Depending / how busy / system you will see / file / same name / your original document select / “I agree to the above statement” / drop down list What are the missing words from this sentence? you need ______ nothing ______
Depending / how busy / system DEPENDING ON HOW BUSY THE SYSTEM IS you will see / file / same name / your original document YOU WILL SEE A FILE WITH THE SAME NAME AS YOUR ORIGINAL DOCUMENT select / “I agree to the above statement” / drop down list SELECT “I AGREE TO THE ABOVE STATEMENT” FROM THE DROP-DOWN LIST What are the missing words from this sentence? You need __ nothing ____ you need DO nothing ELSE
Presenting a caseDescribing a reaction to another writer’s position Other verbs of reference
Presenting a caseDescribing a reaction to another writer’s position Other verbs of reference argue claim consider hypothesise suggest believe think state accept admit agree deny doubt assume conclude discover explain imply indicate maintain presume reveal show
Practice 1 Complete the sentences on your handout so that they reflect what the following writers say /said. A: “You could be right. I may have made a mistake in my estimate.” B: “I did not say that sheep were faster than horses.” C: “Whales are very intelligent animals.” D: “I support A’s position on cats and dogs.” E: “I’m not sure, but cows probably get cold in winter.” F: “After much research, I’ve found that pigs can’t fly.” G: “On my travels in the jungle I found a new type of frog.” H: “I think it unlikely that cats can learn to talk.” I: “Somebody should compare mouse behaviour with rat behaviour” J: “There may be a link between health and the seasons”.
Key A admitted* that he might have made a mistake in his estimate. (*or accepted / agreed) B denies saying that sheep are faster than horses. C states that whales are very intelligent animals. D agrees with A’s position on cats and dogs. E assumes that cows could get cold in winter. F concludes that pigs cannot fly. G discovered a new type of frog in the jungle. H doubts that cats can learn to talk. I suggests that mouse behaviour should be compared with rat behaviour. J hypothesised that there might be a link between health and the seasons.
What do the following verbs have in common? blame, censure, commend, condemn, criticise
What do the following verbs have in common? blame, censure, commend, condemn, criticise They are followed by somebody/something + for + noun / gerund. e.g. Lee (1998) blames foreign investors for the panic.
What pattern follows this group of verbs? assess, characterise, classify, define, describe, evaluate, identify, interpret, portray, present
What pattern follows this group of verbs? assess, characterise, classify, define, describe, evaluate, identify, interpret, portray, present Verb + somebody/something + as + noun / gerund e.g. Terry interprets rising oil prices as a result of Asian recovery.
Practice 2 Rewrite the following statements using one of the two sets of verbs listed above. e.g. K: “X’s work is responsible for many of our current economic problems” K blames X’s work for many of our current economic problems. L: “She was very careless about her research methods” M: “There are three main species of bees” N: “The cat family are the kings of the animal world” O: “I’m sure that dogs bark because they are nervous” P: “Trying to estimate the number of animal species is like shooting in the dark” Q: “Darwin was the greatest naturalist of the nineteenth century” R: “An insect is a six-legged arthropod.” S: “Queen Victoria was a short, rather fat woman with dark eyes” T: “Gregor Mendel can be considered the founder of modern genetics”
Practice 2 : Prompts L criticised… M classifies… N characterises… O interprets… P describes… Q evaluates… R defines… S portrays… T identifies Gregor Mendel…
Practice 2 : Key L criticises her for being careless about her research methods / for the carelessness of her research methods. M classifies bees into three main species. N characterises the cat family as “the kings of the animal world”. O interprets dogs’ barking as nervousness. P describes trying to estimate the number of animal species as being like “shooting in the dark”. Q evaluates Darwin as “the greatest naturalist of the nineteenth century.” R defines an insect as a “six-legged arthropod.” S portrays Queen Victoria as “a short, rather fat woman with dark eyes.” T identifies Gregor Mendel as “the founder of modern genetics.”
Other expressions According to X, “what X said” As X states / argues etc, “what X said” In the words of X, “what X said” For X, “what X said” X’s position / contention / argument is that…