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International Research Methods © Mahir NAKİP Professor of Marketing (113 slyts) 1.

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Presentation on theme: "International Research Methods © Mahir NAKİP Professor of Marketing (113 slyts) 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Research Methods © Mahir NAKİP Professor of Marketing (113 slyts) 1

2 The Nature of International Research (IR) 2

3 Decision Making and IR Decision Making Process Authority Intuition (sezgi) Experience Research Research is not the single source of decision making 3

4 Authority : Executive authorities of a firm can be consider as an experts to make any decision. They are credible, informative and authorized as well. Intuition : is the management's sixth sense. Some decisions appear to be made from such quick flashes insight Experience : Experience-based information drawn from past situation is empirically based, in that past observations from the basis for it. 4

5 Research and the Global Marketplace European Union ((EU), North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and Association of Southeast Asians (ASEAN) are international agreements which create wide multinational markets. These markets need to be searched scientifically, deeply and widely. International research differs than domestic research conceptually. 5

6 Differences Between Domestic and International Research 1. New parameters: Duties, foreign currencies, different distributive structures, international documentation, labor regulations 2. New Environmental factors: Languages, culture, religion, political system\ and level of technology. 3. Border competition: The more the market internationalize, the more the need to research. 6

7 research covers a wide range of phenomena. How? For managers, the purpose of research is to provide knowledge regarding the organization, the market, the economy. A financial manager may ask, “Will the environment for long-term financing be better two years from now?” A personnel manager may ask, “What kind of training is necessary for production employees?” or “What is the reason for the company’s high employee turnover?” A marketing manager may ask, “How can I monitor my retail sales and retail trade activities?” Each of these questions requires information about how the environment, employees, customers, or the economy will respond to executives’ decisions. Research is one of the principal tools for answering these questions. 7

8 Every issue ultimately boils down to( indirgemek )an information problem. Can the right information be delivered? The ultimate goal of research is to supply accurate information that reduces the uncertainty in managerial decision making. Very often, decisions are made with little information for various reasons, including cost considerations, insufficient time to conduct research, or management’s belief that enough is already known. Occasionally there are successes, but in the long run, intuition ( sezgi ) without research leads to losses. research helps decision makers shift from intuitive information gathering to systematic and objective investigation. 8

9 What is Research? … is a field of practical study in which a company obtains data and analyze it in order to better manage the company. research can include economical data, political data, financial data, consumer feedback, product research and competitive analysis. Executives and managers who use research methods are able to better understand their company, the position it holds in the market and how to improve that position. 9

10 What is International Research? … is applying the methods of normal research to international environment. 10

11 is the application of the scientific method in searching for the truth about phenomena. These activities include defining opportunities and problems, generating and evaluating alternative courses of action, and monitoring employee and organizational performance. research is more than conducting surveys. This process includes idea and theory development, problem definition, searching for and collecting information, analyzing data, and communicating the findings. More scientifically: research… 11

12 What is Marketing Research? “...the function which links the consumer and the customer to the organization through information...” - Glossary of Marketing Terms “Marketing research is the firm’s formal communication link with the environment.” - Albert Churchill 12

13 What is the difference between consumer and customer? Consumer: Person who consumes a kind of product without taking care of the brand. People who drinks milk. Customer: Person who consumes special kind of brand. People who drinks Pınar milk… 13

14 research-development (R&D)? Research and Technological Development refers to a specific group of activities within a business. The activities that are classified as R&D differ from company to company, but there are two primary models. In one model, the primary function of an R&D group is to develop new products; in the other model, the primary function of an R&D group is to discover and create new knowledge about scientific and technological topics for the purpose of uncovering and enabling development of valuable new products, processes, and services.new products The first model of R&D is generally staffed by engineers while the second model may be staffed with industrial scientists.engineersindustrial scientists 14

15 Marketing Research; Begins before production process and continue after the consumption. Includes: (uncontrollable) macro environment factors: (1) Demographics (2) Socio-cultural structure (3) competition (4) laws (5) economics (6) technology (7) political condition Includes also (controllable) micro environment: (1) Product (2) Price (3) Physical distribution (4) promotion Aims: (1) solving problems (2) idea generation (3) opportunity evaluation Should be: (1) scientific (2) systematic (3) unbiased Is: (1) Collecting data (2) classification (3) analyze (4) interpret (5) reporting 15

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18 Country/Region Expenditures on R&D (billions $) % of GDP 1.IsraelIsrael 9,44,20% 2. South KoreaSouth Korea 55,83,74% 3. JapanJapan 160,33,67% 4. SwedenSweden 11,93,30% 5. FinlandFinland 6,33,10% 6. United StatesUnited States 405,32,70% 7. AustriaAustria 8,32,50% 8. DenmarkDenmark 5,12,40% 9. IcelandIceland 0,32,30% 10.SwitzerlandSwitzerland 7,52,30% 11.TaiwanTaiwan 19,02,30% 12. GermanyGermany 69,52,30% 13. SingaporeSingapore6,32,20% List of countries by research and development spending. Above 2% (2010) 18

19 List of countries by research and development spending. Above 1% Less 2% (2010) Country/Region Expenditures on R&D (billions $) % of GDP 14. ChinaChina 296,81,97% 15. FranceFrance 42,21,90% 16. CanadaCanada 24,31,80% 17. BelgiumBelgium 6,91,70% 18. AustraliaAustralia 15,91,70% 19. United KingdomUnited Kingdom 38,41,70% 20. LuxembourgLuxembourg 0,671,62% 21. NorwayNorway 4,21,60% 22. NetherlandsNetherlands 10,81,60% 23. SloveniaSlovenia 0,81,40% 24. IrelandIreland 2,61,40% 25. Czech RepublicCzech Republic 3,81,40% 26. SpainSpain 17,21,30% 27. New ZealandNew Zealand 1,41,20% 28. PortugalPortugal 2,81,20% 29. EstoniaEstonia 0,361,11% 30. ItalyItaly 19,01,10% 31. RussiaRussia23,8 n1 n1 1,00% 19

20 The ranking of Turkey by research and development spending. Less 1% (2010) Country/Region Expenditures on R&D (billions $) % of GDP 32. BelarusBelarus 1,020,96% 33. HungaryHungary 1,70,90% 34. PolandPoland 6,90,90% 35. BrazilBrazil 19,40,90% 36. IndiaIndia 36,10,90% 37. TunisiaTunisia 0,660,86% 38. UkraineUkraine 2,750,85% 39. LithuaniaLithuania 0,470,82% 40. CroatiaCroatia 0,70,81% 41. South AfricaSouth Africa 3,70,70% 42. Turkey Turkey 6,90,70% 20

21 Why has been Turkey Taken 42. Place? 1. Turkish companies take patents from developed countries. 2. Turkish firmes avoid the high cost of R&D 3. Lack of consciousness (bilinç) in Turkish firms 4. Lack of public support 21

22 Nu of R&D Personnel Per Employees in Turkey

23 R&D Domestic Expenditures in Turkey

24 Public Industrial Sector higher education The distribution of R&D Expenditures Among the sectors in Turkey

25 Product Development Creation of products with new or different characteristics that offer new or additional benefits to the customer. Product development may involve modification of an existing product or its presentation, or formulation of an entirely new product that satisfies a newly defined customer want or market niche.productscharacteristicsofferbenefitscustomer modificationpresentationnew productwant market niche In business and engineering, new product development (NPD) is the complete process of bringing a new product to market (invantion). A product is a set of benefits offered for exchange and can be tangible (that is, something physical you can touch) or intangible (like a service, experience, or belief).businessengineeringproduct There are two parallel paths involved in the NPD process: (1) involves the idea generation, product design and detail engineering; (2) involves market research and marketing analysis. Companies typically see new product development as the first stage in generating and commercializing new product within the overall strategic process of product life cycle management used to maintain or grow their market share.product designmarketing analysisfirst stage product life cycle management Invention Imitation 25

26 R&D is engineering oriented, product development is marketing oriented 26

27 Applied and Basic Research 27

28 Applied research is conducted to address a specific decision (problem or opportunity) for a specific firm or organization. For example, is it profitable for Eti to enter fruit juice sector? Or How much billboard ads do effect the sales of Istikbal products? 28

29 Basic research is conducted without a specific decision in mind, and it usually does not address the needs of a specific organization. It attempts to expand the limits of knowledge in general, and as such it is not aimed at solving a particular pragmatic (uygulayıcı, öğretici) problem. Basic research can be used to test the validity of a general theory or to learn more about a particular phenomenon. For instance, a great deal of basic research addresses employee motivation. How can managers best encourage workers to dedicate themselves toward the organization’s goals? From such research, we can learn the factors that are most important to workers and how to create an environment where employees are most highly motivated. Or does relation marketing concept has same effect in undeveloped countries also? These two basic researches do not examine the problem from any single organization’s perspective. 29

30 All research, whether basic or applied, involves the scientific method. The scientific method is the way researchers go about using knowledge and evidence to reach objective conclusions about the real world. The scientific method is the same in social sciences, such as business, as in physical sciences, such as physics. In this case, it is the way we come to understand business phenomena. What is The Scientific Method? 30

31 Conclusion Hypothesis Test Hypothesis Observation Theory Prior Knowledge Sources and Procedures of Scientific Methods 31

32 Observations Form the basis by which we recognize or note facts. They are our perceptions of reality. They are experiential (tecrübi) in nature. Facts Are those things or phenomena that we believe are true. Facts are generally consensual (gayri ihtiyari) in nature, in that others who have observed the same phenomena agree to their existence. 32

33 Concepts Are the basic building blocks of scientific investigation. They are creations of the human mind that are used in the classification and communication of the essence (cevher,öz) of some set of observations. Concepts are abstract ideas generalized from particular facts. Without concepts, there can be no theory. Models Are any highly formalized representation of a theoretical network, usually designed through the use of symbols. Models Are any highly formalized representation of a theoretical network, usually designed through the use of symbols. 33

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35 Managerial Value of Research 35

36 associated with the development and implementation of a strategy involves four interrelated stages: The decision-making process 1. Identifying problems or opportunities 2. Diagnosing (teşhis) and assessing problems or opportunities 3. Selecting and implementing a course of action 4. Evaluating the course of action 36

37 1. Identifying problems or opportunities research can help managers plan strategies by determining the nature of situations or by identifying the existence of problems or opportunities present in the organization. research may be used as a scanning activity to provide information about what is occurring within an organization or in its environment. The mere (sırf, yalnız) description of some social or economic activity may familiarize managers with organizational and environmental occurrences and help them understand a situation. Without identifying the problem or describing the opportunity, the research can not be start. The other steps depends upon identification. 37

38 2. Diagnosing (teşhis) and assessing problems or opportunities Managers need to gain insight about the underlying factors causing the situation. If there is a problem, they need to specify what happened and why. If an opportunity exists, they may need to explore (keşfetmek), refine, and quantity the opportunity. If multiple opportunities exist, research may be conducted to set priorities. Cause Effect 38

39 3. Selecting and implementing a course (yön) of action research is often conducted to obtain specific information that will aid in evaluating the alternatives and in selecting the best course of action. 39

40 4. Evaluating the course of action Managers may use evaluation research to provide feedback for evaluation and control of strategies and tactics. Evaluation Research is the formal, objective measurement and appraisal (değer biçme) of the extent a given activity, project, or program has achieved its objectives. In addition to organizations, nonprofit organizations and governmental agencies frequently conduct evaluation research. Every year thousands of federal evaluation studies are undertaken to systematically assess the effects of public programs. Performance-monitoring research is a specific type of evaluation research that regularly, perhaps routinely, provides feedback for the evaluation and control of recurring (tekrarlanan) activity. For example, most firms continuously monitor wholesale and retail activity to ensure early detection (tespit) of sales declines and other anomalies (aykırılık). THY constantly and frequently evaluates it’s staff performance by using survey methods. 40

41 When Is Research Needed? 41

42 Not every decision requires research. Thus, when confronting (karşılaşmak) a key decision, a manager must initially decide whether or not to conduct business research. The determination of the need for research centers on (1)time constraints (kısıtlar), (2) the availability of data, (3) the nature of the decision to be made, and (4) the value of the research information in relation to costs. 42

43 (1)Time constraints (kısıtlar), Systematic research takes time. In many instances, management believes that a decision must be made immediately, allowing no time for research. Decisions sometimes are made without adequate information or thorough (şamil) understanding of the situation. Although making decisions without researching a situation is not ideal, sometimes the urgency of a situation blocks the use of research 43

44 (2) Availability of data, Often managers already possess enough data, or information, to make sound decisions without additional research. When they lack adequate information, however, research must be considered. This means that data need to be collected from an appropriate source. If a potential source of data exists, managers will want to know how much it will cost to get the data. 44

45 (3) Nature of the decision to be made A routine tactical decision that does not require a substantial investment may not seem to warrant (garanti etmek) a substantial expenditure for research. For example, a computer company must update its operator’s instruction manual when it makes minor product modifications. The research cost of determining the proper wording (üslup) to use in the updated manual is likely to be too high for such a minor decision. 45

46 4. Benefits Versus Costs Conducting research to obtain these benefits requires an expenditure of money. In any decision-making situation, managers must identify alternative courses of action and then weigh the value of each alternative against its cost. research can be thought of as an investment alternative. When deciding whether to make a decision without research or to postpone the decision in order to conduct research. 46

47 When NOT TO conduct BR? - when there is poor market timing - when the information already exists - when the decision has already been made - when the research is unethical - when the research results would not be used (e.g., “I know better” managers) - when there is a lack of resources –to do it right –to implement resulting decisions - when managers cannot agree on what they need to know - when the costs of the research are greater than its benefits 47

48 International Research in the Twenty- First Century 48

49 Communication Technologies Virtually (neredeyse) everyone is “connected” today. Increasingly, many people are “connected” nearly all the time. Within the lifetime of the typical undergraduate college senior, the way information is exchanged, stored, and gathered has been revolutionized completely. Today, the amount of information formally contained in an entire library can rest easily in a single personal computer 49

50 Our mobile phones and handheld data devices can be used not only to converse, but also as a means of communication that can even involve research data. In many cases, technology also has made it possible to store or collect data for lower costs than in the past. Electronic communications are usually less costly than regular mail—and certainly less costly than a face-to- face interview—and cost about the same amount no matter how far away a respondent is from a researcher. Thus, the expressions “time is collapsing” and “distance is disappearing” capture the tremendous revolution in the speed and reach of our communication technologies. Our mobile phones and handheld data devices can be used not only to converse, but also as a means of communication that can even involve research data. In many cases, technology also has made it possible to store or collect data for lower costs than in the past. Electronic communications are usually less costly than regular mail—and certainly less costly than a face-to- face interview—and cost about the same amount no matter how far away a respondent is from a researcher. Thus, the expressions “time is collapsing” and “distance is disappearing” capture the tremendous revolution in the speed and reach of our communication technologies. 50

51 Global Research Like all activities, research has become increasingly global as more and more; firms operate with few, if any, geographic boundaries. Some companies have extensive international research operations. Upjohn conducts research in 160 different countries. A.C. Nielsen International, known for its television ratings, is the world’s largest research company. Two-thirds of its business comes from outside the United States. 51

52 Classification of marketing research 52

53 Problem identification research is undertaken to help identify problems that are exist in the future. Examples of problem identification research include market potential, market share, brand or company image, market characteristics, sales analysis, short-range forecasting, long-range forecasting and trends research. Research of this type provides information about the marketing environment and helps diagnose (teşhis) a problem. 53

54 For example, a declining market potential indicates that the firm is likely to have a problem achieving its growth targets. Similarly, a problem exists if the market potential is increasing but the firm is losing market share. The recognition of economic, social or cultural trends, such as changes in consumer behaviour, may point to underlying problems or opportunities. 54

55 problem-solving research may be undertaken to help develop a solution. The findings of problem-solving research are used to support decisions that handle specific marketing problems. Problem-solving research is illustrated by the following example of revamping (yeniden canlandırmak) the image of any brand. 55

56 Examples of Problem-Solving Researches 56

57 research suppliers and services 57

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59 Internal supplier is a marketing research department or function located within a firm. Many firms, particularly large ones, maintain in-house marketing research departments. A marketing research department’s place in an organisation structure may vary quite considerably. At one extreme, the research function may be centralised and located at the corporate headquarters, allowing the development of a range of skills and expertise to be built up in a team. 59

60 At the other extreme is a decentralised structure in which the marketing research function is organised along divisional lines, allowing specific and focused expertise to be developed but without the breadth of experience that may lie in a centralised team. In a decentralised scheme, the company may be organised into divisions by products, customers or geographical regions, with marketing research personnel assigned to the various divisions. 60

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62 External suppliers are outside firms hired to supply marketing research data. These external suppliers collectively comprise (kapsamak) the marketing research industry. These suppliers range from small (one or a few persons) operations to very large global corporations. 62

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65 Full-service suppliers offer the entire range of marketing research services, for example defining a problem, developing a research design, conducting focus group interviews, designing questionnaires, sampling, collecting, analyzing and interpreting data, and presenting reports. 65

66 They may also address the marketing implications of the information they present. The services provided by these suppliers can be further broken down into syndicated services, standardized services and customized services 66

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68 Full-service suppliers Syndicated services collect information that they provide to subscribers. Surveys, diary panels, scanners and audits are the main means by which these data are collected. Standardised services are research studies conducted for different clients but in a standard way. For example, procedures for measuring advertising effectiveness have been standardised so that the results can be compared across studies and evaluative norms can be established. Customised services offer a variety of marketing research services specifically designed to suit a client’s particular needs. Each marketing research project is treated uniquely. Internet services offer a combination or variety of secondary data and intelligence gathering, survey or qualitative interviewing, and the analysis and publication of research findings, all through the Internet. 68

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70 Limited-service suppliers specialise in one or a few phases of a marketing research project. Services offered by such suppliers are classified as field services, coding and data entry, analytical services, data analysis, and branded products. 70

71 Field services collect data through mail, personal interviews or telephone interviews, and firms that specialise in interviewing are called field service organisations. These organisations may range from small proprietary organisations that operate locally to large multinationals. Coding and data entry services include editing completed questionnaires, developing a coding scheme, and transcribing the data on to diskettes or magnetic tapes for input into a computer. Analytical services include designing and pretesting questionnaires, determining the best means of collecting data, and designing sampling plans, as well as other aspects of the research design. Data analysis services are offered by firms, that specialise in computer analysis of quantitative data such as those obtained in large surveys. Initially, most data analysis firms supplied only tabulations and cross-tabulations. Now, many firms offer sophisticated data analysis using advanced statistical techniques. Branded marketing research products and services are specialised data collection and analysis procedures developed to address specific types of marketing research problems. These procedures may be patented, given brand names, and marketed like any other branded product. Microscope by Retail Marketing (In-Store) Services is an example of a branded product. 71

72 Competitors Marketing intermediaries Publics Suppliers Factors Influencing Company Marketing Strategy Marketing information system Marketing planning system Marketing organization system Marketing Implementation system Product Promotion PlacePrice Customer RelationshipsDemographic/economicenvironmentSocial/culturalenvironmentTechnical/physicalenvironmentPolitical/legalenvironment 72

73 Marketing Mix Research Product Research Price Research Distribution Research Promotion Research 73

74 Product Research Product research takes many forms and includes studies designed to evaluate and develop new products and to learn how to adapt existing product lines. Concept testing exposes potential customers to a new product idea to judge the acceptance and feasibility of the concept. Brand-name evaluation studies investigate whether a name is appropriate for a product. Package testing assesses size, color, shape, ease of use, and other attributes of a package. 74

75 Price Research Many test markets address the question of how consumers will respond to a product offering two different prices. Pricing involves finding the amount of monetary sacrifice that best represents the value customers perceive in a product after considering various market constraints (kısıtlamalar). Pricing research also investigates the way people respond to pricing tactics. How do consumers respond to price reductions in one form or another? How much are people willing to pay for some critical product attribute (nitelik)? Do consumers view prices and/ or quantity discounts as fair in a given category? Do price gaps among national brands, regional brands, and private labels exist? 75

76 Distribution research is symbolized by studies aimed at selecting retail sites or warehouse locations. A survey of retailers or wholesalers may be conducted because the actions of one channel member can greatly affect the performance of other channel members. Distribution research often is needed to gain knowledge about retailers’ and wholesalers’ operations and to learn their reactions to a manufacturer’s marketing policies. It may also be used to examine the effect of just-in-time ordering systems or exclusive distribution on product quality. Research focused on developing and improving the efficiency of marketing channels is extremely important. 76

77 Promotion research investigates the effectiveness of advertising, premiums, coupons, sampling, discounts, public relations, and other sales promotions. However, among all of these, firms spend more time, money, and effort on advertising research. Media research helps to make decisions about whether television, newspapers, magazines, or other media alternatives are best suited to convey the intended message. Choices among media alternatives may be based on research that shows the proportion of consumers in each market segment that a particular advertising vehicle can reach 77

78 International Research Process 78

79 First Step Preparing stage Second Step Third Step 3. Past of the subject 1. Determining research type Implementing the study Designing the study 2. Defining problem/opportunity 4. Questioning the research 5. Planning of research proposal 6. Choosing research method 7. Selecting sampling method 8. Collecting data 9. Classifying data 10. Analyzing data 11. findings interpretation 12. preparing report 13. Implementing the suggestions 14. monitoring the results 79

80 First Step Preparing stage 1. Determining research type A. Exploratory Research B. Descriptive ResearchC. Causality Research 80

81 A. Exploratory Research ♦ Conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. ♦ It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. ♦ Perceived problem does not actually exist. Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies.secondary researchfocus groupscase studiespilot studies ♦ The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature. For example, RSS feeds efficiently supply researchers with up-to- date information; major search engine search results may be sent by to researchers by services such as Google Alerts.InternetRSSsearch engine Google Alerts ♦ The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision- making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. ♦ Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to the population at large.population 81

82 B. Descriptive Research Descriptive research, is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred.population Rather it addresses the "what" question (What are the characteristics of the population or situation being studied?) The characteristics used to describe the situation or population are usually some kind of categorical scheme also known as descriptive categories. Descriptive research generally precedes (öncesinde gelmek) explanatory research. 82

83 C. Causality Research Causality (also referred to as causation) is the relation between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first.event effect In common usage, causality is also the relation between a set of factors (causes) and a phenomenon (the effect). Anything that affects an effect is a factor of that effect. A direct factor is a factor that affects an effect directly, that is, without any intervening factors. (Intervening (aracı) factors are sometimes called "intermediate factors".)effect 83

84 Examples for Types of Research Designs Exploratory Research Causal Research Descriptive Research Formulate problems more precisely Establish priorities for research Eliminate impractical ideas Clarify concepts Develop Hypotheses Literature search Experience survey Analysis of select cases Focus groups Interviews Projective tests Ethnographies Describe segment characteristics Estimate proportion of people who behave in a certain way Make specific predictions Test hypotheses Longitudinal study True panel Omnibus panel Sample Survey Provide evidence regarding causal relationships by means of: Concomitant variation Time order in which variables occur Elimination other explanations Laboratory experiment Field experiment UsesTypes 84

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86 First Step Preparing stage 2. Defining problem/opportunity The logical starting point in wishing to support the decision-maker is trying to understand what problem or opportunity is being tackled (ele alınan). 86

87 First Step Preparing stage 3. Past of the subject Means literature review. Who did, accepted, proved or rejected what? Searching past of the subject simplify the methodology process. Literature review can be conducted in a library or on Internet. 87

88 First Step Preparing stage 4. Questioning the research Studies should bring a benefit to the company and contribute to solve a problem or evaluate an opportunity. At this stage, the research must be carried out cost-benefit analysis. If the research cost is more than the benefit comes from the research, it is not necessary to continue the research. 88

89 Second Step Designing the study 5. Planning research proposal The purpose of any research should be written down. There is no ideal and single format or standard in social researches which includes all the steps of a research. Marketing research plan identifies and thoroughly explains all the steps one by one. Apart from these two issues a plan should include: (1) Research cost and (2) The time table 89

90 Research Proposal in Details (A) Problem Definition 1. background information 2. decision problem 3. evaluation of alternative research problems 4. research problem(s) to be addressed 5. review: information needed for decision (B) Research Plan: Exploratory / Secondary Research 1. purpose 2. methods 3. results (C) Research Plan: Descriptive Research 1. purpose 2. methods 3. sampling plan 4. data collection forms 5. data collection procedures 6. projected analyses (w/dummy tables for bivariate analyses) 7. expected results 8. limitations (D) Timeframe (E) Cost Estimates 90

91 Second Step Designing the study 6. Choosing research method Secondary Data Elementary Data Collected by us Collected by Somebody else 91

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93 Second Step Designing the study 7. Selecting sampling method 93

94 Third Step Implementing the study 8. Collecting data Data collection usually takes place early on in an improvement project, and is often formalised through a data collection plan which often contains the following activity:data collection plan 1. Pre collection activity — agree on goals, target data, definitions, methods 2. Collection — data collections 3. Present Findings — usually involves some form of sorting [2] analysis and/or presentation. [2] Other main types of collection include census, sample survey, and administrative by-product and each with their respective advantages and disadvantages. A census refers to data collection about everyone or everything in a group or statistical population and has advantages such as accuracy and detail, and disadvantages such as cost and timecensussample survey administrative by-productstatistical population 94

95 Third Step Implementing the study 9. Classifying data Data can be classify by using some statistical package programs such as SPSS, SAS, MINITAB. EXCEL also can be used for this purpose. Filtration or verification of data is also a part of data classification. Any mistake in data entering may cause a big analysis problem. 95

96 Implementing the study 10. Analyzing data Third Step Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains.datainformation Some statistical techniques use in analyzing data: -Chi square -Regression -Correlation -Variance -Discriminant -Cluster -Conjoint -Multidimensional scaling 96

97 Implementing the study 11. findings interpretation Third Step Interpretation of the statistical results needs a special ability. Usually the expert who conduct the statistical\ interprets the findings. The interpretation also should be in harmony and parallel with the goal of the research. 97

98 The entire project should be documented in a written report that addresses the specific research questions identified, describes the approach, research design, data collection and data analysis procedures adopted, and presents the results and major findings. Research findings should be presented in a comprehensible format so that they can be readily used in the decision making process. In addition, an oral presentation to management should be made using tables, figures and graphs to enhance clarity and impact. Implementing the study 12. preparing report Third Step 98

99 Implementing the study 13. Implementing the suggestions Third Step Actually the main process ends with the 12. phase. Phase 13. and 14. are feedbacks. Sides who are related to the research will start to implement the suggestions which offered in the final report. 99

100 Implementing the study 14. Monitoring the results Third Step The executive managers should monitor the result of the research periodically. Otherwise the result of the research could be useless and needless. 100

101 The limitations of research 1 research does not make decisions. The role of marketing research is not to make decisions. Rather, research replaces impressions or a total lack of knowledge with pertinent (münasip) information. 2 research does not guarantee success. Research, at best, can improve the probability of making a correct decision. Anyone who expects to eliminate the possibility of failure by doing research is both unrealistic and likely to be disappointed. The real value of research can be seen over a long period where increasing the percentage of good decisions should be manifested in improved bottom-line performance and in the occasional revelation that arises from research. 101

102 Research in the Twenty-First Century Communication Technologies Global Research 102

103 Communication Technologies Virtually (fiilen) everyone is “connected” today. Increasingly, many people are “connected” nearly all the time. Within the lifetime of the typical undergraduate college senior, the way information is exchanged, stored, and gathered has been revolutionized completely. Today, the amount of information formally contained in an entire library can rest easily in a single personal computer. Today, we can exchange information from nearly anywhere in the world to nearly anywhere in the world almost instantly. Internet connections are now wireless, so one doesn’t have to be tethered to a wall to access the World Wide Web. Our mobile phones and handheld data devices can be used not only to converse, but also as a means of communication that can even involve research data. In many cases, technology also has made it possible to store or collect data for lower costs than in the past. Electronic communications are usually less costly than regular mail—and certainly less costly than a face-to-face interview—and cost about the same amount no matter how far away a respondent is from a researcher. 103

104 Global Research Like all activities, research has become increasingly global as more and more firms operate with few, if any, geographic boundaries. Some companies have extensive international research operations. Upjohn conducts research in 160 different countries. ACNielsen International, known for its television ratings, is the world’s largest research company. Two-thirds of its business comes from outside the United States.12 Starbucks can now be found in nearly every developed country on the earth Companies that conduct business in foreign countries must understand the nature of those particular markets and judge whether they require customized business strategies. For example, although the fifteen nations of the European Union share a single formal market, research shows that Europeans do not share identical tastes for many consumer products. 104

105 International Research & Ethics Conducting researches according to ethical cods, which are cumulated over time and suggested by marketing reserchers. 105

106 Ethical Codes in Researches 1. Honesty Strive (gayret etmek) for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify (tahrif etmek), or misrepresent data. Do not deceive (kandirmak) colleagues, granting agencies, or the public. * Adapted from Shamoo A and Resnik D Responsible Conduct of Research, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press). 106

107 Ethical Codes in Researches (Continue) 2. Objectivity Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, personnel decisions, expert testimony (Şahitlik), and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception (kandırma). Disclose (ifşa etmek) personal or financial interests that may affect research. 107

108 Ethical Codes in Researches (Continue) 3. Integrity (dürüstlük) Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency (tutarlılık) of thought and action. 4. Carefulness Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers (ekip). Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence (yazışma) with agencies or journals 108

109 Ethical Codes in Researches (Continue) 5. Openness Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas. 6. Respect for Intellectual Property (Fikri Mülkiyet) Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. Give credit where credit is due. Give proper acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research. Never plagiarize (intihal yapmak) 109

110 Ethical Codes in Researches (Continue) 7. Confidentiality (Gizlilik) Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records. 8. Responsible Publication Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication. 9. Responsible Mentoring Help to educate and advise students. Promote their welfare (refah) and allow them to make their own decisions. 110

111 Ethical Codes in Researches (Continue) 10. Respect for colleagues Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly. 11. Social Responsibility Strive to promote social good and prevent through research, public education, and advocacy. 12. Non-Discrimination Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity. 111

112 Ethical Codes in Researches (Continue) 13. Competence (Yeterlik) Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole. 14. Legality Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies. 112

113 Ethical Codes in Researches (Continue) 15. Animal Care Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research. Do not conduct unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments. 16. Human Subjects Protection When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity (haysiyet), privacy, and autonomy; and strive to distribute the benefits of research fairly (dürüstçe). 113

114 Reasons for Conducting Ethical Researches 1. Unethical research is morally wrong: Unethical research may not be illegal, but at least it is not the right thing to do. 2. Unethical research can affect the image of the firm and management. 3. Unethical research can lead to poor-quality data and, ultimately to poor decision 4. New, potentially damaging ethical challenges are being created because of the explosive growth of technological capabilities in the research arena. 114

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