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Teaching Students with ADHD and LD

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching Students with ADHD and LD"— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching Students with ADHD and LD
EDILBERTO I. DIZON Professor & SPED Diagnostician-Counselor

2 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Indicators of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities

3 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
It is a disorder where children consistently display behaviors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that are long term and excessive.

4 1. Inattention Short attention span; lack of focus
Attention shift from one thing to another Lack of attention to details; making careless mistakes

5 Lack of organization even of behaviors
High level of distractibility; forgetfulness Avoidance of meticulous tasks requiring sustained attention and effort; short-cutting of tasks

6 2. Hyperactivity Fidgety behaviors; restlessness
Inappropriate/ Non-Purposive locomotion (usually running); exploratory behaviors

7 Difficulty engaging in quiet activities
Tendency to hurry; giving up easily

8 Difficulty waiting for his turn
3. Impulsivity Difficulty waiting for his turn Difficulty deferring need gratification

9 Lack of sense of caution and danger; daringness
The speed of physical reactions over mental/cognitive reactions

10 Lack of regard for quality of outputs/tasks done
4. Others High pain tolerance Emotional lability Lack of regard for quality of outputs/tasks done

11 Delay in social maturation
Possible academic underachievement Possible language-communication lags Possible learning disabilities

12 Learning Disabilities
Children with learning disabilities (e.g., dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia) are intellectually and behaviorally normal children except that they exhibit specific learning/cognitive disabilities/disorders needing specialized and individualized intervention.

13 Difficulty comprehending concepts and procedures
Difficulty remembering/retaining concepts and procedures previously learned

14 Perceptual (visual, auditory, etc) and possibly motoral delays/ deficits as shown by the child’s outputs/performance

15 Lack of organization of cognitive processing as shown by the child’s output/performance
Difficulty transferring learning from one situation to another (concept application)

16 Delay in language-analytical abilities especially in using print materials
Task avoidance Underachievement/ Delayed Achievement in the area/s of difficulty

17 II. Educational Intervention

18 Principles and Guidelines
Teaching Children with ADHD

19 Seat the child appropriately- not near the door, between highly verbal/overly-enthusiastic classmates, nor too close to each other.

20 2. Structure the room without so much distractors/ visual stimuli. 3
2. Structure the room without so much distractors/ visual stimuli. 3. Keep noise level to the minimum. 4. Establish and monitor observance of routine.

21 5. Set co-planned rules and
exercise consistency. 6. Teach the child to organize his things and notes, and checking them routinely.

22 7. Present one lesson at a time ensuring satisfactory completion of one before moving on to the next one. 8. Let the child redo tasks carelessly/hurriedly done.

23 9. Motivate the child to try his best
9. Motivate the child to try his best. Inspire him through the use of appropriate literature- based materials. 10. Assign responsibilities (e.g., collecting and distributing paper, arranging fixtures, getting things) for which he can be praised and will permit legitimate locomotion.

24 11. Intersperse “reward”/light activities between heavy ones. 12
11. Intersperse “reward”/light activities between heavy ones. 12. Coordinate with other teachers, home members and support-service givers (occupational therapist, speech therapist, etc.).

25 Principles and Guidelines with Learning Disabilities
in Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities

26 Simplify lessons. Tackle instructions and activities step by step to ensure comprehension.

27 3. Use appropriate instructional materials to facilitate learning; select appropriate selections and prepare differentiated jobsheets.

28 4. Be tactful- without being harshly critical of errors. 5
4. Be tactful- without being harshly critical of errors. 5. Provide review/drill exercises to ensure mastery

29 6. Conduct developmental
evaluation for remediation. 7. Ensure a conducive learning environment where classmates and the emotional climate are supportive.

30 8. Provide plenty of opportunities for skills applications in practical situations. 9. Teach and monitor good study habits and attitudes.

31 10. Collaborate with other teachers, home members and support- service givers.

32 11. Inspire the child to initiate and assume intrinsic responsibility for self-improvement.

33 12. Organize a study/support group where brighter peers can help those with difficulties.

34 TEACHING STRATEGIES

35 BEHAVIORAL Use behavior-management techniques Reward and Punishment
Demand-Reward System Stimulus Control

36 Chaining/Task-analysis
Modeling; Buddy system Token system Contracting Time out/Cool off

37 2. Provide short intervals of physical exercises enabling the child to “stim”/steam excess energy. 3. Provide additional worksheets and other related constructive table- top activities the child can engage in when done with lessons/seatwork/exams.

38 once in a while to check on his attention/focus.
4. Call on the child to recite once in a while to check on his attention/focus. 5. Join the child in group activities- reminding/instructing his groupmates to keep him constructively busy.

39 6. Teach the child the sequence of a specific task or set of activities. Such routine is associated with verbal cues like numbers: (e.g., “1”-Line up first; “2” –Get your worksheet; “3”- Go back to your seat; “4” Answer the worksheet; and “5”- Give the worksheet to me (the teacher) after finishing it.

40 7. Join the child in simulations like role-playing; puppetry and dialogues enabling him to engage in sustained verbal interactions/reciprocal communication.

41 clearly about an assigned topic.
9. Let the child report in class completely and clearly about an assigned topic.

42 10. Join the child in a club or organization aimed at increasing academic and psychosocial skills.

43 activities/expectations. Let him monitor his performance
11. Teach the child to prepare a checklist of daily activities/expectations. Let him monitor his performance objectively and check the list regularly.

44 like rolling/passing the ball following the leader, mimicking models/
12. Provide structured games like rolling/passing the ball following the leader, mimicking models/ demonstrated actions, walking through hurdles: stools plastic bottles, etc.

45 counselor or an older student facilitator presents
13. Behavior Coaching. A teacher, the guidance counselor or an older student facilitator presents hypothetical situations or uses biblio-materials and even songs and art materials for values formation.

46 elaborating things done during each day.
14. Let the child fill up a journal-relating and elaborating things done during each day.

47 A professional teacher is employed by the parent to shadow-teach the
15. Shadow teaching. A professional teacher is employed by the parent to shadow-teach the child and manage his behaviors inside the classroom.

48 Providing a regimen of physical/relaxation exercises (e.g., taekwondo and other martial arts, yoga and other meditation exercises).

49 COGNITIVE Academic Task Analysis.
Break a skill into behavioral components (subskills) ensuring the mastery of a subskill before moving on to the next one. Ex. a) Copying lines, b) Copying line combinations, c) Copying circles, d) Copying “stick” persons

50 2. Visual-Aural Kinesthetic Approach. Ex. Word Building
Reading the word alongside showing the word written on a card, Showing a pictorial representation of the word, Letting the child read the word,

51 d) Letting the child trace the letters with his fingers as he reads them one by one,
e) Letting him say the letters one by one as he writes them in the air, f) Spelling the word on paper, and g) Checking his work.

52 3. Use of appropriate materials progressing from
Concrete level, Figural level, Symbolic level, and Semantic level. Ex. Using objects, pictures, and numbers in adding numbers and then solving simple addition word problems.

53 4. Use visual-motor exercise, board and word games (scrabble, boggle, crossword puzzle, etc.), arts and crafts, and simple group games to increase comprehension, word-building, and lengthen attention span and perceptuo-cognitive skills.

54 5. Provide structured practical tasks to improve sitting, attending and performing behaviors. Ex. Cutting with scissors, folding paper, wrapping objects/boxes, packing away materials, stacking up materials, arranging/sequencing materials and sorting things (including comprehending and following verbal commands).

55 6. Cumulative Learning. To ensure mastery, a day’s lesson is incorporated into the succeeding day’s lesson and then incorporated (first and second day’s lessons) into the third day’s lesson. Thus, for example: book is taught Monday; on Tuesday the same word (book) is taught alongside the second word: paper; on Wednesday, paper and book are taught with the new word pencil, and so on.

56 7. Generalization/Application from academic/theoretical lessons taught in class to actual performance at home and other situations. Thus, if the child is learning number-object correspondence in school, the child can be commanded to get specific numbers of objects (e.g., “Get three spoons”).

57 8. Semantic Webbing. Grouping together words that go together by specific categories/systems of classifications. Thus, the child is asked to put together all animal words: dog, cat, pig, goat under the category: animals.

58 9. Modeling. The teacher models a language structure or a specific behavior and then instructs the child to imitate such consistent performance over time for mastery.

59 10. Multi-media Instruction.
The teacher utilizes the computer, the DVD, the record player, charts, and other materials to introduce/reinforce/supplement lessons. Caution is observed so that lessons and materials are tackled one at a time to prevent overstimulation/confusion.

60

61 11. Cognitive Processing. Every task/lesson is broken into a continuum of sequential cognitive processes: e.g., recognition, identification, association, discrimination, etc. The lesson/task is taken one at a time from the basic process to the most complex he is able to tackle. Such strategy facilitates learning and is attuned to the cognitive processing of the child.

62 12. Therapeutic Teaching. Utilizing human kinetics and the arts: music, drama, play, dance, literature, art, etc. to achieve therapeutic teaching goals: relaxation, enjoyment, socialization, self-expression, awareness expansion, valuing, decision making, etc.

63

64 a learning opportunity”.
“Every opportunity, a learning opportunity”.

65 Do not forget that wherever the child is and whoever the child is with, planned opportunities can be provided to enable to learn (e.g., When in the car, he can be asked what he sees; When in the mall, he can be led to comment on what he sees; when in the supermarket, he can pick out an item that corresponds to the product label he brought along).

66 Remember also that mastery is today’s keyword
Remember also that mastery is today’s keyword. What is quantity without mastery? Let’s therefore, open our hearts and minds to these children who are now mainstreamed in your classes.

67 Let’s help them to be the
best that they can be in order that they, too, can have a FUTURE!!!


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