is the absorption and transformation of another…” (Kristeva, 1980). Intertextuality, then, is a term that can be used to define practices whereby learners use other sources as a springboard for new connections, and derive meaning from the process. Original Work: At the other end of the spectrum from plagiarism, learners create their own original work with new discoveries and innovations. Proper citations are used for any foundational ideas or arguments not original to the student (Braumoeller & Gaines, 2001).[p.212] 17

20 Type of Plagiarism 18

21 Source: Types of Plagiarism A. Sources Not Cited "The Ghost Writer“ The writer turns in another's work, word-for-word, as his or her own. "The Photocopy" The writer copies significant portions of text straight from a single source, without alteration. "The Potluck Paper" The writer tries to disguise plagiarism by copying from several different sources, tweaking the sentences to make them fit together while retaining most of the original phrasing. "The Poor Disguise" Although the writer has retained the essential content of the source, he or she has altered the paper's appearance slightly by changing key words and phrases. "The Labor of Laziness" The writer takes the time to paraphrase most of the paper from other sources and make it all fit together, instead of spending the same effort on original work. "The Self-Stealer" The writer "borrows" generously from his or her previous work, violating policies concerning the expectation of originality adopted by most academic institutions. 19

22 Type of Plagiarism (Source: B. Sources Cited (But Still Plagiarized) "The Forgotten Footnote" The writer mentions an author's name for a source, but neglects to include specific information on the location of the material referenced. This often masks other forms of plagiarism by obscuring source locations. "The Misinformer" The writer provides inaccurate information regarding the sources, making it impossible to find them. "The Too-Perfect Paraphrase" The writer properly cites a source, but neglects to put in quotation marks text that has been copied word-for-word, or close to it. Although attributing the basic ideas to the source, the writer is falsely claiming original presentation and interpretation of the information. "The Resourceful Citer" The writer properly cites all sources, paraphrasing and using quotations appropriately. The catch? The paper contains almost no original work! It is sometimes difficult to spot this form of plagiarism because it looks like any other well-researched document. 20

23 Impact of Plagiarism 21

24 Barbara Cogdell and Dorothy Aidulis Controlling plagiarism: A study of lecturer attitudes. In, Tim S. Roberts, Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference Plagiarism is unprofessional, unethical, devalues degrees, and is an issue that has to be taken seriously if the integrity of university qualifications is to be maintained (Ashworth, 2003; Carroll, 2002; Carroll & Appleton, 2001). It can lead to a loss of writing and thinking skills in students. Moreover, they can spend a lot of “misplaced” effort and ingenuity in plagiarising and not studying (Netskills, 2004). 22

25 (Source: What are the punishments for plagiarism? Academic Punishments Institutional Punishments Legal Punishments acccbuzz.wordpress.com badskiblog.blogspot.com 23

26 Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism 24

27 Roberts, Tim S Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions. Hershey: Information science reference. Strategies to counter plagiarism (p.5): Students should have been educated as to (should learn) what plagiarism is, Student should understand that intentional plagiarism is unacceptable in any academic environment, and Student should understand that unintentional plagiarism can usually be avoided by the application of proper referencing standards. kmh-lanl.hansonhub.com 25

28 Source: How Can Plagiarism be Avoided? To avoid plagiarism, credit must be given whenever you use another person’s idea, opinion, or theory; any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings—any pieces of information—that are not common knowledge; quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; or paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words. 26

29 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. How to avoid plagiarism (p.37) Applying, analysing, criticizing or quoting other people’s work is perfectly reasonable and acceptable providing you always: Attempt to summarize or restate [paraphrase] another person’s work, theories or ideas and give acknowledgement to that person. This is usually done by citing your sources and presenting a list of references, or By always using quotation marks (or indenting lengthy quotations in your text) to distinguish between the actual words of the writer and your own words. Cite all sources and present full details of these in the list of references. 27

30 Rosele, Laura and Sharon Spray Research and writing in international relations. New York: Pearson Education, Inc. Citing the works of others is extremely important. A paper that lacks citations will have little credibility and will raise questions of plagiarism and sloppy research. (p.131) 28

31 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Summarizing and paraphrasing(p.38) SummarizingParaphrasing Summarizing involves writing an account, in one’s own words, of the main, broad and general meanings of a text Paraphrasing involves close attention to a particular section of a text and attempting, in one’s own words, to capture the essence of the original 29

32 Source: What is quoting? Taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting. You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. 30

33 Matthews, Janice R. And Robert W Matthews Successfull scientific writing. 3rd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Quoting is good practice. Adding quotes shows that you have read the papers you refer to or compare. When you give credit where credit is due, you have everything to gain and nothing to lose. Science is the fruit of collective work. Quoting scientists who have been published, particularly if they are well respected, adds credibility to your own work. It makes your work more authoritative (p.168). 31

34 Source: Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting SummarizingParaphrasingQuoting Must reference the original source The text is much shorter than the original text. (For example, one may write a single page to summarize a four-page article.) The text produced may be shorter or longer than the original text The text produced is the exact length of the original text quoted (unless ellipses are used) Must use your own words, usually with a very limited use of quotations. Must use your own wordsUse the original author’s exact words Put quotation marks around the original author’s exact words Include the page number of the original source from which you borrowed the author’s original language. 32

35 Source: A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including: information about the author the title of the work the name and location of the company that published your copy of the source the date your copy was published the page numbers of the material you are borrowing 33

36 Source: When do I need to cite? Whenever you use quotes whenever you paraphrase whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed whenever you make specific reference to the work of another whenever someone else's work has been critical in developing your own ideas. 34

37 Rosele, Laura and Sharon Spray Research and writing in international relations. New York: Pearson Education, Inc. Always provide citation for the following: Statistical information and data that are not considered common knowledge All direct quotes References to theories—even those commonly referredto in the literatures Any conclusions reached by other researchers, whether directly quoted of paraphrased References to information found in newspapers and magazines do your readers can verify the information and read the entire article if they wish (p.132) 35

38 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. When to reference: You should reference evidence in assignments in the following situations: 1. To inform the reader of the source of tables, statistics, diagrams, photographs and other illustrations included in your assignment 2. When describing or discussing a theory, model, practice or example associated with a particular writer; or using their work to illustrate examples in your text (this links specifically to the next two items) 3. To give weight or credibility to an argument supported by you in your assignment 4. When giving emphasis to a particular theory, model or practice that has found a measure of agreement and support amongst commentators 5. To inform the reader of the sources of direct quotations or definitions in your assignment 6. When paraphrasing another person’s work, which is outside the realm of common knowledge, and that you feel is particularly significant, or likely to be a subject of debate. 36

39 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. When you do not need to reference 1. When presenting historical overviews 2. When presenting your own experiences 3. In conclusions, when you are repeating ideas previously referenced 4. When summarizing what is regarded as ‘common knowledge’. 37

40 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Why reference: The main purpose of referencing is to facilitate the development and transmission of knowledge. This development and transmission is powered by human endeavour and communication; referencing is one element in this communication process. As students progress through higher education they are expected, increasingly to become more critical of ideas and theories and their application in models and practices. This critical approach includes the intelligent selection and presentation of ideas and an awareness of their sources; referencing is a practical manifestation of this engagement with knowledge. The standardization of referencing practice supports this communication process. References should be presented in such a way that allows everyone who has learned the practice to recognize and understand the meaning of codes and formulas presented. (p.7-8) 38

41 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Referencing styles (p.44) In-text name styles Consecutive numberingRecurrent numbering These styles involves giving (or citing) the name(s) of author(s) or organization(s) in the text with the year of publication (or page number for MLA style) All sources are listed alphabetically at the end of an assignment and labelled ‘References’, ‘Reference list’, ‘Work cited, ‘Works consulted’ or ‘Bibliography, according to the style This style uses superscript numbers in the text that connect with references in either footnotes or chapter/assignment endnotes (usually the former) This system uses a different and consecutive number for each reference in the text. A list of sources is included at the end of the assignment, which lists all the works referred to in the notes (‘References’, ‘Works cited’) Some tutors may also require a list of all works consulted in preparation for the assignment (i.e. a ‘Bibliography’ or ‘Works consulted’) This style uses bracketed (or superscript) numbers in the text that connect with a list of references at the end of the chapter/ Assignment The same number can recur, e.g. if a source is mentioned more than once in the text Your tutors may also require you to include a bibliography, which could include additional sources consulted, but not directly referred to in the text 39

42 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Referencing styles (p.45) In-text name styles Consecutive numberingRecurrent numbering Name–date (Harvard) APA MLA MHRA Chicago (Turabian) Council of Science Editors (CSE) British Standard (running notes) MHRA Chicago (Turabian) Oxford: Oscola British Standard (numeric) Vancouver IEEE Council of Science Editors (CSE) 40

43 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. References and bibliographies (p.18) Bibliography (or ‘Works consulted’)References (or ‘Works cited’) If you wish to list the sources you made specific reference to (cited) in your assignment, and give details of other sources consulted, (but not directly cited), then you can include all the sources under one sub-heading: ‘Bibliography’. If, however, you have cited – made specific reference to – all the sources you consulted in the assignment, your list will be headed ‘References’. If you make a point of reading selectively, it is likely that you will make use of everything you read and refer directly to it in your assignment. In that event, it will be perfectly correct to just have a ‘References’ list instead of a ‘Bibliography’; it will certainly not go against you. 41

44 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Note-taking and note-making (p.25) Note-takingNote-making A process that involves writing or recording what you hear or read in a descriptive way. This is the first stage of the process of producing effective notes An advanced process that involves reviewing, synthesizing, and connecting ideas from the lecture or reading; and presenting information in readable and creative ways, and in ways that will help you revise more effectively Saving time (1): the importance of making not 42

45 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Note-making, then, in addition to being an essential record of sources, has three main purposes: 1. A process for the summarization of main points 2. A process for synthesizing ideas, which involves looking for, and recording, the connections between ideas 3. A process for encouraging critical analysis: by adding your own observations and comments to the ideas summarized or paraphrased 43

46 secondterm.acjnewsline.org vimeo.com 44

47 APPENDICES

48 Source: Examples of Direct Quotation CSE Style Original Considering all the evidence together, it is reasonable to hypothesize that Homo evolved to travel long distances by both walking and running. Bramble DM, Lieberman DE Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 438: Quotation Bramble and Lieberman posit that “it is reasonable to hypothesize that Homo evolved to travel long distances by both walking and running” (2004). APA Style Original In the current paper we will be examining responses to a particular type of imposter; the vegetarian who eats meat. We chose this example because the core norm of the vegetarian is very clear (to not eat meat), and violation of the norm is easily recognized. Hornsey, M.J. & Jetten, J. (2003). Not being what you claim to be: impostors as sources of group threat. [Electronic version] European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, Quotation Hornsey and Jetten (2003) investigated responses to impostors. They defined impostors, in this case, as meat-eating vegetarians. They “chose this example because the core norm of the vegetarian is very clear (to not eat meat), and violation of the norm is easily recognized” (p. 641).

49 Source: Examples of Direct Quotation MLA Style Original The women in The Sopranos are, without a doubt, at least as deadly as the males – in some cases, literally, in other cases metaphorically. Livia, Carmela, Dr. Melfi, and Janice are more dangerous than Junior, Tony, Christopher, and Paulie because the women commandeer power while seeming to wield none. The evidence of their powers of destruction is more easily disguised. In other words, while the women might stoop to conquer, they do eventually and efficiently conquer their enemies. Barreca, Regina. “Why I Like the Women in The Sopranos.” A Sitdown with the Sopranos: Watching Italian American Culture on TV’s Most Talked-About Series. Ed. Regina Barreca. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, Quotation According to Barreca, “the women in The Sopranos are, without a doubt, at least as deadly as the males – in some cases, literally, in other cases metaphorically. Livia, Carmela, Dr. Melfi, and Janice are more dangerous than Junior, Tony, Christopher, and Paulie because the women commandeer power while seeming to wield none” (37).

50 Source: Examples of Paraphrasing CSE Style Original However, although humans are comparatively poor sprinters, they also engage in a different type of running, endurance running (ER), defined as running many kilometres over extended time periods using aerobic metabolism. Bramble DM, Lieberman DE Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 438: Paraphrase Having limited success in sprinting compared to other mammals, humans perform better in endurance running, which is a form of aerobic running over extended distances and periods of time (Bramble and Lieberman 2004). APA Style Original In the current paper we will be examining responses to a particular type of imposter; the vegetarian who eats meat. We chose this example because the core norm of the vegetarian is very clear (to not eat meat), and violation of the norm is easily recognized. Hornsey, M.J. & Jetten, J. (2003). Not being what you claim to be: impostors as sources of group threat. [Electronic version] European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, Paraphrase Hornsey and Jetten (2003) investigated group responses to impostors. For the purposes of their study, the impostors were defined as vegetarians who go against the norm by eating meat. The “violation of the norm” in this particular situation is easily noticed (Hornsey and Jetten, p. 641).

51 Source: Examples of Paraphrasing MLA Style Original In The Sopranos, the mob is besieged as much by inner infidelity as it is by the federal government. Early in the series, the greatest threat to Tony's Family is his own biological family. One of his closest associates turns witness for the FBI, his mother colludes with his uncle to contract a hit on Tony, and his kids click through Web sites that track the federal crackdown in Tony's gangland. Fields, Ingrid Walker. “Family Values and Feudal Codes: The Social Politics of America’s Twenty-First Century Gangster.” Journal of Popular Culture 37.4 (2004). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale Group. Duke U Lib., Durham. 8 Dec Paraphrase In the first season of The Sopranos, Tony Soprano’s mobster activities are more threatened by members of his biological family than by agents of the federal government. This familial betrayal is multi-pronged. Tony’s closest friend and associate is an FBI informant, his mother and uncle are conspiring to have him killed, and his children are surfing the Web for information about his activities (Fields).

52 Source: Examples of Summarizing CSE Style Original Although extensive data on endurance capabilities are not available for most quadrupedal mammals, several lines of evidence indicate that humans, using criteria such as speed and sustainable distance, are much better endurance runners than has generally been appreciated. Bramble DM, Lieberman DE Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 438: Paraphrase Evidence suggests that endurance running capabilities in humans has been underestimated (Bramble and Lieberman 2004). APA Style Original In the current paper we will be examining responses to a particular type of imposter; the vegetarian who eats meat. We chose this example because the core norm of the vegetarian is very clear (to not eat meat), and violation of the norm is easily recognized. Hornsey, M.J. & Jetten, J. (2003). Not being what you claim to be: impostors as sources of group threat. [Electronic version] European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, Paraphrase In their study to investigate responses to imposters, Hornsey and Jetten (2003) studied vegetarians who eat meat because their deviant behavior is easily recognized.

53 Source: Examples of Paraphrasing MLA Style Original One reason The Sopranos is so popular is that, on a superficial level, it gives its audiences an acceptable bad guy whose job it is to uphold an alternative system that lives off capitalism without contributing its “fair share” of dues to the power brokers; he comes from a tribe that decided that it wouldn’t work hard to make someone else rich. Gardaphé, Fred. “Fresh Garbage: The Gangster as Suburban Trickster.” A Sitdown with the Sopranos: Watching Italian American Culture on TV’s Most Talked-About Series. Ed. Regina Barreca. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, Paraphrase Though his activities can be classified as criminal, Tony Soprano’s success outside of the legal power structure resonates with viewers (Gardaphé 101).

54 Source: Citation Style: Humanities (especially literature or languages): MLA (Modern Language Association) Social sciences (especially psychology and behavioral science): APA (American Psychological Association) Physical and natural sciences: CSE (Council of Scientific Editors) A general guide: Turabian (It is designed to complement the Chicago Manual of Style, but be simpler and easier to use). A very detailed guide: Chicago Style

55 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Examples of in-text name styles Name–date (Harvard) style of referencing: (p.71) The basic idea of the Harvard style is to: Use citations (a partial reference) in the text, by citing the last or family name of the author(s), or organisational name, and the year of publication in the text of an assignment; and to list all references in full and in alphabetical order at the end of an assignment; and ensure that the name used in the citation connects with the name used to start the full reference entry.

56 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Name–date (Harvard) style of referencing: (p.71-72) Example: Although Handy (1994) has argued that education is the key to economic success for individuals, organisations and nations, a majority of adults in the UK have yet to be convinced or persuaded of this argument. In 1999 only forty per cent of adults had participated in any sort of formal learning in the previous three years. Of these, a significant majority was from social class groups A, B and C. Only a quarter of adults from semi-skilled or unskilled work backgrounds had involved themselves in formal education (Tuckett 1999). References HANDY, C. (1994). The empty raincoat. London: Hutchinson. TUCKETT, A. (1999). Who’s learning what? The Guardian, 18 May 1999, p. 13.

57 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Citations in the text (p.72) You can introduce citations into the text in a variety of ways, for example: 1. There would appear to have emerged by the end of the twentieth century two broad approaches to the management of people within organizations (Handy 1996). 2. Handy (1996) argues that by the end of the twentieth century two broad approaches to the management of people within organizations had emerged. 3. Some commentators, for example, Handy (1996), have argued that by the end of the twentieth century two broad approaches to the management of people within organizations had emerged. 4. It has been argued, (Handy 1996; see also Brown 1999 and Clark 2000), that two approaches to the management of people within organizations had emerged by the end of the twentieth century. 5. Charles Handy, amongst others, has argued that by the end of the twentieth century two broad approaches to the management of people within organizations could be observed (Handy 1996).

58 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Examples of the Harvard style of referencing 1. Book (one or more authors) In-text citation: (Wilmore 2000) Full reference: WILMORE, G.T.D. (2000). Alien plants of Yorkshire. Kendall: Yorkshire Naturalists’ Union. 2. Chapter from an edited book Citation: (Nicholls 2002) Full reference: NICHOLLS, G. (2002). Mentoring: the art of teaching and learning. In P. JARVIS (Ed.) The theory and practice of teaching, chap. 12. London: Kogan Page.

59 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Examples of the Harvard style of referencing 3. Referencing journal articles Citation: (Bosworth and Yang 2000). Reference: BOSWORTH, D. and D. YANG (2000). Intellectual property law, technology flow and licensing opportunities in China. International Business Review, vol. 9, no. 4, pp.453– Referencing an electronic source Citation: (Dixons Group 2004) Reference: DIXONS GROUP PLC (2004). Company report: profile. [Accessed online from Financial Analysis Made Easy (FAME) database at html 13 Dec. 2005].

60 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Examples of In-text name styles APA referencing (p.49) ‘Citation’ means the partial reference in the main body of the assignment; ‘Reference’ means the full source details as they would appear in a list of references at the end of an assignment. Book (one or more authors) Citation: (Murray, 2005) Reference: Murray, R. (2005). Writing for academic journals. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Chapter from an edited book Citation: (Nicholls & Jarvis, 2002) Reference: Nicholls, G. & Jarvis, P. (2002). Teaching, learning – the changing landscape. In P. Jarvis (Ed.) The Theory & Practice of Teaching. London: Kogan Page. Referencing journal articles Citation: (Torrance, Thomas & Robinson, 1993). Reference: Torrance, M., Thomas, M. & Robinson, E.J. (1993). Training in thesis writing: An evaluation of three conceptual orientations. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 61: 170–84.

61 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Modern Language Association of America (MLA) style of referencing (p.50) Referencing a chapter from an edited book Citation: (Segalen 51) Works cited: Segalen, Martine. “The Household at Work”. The Experience of Work. Ed. Craig Littler. Aldershot: Gower, –71. Referencing an article in a journal Citation: (Murray: 229) Works cited: Murray, Rowena. “Writing Development for Lecturers Moving from Further to Higher Education”. Journal of Further and Higher Education, (2002): 229–39. Electronic sources Citation: (Dixons) If there is no page number to quote, just cite the name of the author or, as in this case, the name of an organization: the originator of the data concerned. Works cited: Dixons Group PLC. “Company Report: Profile”. Financial Analysis Made Easy (FAME) online database, 13 Dec

62 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. The Chicago (reference list) style Citations As with the name–date (Harvard) and APA styles, you give a shortened reference in the text of your work with the last name of the writer(s), or organizational name (or abbreviation), plus year, and if necessary, page number(s), e.g. (Goman 1989, 59) or (Fairbairn and Fairbairn 2001) or (MHRA 2004). If a source has one to three authors, mention their last names in the citation. For four or more names, list the first name with ‘et al.’ replacing the others, e.g. (Brown et al. 2009). Reference Fairbairn, Gavin and Susan Fairbairn Reading at university: A guide for students. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Goman, Carol Kinsey Creative thinking in business: A practical guide. London: Kogan Page.

63 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. The Chicago (reference list) style Journals Murray, Rowena Writing development for lecturers moving from Further to Higher Education. Journal of Further and Higher Education 26, no. 3: 229– 39. Bosworth, David and Deli Yang Intellectual property law, technology flow and licensing opportunities in China. International Business Review 9, no. 4: 453–77. Electronic sources E-Logistics Call centres – an inexorable flight? magazine/29/call-centres.shtml (accessed June 20, 2008). Meredith, Sandra and Timothy Endicott, The Oxford standard for citation of legal authorities (accessed April 26, 2006).

64 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) Styles MHRA in-text citations, e.g.: ‘It has been argued (Brown, 2008) that... ‘Brown has argued that... (Brown, 2008, p.201) MHRA references Fairbairn, G. & S. Fairbairn Reading at University: A Guide for Students (Maidenhead: Open University Press) Goman, C. K Creative Thinking in Business: A Practical Guide (London: Kogan Page) MHRA: Modern Humanities Research Association MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses (London: MHRA) Hampden-Turner, C Corporate Culture (London: Hutchinson) ——— The Seven Cultures of Capitalism (London: Piatkus Books)

65 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) Styles Journals Murray, R ‘Writing development for lecturers moving from Further to Higher Education’, Journal of Further and Higher Education, 26, (3): 229–39 Website JISC Plagiarism Advisory Service Plagiarism – A Good Practice Guide, [accessed 23 August 2006]

66 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Council of Science Editors (CSE) style Citation (Pines 1997) Works cited Pines J Localization of cell cycle regulators by immuno-fluorescence. In: Dunphy W, vol. ed. Methods in enzymology, vol. 283: Cell cycle control. New York: Academic Press. p.109.

67 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Comparison of five name–date styles (p.56) Book: single author APAMLA Kotre, J. (1984). Outliving the self: Generativity and the interpretation of lives. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Kotre, John. Outliving the Self: Generativity and the Interpretation of Lives. Baltimore: Hopkins, CHICAGOMHRA Kotre, John Outliving the self: Generativity and the interpretation of lives. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Kotre, J Outliving the Self: Generativity and the Interpretation of Lives (Baltimore: Hopkins) Council for Science Editors (CSE) style Kotre J Outliving the self: Generativity and the interpretation of lives. Baltimore: Hopkins.

68 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Comparison of five name–date styles (p.56) Edited book APAMLA McGinty, J. & Williams, T. (Eds.) (2001). Regional trends 36. London: Stationery Office. McGinty, Jon & Tricia Williams, Eds. Regional Trends 36. London: Stationery Office, CHICAGOMHRA McGinty, Jon and Tricia Williams, eds Regional trends 36. London: Stationery Office. McGinty, Jon. & Tricia Williams, (eds.), 2001, Regional Trends 36 (London: Stationery Office) Council for Science Editors (CSE) style McGinty J, Williams T, editors Regional trends 36. London: Stationery Office.

69 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Comparison of five name–date styles (p.56) Journal article APAMLA Yang, D. (2005). Culture matters to multinationals’ intellectual property business. Journal of World Business, 40, 281–301. Yang, Deli. “Culture Matters to Multinationals’ Intellectual Property Business”. Journal of World Business, 40, (2005): 281–301. CHICAGOMHRA Yang, Deli Culture matters to multinationals’ intellectual property business. Journal of World Business, 40: 281–301. Yang, Deli ‘Culture Matters to Multinationals’ Intellectual Property Business’, Journal of World Business, 40, 281–301 Council for Science Editors (CSE) style Deli Y Culture matters to multinationals’ intellectual property business. J World Bus: 40: 281– 301.

70 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Comparison of five name–date styles (p.57) Website APAMLA Meredith, S. & T. Endicott. (2005) The Oxford Standard for citation of legal authorities. Retrieved June 26, 2008 from denning.law.ox.ac.uk/published/oscola.shtml Meredith, Sandra & Timothy Endicott (2005). The Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities. 26 June 2008 CHICAGOMHRA Meredith, Sandra and Timothy Endicott The Oxford Standard for citation of legal denning.law.ox.ac.uk/published/oscola.shtml (accessed June 26, 2008). Meredith, Sandra & Timothy Endicott The Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities. (accessed 26 June 2008 Council for Science Editors (CSE) style Meredith S, Endicott T The Oxford Standard for citation of legal authorities [Internet]. [cited 2008 June 26]. Available from:

71 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. Numerical referencing styles (p.57) In Britain there are two main types of numerical referencing styles: 1. Consecutive number referencing linked to footnotes, or end-of- chapter notes. British Standard refers to this as the ‘Running-notes’ style The Running-notes style of referencing, as illustrated in British Standard recommendations, uses a consecutive superscript (or bracketed) number in the text, for example, in superscript: 1 for the first source, 2 for the second source, and so on. This system, therefore, uses a different number for each note or reference in the text each time it is cited. One source may have many different numbers attached to it, depending on how often it is cited in the assignment. These numbers connect with citations at the bottom of the page (footnotes), or at the end of the assignment, headed ‘Endnotes’ or ‘Notes’.

72 Colin Neville The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hills, Open University Press. 2. Recurrent number referencing, which is linked to a final list of sources. British Standard refers to this as the ‘Numeric system’ of referencing. Example: Hopson, Scally and Stafford highlight... ‘one style is developing into another’ (1). So, common within these definitions, is an overall sense that a transition is a cognitive ‘journey’ of indeterminate length at the end of which change occurs. However, Bridges (2) argues that ‘change’ refers to the context or situation itself, whereas ‘transition’ is aligned to the emotional processes associated with the situational or structural change. References (British Standard) 1. HOPSON, B. M. SCALLY and K. STAFFORD. Transitions: the challenge of change. Didcot: Mercury, p.11. Alternatively, you could also have put: HOPSON, B. et al. Transitions: the challenge of change. Didcot: Mercury, p BRIDGES, W. Managing transitions: making the most of change. London: Nicholas Brealey, 2003.


Download ppt "BUDHI GUNAWAN, M.A., Ph.D. Jurusan Antropologi FISIP, Unpad Program Studi Magister dan Doktor Ilmu Lingkungan, Program Pascasarjana Unpad Materi untuk."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google