Presentation on theme: "Lecture 17 Infinitive ( 2 ) Objectives: 1. Infinitive used as subject (It + be + adj./n+ to-infinitive) 2. as object (verb + object + infinitive, verb."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 17 Infinitive ( 2 ) Objectives: 1. Infinitive used as subject (It + be + adj./n+ to-infinitive) 2. as object (verb + object + infinitive, verb + infinitive, verb + object+ infinitive) 3. as adverbial (so …as to/ such as to) 4.as subject complement 5. as post modifiers
Lecture 17 Infinitive ( 2 ) This lecture, we will also discuss the functions which infinitive may fulfill, that is, sentence elements of the infinitive. For example, they may be used to indicate purpose, result, and reason, they may be used as as subject, object, adverbial, subject complement and post modifiers, etc.
1. as subject --To say is one thing, to do is another. -- To persevere means victory! --To err is human, to forgive divine. --The chair looks rather hard, but it is very comfortable to ___ A. sit B. sit on C. be sat D. be sat on Answer: B Lecture 17 Infinitive ( 2 )
1. as subject 1) The pronoun “it” as formal subject It is more usual to place the pronoun “it” first, and move the infinitive to the end of the sentence. There are several types: (1) “It + be + adj.+ to-infinitive” Adjectives that can be used in the construction are hard, difficult, foolish (silly), easy, necessary, impossible, good( nice), essential, important, possible, advisable, right, wrong etc.
1. as subject (1) “It + be + adj.+ to-infinitive” --It is essential to know all the facts. --It is advisable to revise the plan. --It is so nice to talk to you. -- It is wrong to steal.
1. as subject (2) It + noun +to- infinitive Nouns that can be used in this construction are pleasure, shame, wish, duty, fun etc. -- It is an honor to meet you. -- It is a duty to obey the law. -- It is my privilege to serve you. -- It’s a shame to deceive your friends.
“it” as formal subject Note After appear, happen, seem and be certain, be known, be likely, be reported, be said, be sure,etc. --This piece is said ____ by that musician. (=It’s said that this piece has been written) A. to be written B. to have been written C. that it is written D. to write
2) for sb to do / of sb. to do -- It is not hard for one to do a bit of good. “of sb. to do” is used after adjectives: careless, clever, considerate, foolish, impossible, kind, nice, right, rude, stupid, unwise, wrong etc. --It’s decent of you to help me. -- It is impolite of you to gossip about others. 1. as subject
2. as complement --To the teacher, the most important thing is to teach the students how to learn. --What surprised us most is ____ him swim in this big river. A. see B. seeing C. to see D. be seeing Answer: C.
3. as adverbial of reason In SVC, adjectives/ v-ed form (as adverbial of reason) are used as complements, adj./v-ed: happy, luck, glad, sorry. anxious, proud, surprised, delighted, foolish, pleased. adj./v-ed : happy, luck, glad, sorry. anxious, proud, surprised, delighted, foolish, pleased. --I’m sorry to have given you much trouble. --Mother felt delighted to hear son win the first prize.
4. as object As object after such verbs as: ask, agree, decide, desire, expect, hate, hope, manage, mean, offer, promise, want, wish, consent, endeavor, undertake aim, neglect, resolve, pretend, venture, fail, hesitate, determine, pledge, threaten etc. --I hope to be invited to the party. --They thought it rude to stare at a foreign visitor.
4. as object 2) as object in “V+ noun/pronoun + ( to) do” Verbs used in this type include : ask, advise, allow, beg, compel, expect, force, get, help, hope, invite, like, order, oblige, prefer, permit, tell, want, wish, recommend remind, persuade, encourage, urge, induce, imagine etc. After some phrases: call on, care for, count on, long for, rely on, vote for, wait for etc.
2) as object in “V+ noun/pronoun + ( to) do” - -She doesn't allow her husband to smoke in the house. --We’ll ___ our monitor. A. vote for Tom B. vote Tom be C. vote for Tom to be C. vote Tom to be Answer: C --Don’t ___ you any help. A. count us on to give B. count on us to give C. count on us give D. count us to give Answer: B
2) as object in “V+ noun/pronoun + ( to) do” Note that some of these verbs (see, hear, make, let, have, etc.) are followed by object + bare infinitive. Also note that such verbs as advise, allow, encourage and permit are followed by an - ing participle when the logical subject is not clear. Compare --The doctor advised him to take a walk early in the morning. --The doctor advised taking a walk early in the morning.
3) as object in “ verbs+ to be + adjective” Verbs used: think, believe, suppose, know, find, understand, prove, declarer, take, Imagine etc. After consider, find and think, “to be” can be omitted. --She ____ herself ____ than others. A. imagine, cleverer B. imagined, to be cleverer C. imagine, being cleverer D. imagined, to have been cleverer Answer: B
5. as modifier -- Are you going to attend the dance ____on Saturday evening? held B. being held C. to be held D. holding Answer C -- I have a swimming suit to ___ the cleaners ( 干洗店）. A. be send to B. Send to C. be sent to D. be sending to Answer: C.
5. as modifier 1) sth + to do --Do you have anything to offer? --There is plenty to do here. -- It seems to be the only thing to do. --There is no reason to doubt his word. --I am surprised at his eagerness to return.
5. as modifier 2) sb + to do --He was the first/ second/ the only one to arrive. --She was the first person to be awarded the prize. -- She was the second woman to be killed this way. --She will be the suitable person to be given this job.
6. As adverbial of purpose : so as to/in order to --He went abroad to study physics. As adverbial of result: So …as to/ such as to / enough to / too…to/ only to --He was ___ take him for his brother. A. so confused that B. so confused as to C. so confuse that D. so confuse as Answer: B
6. As adverbial of result such as to 那 ( 或这 ) 样 … 以致，到如此程度以致 His illness was not such as to cause anxiety. 他的病还不至于达到令人焦虑不安的程度。 The problem is such as to interest only a few people. 这样的问题只能使少数人感兴趣。
6. As adverbial of result such that 如此... 以致于 Their anxiety was such that they could not sleep. 他们如此焦虑，难以入睡。 His behavior was such that everyone disliked him. 他的行为太不象话，（以致）哪位都讨厌他。 His anger was such that he lost control of himself. 他勃然大怒，以致不能自我控制。
7. Interrogative word.+ to infinitive used as subject complement “ how, what, when, where, who+ to” --Last summer I took a course on ____ A.how to make dress B. How dress be made C. How to be made dress D. how dress to be made Answer: A 10) The question is ____ A.to buy which of computer B. which kind computer to buy C. which kind of computer to buy D. to buy which computer Answer: C
8. Other use of the infinitive The following phrases can also be followed by an infinitive. be about make up one’s mind be able afford occur to sb. make an/every effort turn out ( prove to be) --It didn’t occur to me to ask him for proof of his identity. (= I didn’t think of asking him for proof of his identity.) -- It occurred to me that he was trying to conceal sth. (= the idea came to me)
8. Other use of the infinitive 3) As insert to denote the speaker’s attitude, Such infinitive phrase is called sentence adverbial. such as: to be honest, to be fair, to tell you the truth, to speak the truth, to be true, to be frank, to speak frankly, to cut a long story short, to put in another way, to begin with, to be sure, to sum up, to be brief, not to speak, to return to the subject, to do one justice, to be plain, to make things worse etc.. To be frank, I didn’t agree with you