7Difficulty engaging in quiet activities Tendency to hurry; giving up easily
8Difficulty waiting for his turn 3. ImpulsivityDifficulty waiting for his turnDifficulty deferring need gratification
9Lack of sense of caution and danger; daringness The speed of physical reactions over mental/cognitive reactions
10Lack of regard for quality of outputs/tasks done 4. OthersHigh pain toleranceEmotional labilityLack of regard for quality of outputs/tasks done
11Delay in social maturation Possible academic underachievementPossible language-communication lagsPossible learning disabilities
12Learning Disabilities Children with learning disabilities (e.g., dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia) are intellectually and behaviorally normal children except that they exhibit specific learning/cognitive disabilities/disorders needing specialized and individualized intervention.
13Difficulty comprehending concepts and procedures Difficulty remembering/retaining concepts and procedures previously learned
14Perceptual (visual, auditory, etc) and possibly motoral delays/ deficits as shown by the child’s outputs/performance
15Lack of organization of cognitive processing as shown by the child’s output/performance Difficulty transferring learning from one situation to another (concept application)
16Delay in language-analytical abilities especially in using print materials Task avoidanceUnderachievement/ Delayed Achievement in the area/s of difficulty
18Principles and Guidelines Teaching Childrenwith ADHD
19Seat the child appropriately- not near the door, between highly verbal/overly-enthusiastic classmates, nor too close to each other.
202. Structure the room without so much distractors/ visual stimuli. 3 2. Structure the room without so much distractors/ visual stimuli. 3. Keep noise level to the minimum. 4. Establish and monitor observance of routine.
215. Set co-planned rules and exercise consistency.6. Teach the child toorganize his things andnotes, and checking themroutinely.
227. Present one lesson at a time ensuring satisfactory completion of one before moving on to the next one. 8. Let the child redo tasks carelessly/hurriedly done.
239. Motivate the child to try his best 9. Motivate the child to try his best. Inspire him through the use of appropriate literature- based materials. 10. Assign responsibilities (e.g., collecting and distributing paper, arranging fixtures, getting things) for which he can be praised and will permit legitimate locomotion.
2411. Intersperse “reward”/light activities between heavy ones. 12 11. Intersperse “reward”/light activities between heavy ones. 12. Coordinate with other teachers, home members and support-service givers (occupational therapist, speech therapist, etc.).
25Principles and Guidelines with Learning Disabilities in Teaching Childrenwith Learning Disabilities
26Simplify lessons.Tackle instructions and activities step by step to ensure comprehension.
273. Use appropriate instructional materials to facilitate learning; select appropriate selections and prepare differentiated jobsheets.
284. Be tactful- without being harshly critical of errors. 5 4. Be tactful- without being harshly critical of errors. 5. Provide review/drill exercises to ensure mastery
296. Conduct developmental evaluation for remediation.7. Ensure a conducive learningenvironment where classmatesand the emotional climate aresupportive.
308. Provide plenty of opportunities for skills applications in practical situations. 9. Teach and monitor good study habits and attitudes.
35BEHAVIORAL Use behavior-management techniques Reward and Punishment Demand-Reward SystemStimulus Control
36Chaining/Task-analysis Modeling; Buddy systemToken systemContractingTime out/Cool off
372. Provide short intervals of physical exercises enabling the child to “stim”/steam excess energy. 3. Provide additional worksheets and other related constructive table- top activities the child can engage in when done with lessons/seatwork/exams.
38once in a while to check on his attention/focus. 4. Call on the child to reciteonce in a while to check onhis attention/focus.5. Join the child in groupactivities-reminding/instructing hisgroupmates to keep himconstructively busy.
396. Teach the child the sequence of a specific task or set of activities. Such routine is associated with verbal cues like numbers: (e.g., “1”-Line up first; “2” –Get your worksheet; “3”- Go back to your seat; “4” Answer the worksheet; and “5”- Give the worksheet to me (the teacher) after finishing it.
407. Join the child in simulations like role-playing; puppetry and dialogues enabling him to engage in sustained verbal interactions/reciprocal communication.
41clearly about an assigned topic. 9. Let the child report inclass completely andclearly about an assignedtopic.
4210. Join the child ina club ororganizationaimed atincreasingacademic andpsychosocial skills.
43activities/expectations. Let him monitor his performance 11. Teach the child to prepare achecklist of dailyactivities/expectations. Lethim monitor his performanceobjectively and check thelist regularly.
44like rolling/passing the ball following the leader, mimicking models/ 12. Provide structured gameslike rolling/passing theball following the leader,mimicking models/demonstrated actions,walking through hurdles:stools plastic bottles, etc.
45counselor or an older student facilitator presents 13. Behavior Coaching. Ateacher, the guidancecounselor or an older studentfacilitator presentshypothetical situations or usesbiblio-materials and even songsand art materials for valuesformation.
46elaborating things done during each day. 14. Let the child fill up ajournal-relating andelaborating things doneduring each day.
47A professional teacher is employed by the parent to shadow-teach the 15. Shadow teaching.A professionalteacher isemployed by the parentto shadow-teach thechild and manage hisbehaviors inside theclassroom.
48Providing a regimen ofphysical/relaxation exercises (e.g., taekwondo and other martial arts, yoga and other meditation exercises).
49COGNITIVE Academic Task Analysis. Break a skill into behavioral components (subskills) ensuring the mastery of a subskill before moving on to the next one. Ex. a) Copying lines, b) Copying line combinations, c) Copying circles, d) Copying “stick” persons
502. Visual-Aural Kinesthetic Approach. Ex. Word Building Reading the word alongside showing the word written on a card,Showing a pictorial representation of the word,Letting the child read the word,
51d) Letting the child trace the letters with his fingers as he reads them one by one, e) Letting him say the letters one by one as he writes them in the air,f) Spelling the word on paper, andg) Checking his work.
523. Use of appropriate materials progressing from Concrete level,Figural level,Symbolic level, andSemantic level.Ex. Using objects, pictures, and numbers in adding numbers and then solving simple addition word problems.
534. Use visual-motor exercise, board and word games (scrabble, boggle, crossword puzzle, etc.), arts and crafts, and simple group games to increase comprehension, word-building, and lengthen attention span and perceptuo-cognitive skills.
545. Provide structured practical tasks to improve sitting, attending and performing behaviors. Ex. Cutting with scissors, folding paper, wrapping objects/boxes, packing away materials, stacking up materials, arranging/sequencing materials and sorting things (including comprehending and following verbal commands).
556. Cumulative Learning. To ensure mastery, a day’s lesson is incorporated into the succeeding day’s lesson and then incorporated (first and second day’s lessons) into the third day’s lesson. Thus, for example: book is taught Monday; on Tuesday the same word (book) is taught alongside the second word: paper; on Wednesday, paper and book are taught with the new word pencil, and so on.
567. Generalization/Application from academic/theoretical lessons taught in class to actual performance at home and other situations. Thus, if the child is learning number-object correspondence in school, the child can be commanded to get specific numbers of objects (e.g., “Get three spoons”).
578. Semantic Webbing. Grouping together words that go together by specific categories/systems of classifications. Thus, the child is asked to put together all animal words: dog, cat, pig, goat under the category: animals.
589. Modeling.The teacher models a language structure or a specific behavior and then instructs the child to imitate such consistent performance over time for mastery.
5910. Multi-media Instruction. The teacher utilizes the computer, the DVD, the record player, charts, and other materials to introduce/reinforce/supplement lessons. Caution is observed so that lessons and materials are tackled one at a time to prevent overstimulation/confusion.
6111. Cognitive Processing. Every task/lesson is broken into a continuum of sequential cognitive processes: e.g., recognition, identification, association, discrimination, etc. The lesson/task is taken one at a time from the basic process to the most complex he is able to tackle. Such strategy facilitates learning and is attuned to the cognitive processing of the child.
6212. Therapeutic Teaching. Utilizing human kinetics and the arts: music, drama, play, dance, literature, art, etc. to achieve therapeutic teaching goals: relaxation, enjoyment, socialization, self-expression, awareness expansion, valuing, decision making, etc.
65Do not forget that wherever the child is and whoever the child is with, planned opportunities can be provided to enable to learn (e.g., When in the car, he can be asked what he sees; When in the mall, he can be led to comment on what he sees; when in the supermarket, he can pick out an item that corresponds to the product label he brought along).
66Remember also that mastery is today’s keyword Remember also that mastery is today’s keyword. What is quantity without mastery? Let’s therefore, open our hearts and minds to these children who are now mainstreamed in your classes.
67Let’s help them to be the best that they can be in order that they, too, can have aFUTURE!!!