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Lesson 11 But What's a Dictionary For?. I. Aims and Contents of Teaching 1. the comprehension of the text and the mastery of the important language points.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 11 But What's a Dictionary For?. I. Aims and Contents of Teaching 1. the comprehension of the text and the mastery of the important language points."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 11 But What's a Dictionary For?

2 I. Aims and Contents of Teaching 1. the comprehension of the text and the mastery of the important language points 2. the paraphrases of certain complicated or difficult sentences

3 I. Aims and Contents of Teaching 3. the enlargement of the students' vocabulary 4. the familiarisation with the styles of composition and devices of figuration

4 II. Procedure of teaching 1. Questions and answers 2. Analysis of the structure and language 3. Detailed study of the text 4. Supplementary and text-book exercises

5 III. Background information Webster, Noah (Oct. 16, 1748 - May 28, 1843) American lexicographer and philologist, born in West Hartford, Conn. A Yale graduate.

6 III. Background information His Elementary Spelling Book (the first part of the Grammatical Institute of the English Language) and The American Dictionary of the English Language established the nobility and vitality of the American Language.

7 III. Background information He holds that the spelling and grammar of a language must be based on actual usage rather than artificial principles. And thus laid a foundation for the 20th century lexicography.

8 III. Background information The Elementary Spelling Book, first published in the late years of the 18th cent., standardized American spelling and by 1850, when the whole population was under 23 million, was sold at 1 million copies annually.

9 III. Background information The American Dictionary of the English Language, his greatest work, was published in 1828. Of the 70,000 words, 12,000 had not appeared in any other dictionaries before. Within one year, all the 2,500 copies issued in American and the 3,000 copies in Britain were sold out.

10 III. Background information In 1840, the second edition was a failure and he had to sell the copy right to Merriam Publishing Company which thereafter became the Merriam-Webster Incorporation. Webster's other contributions include efforts in the passage of a national copyright law, in the founding of the Amherst College etc.

11 III. Background information Dictionary: a published list, in alphabetical order, of the words of a language, explaining and defining them, or in the case of a bilingual dictionary, translating them into another language.

12 III. Background information In the 20th cent., American dictionary makers began to adopt criteria of use rather than of etymological purity. Dictionaries were produced in China, Greece, Islam, and other complex early cultures.

13 III. Background information The first modern examples of lexicography are thought to be Nathan Bailey's Universal Etymological English Dictionary (1721) and his larger Dictionarium Britannicum (1730), which served Samuel Johnson,

14 III. Background information who was considered as England's first complete man of letters, in preparing his Dictionary of the English Language (1755), the first comprehensive English lexicography.

15 III. Background information The next great lexicographer was Noah Webster. His American Dictionary of the English Language has been skilfully revised and abridged over the years, thereby retaining its popularity. A six- volume American encyclopaedic dictionary, The Century Dictionary, was completed in 1891.

16 III. Background information American Dictionary of the English Language ---1828 1840, second edition, failure, copyright sold to Merriam 1961, third edition, 2752 pages, 460,000 entries, 200,000 usage examples, 3,000 pictorial illustrations and more than 1,000 synonyms

17 III. Background information British lexicographers from the 19th cent. on, began to collect and organize examples of usage.

18 III. Background information In 1857, the Philological Society began collecting dated examples of usage, culminating in the publication (1928) of the monumental, unrivalled lexicon known as the New English Dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) or Murray's Dictionary.

19 III. Background information Two major shorter editions exist: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English and the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Other advances in lexicography are reflected in the frequently revised collegiate or desk dictionaries, such as the Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary.

20 III. Background information Encyclopedia: book or set of books giving information about every branch of knowledge, or about one particular subject, with articles in alphabetical order

21 III. Background information lexicon: dictionary, esp. of an ancient language or of words from a single subject thesaurus: book containing lists of words and phrases grouped according to their meanings or types (a thesaurus of slang)

22 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 1. abuse: n. & v. abusive, adj. – a. unkind, cruel or rude words, He burst into a storm of abuse. He constantly addressed her in terms of abuse. You are always abusing and offending people.

23 IV. Detailed Study of the Text – b. wrong use, misuse, improper treatment, maltreat Borrowing money is an abuse of friendship. abuse of power, drug abuse, to abuse one's power, authority, position, wealth, etc.

24 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 2. popular press: newspapers, journals that are aimed at the needs or tastes of ordinary people and not the specialists in a particular subject 3. phenomenon:(pl. phenomena) a fact or event in nature or society

25 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 4. scholarly: concerned with serious detailed study---opposite POPULAR – Scholarly matters, activities, etc involve or relate to scholars or their work. – His name is known in scholarly circles throughout the world.

26 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 5. stature – a. Someone's stature is their height and general size. She was rather small in stature. – b. The stature of a person or of their achievements is the importance and reputation that they have. a musician of international stature

27 IV. Detailed Study of the Text cf: statue: figure of a person, animal, etc., in wood, stone, bronze, etc. – the Statue of Liberty / Venus status: condition, position in relation to others – one's class / political / social / marital status

28 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 6. unbridled: not controlled or limited in any way, too violent and active, used to show disapproval – unbridled tongue / anger

29 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 7. fury: violent or very strong anger – There was fury in the Duchess' grey eyes. – Hearing this, they jumped on (scolded) him in a fury. – He flew into a fury and said that the whole thing was disgusting.

30 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 8. contempt: lack of respect – If you have contempt for someone or something, you do not like them and think that they are unimportant or of no value.

31 IV. Detailed Study of the Text – They would look at us with unmistakable contempt. – Her contempt for foreigners was obvious. – hold sb. / sth. in contempt

32 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 9. calamity: an event that causes a great deal of damage, destruction, or personal sadness and distress; serious misfortune

33 IV. Detailed Study of the Text disaster, calamity, catastrophe, etc. Disaster is an unforeseen, ruinous, and often sudden misfortune that happens either through lack of foresight or through some hostile external agency; general word.

34 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Catastrophe :大灾祸,(尤指悲剧的结 局) implies a disastrous conclusion emphasizing finality. It is a sudden, unexpected and terrible event that causes great suffering, misfortune or ruin.

35 IV. Detailed Study of the Text A war is a catastrophe. to plunge the country into a historical catastrophe a world-wide catastrophe

36 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Calamity stresses personal reaction to a great public loss. A terrible and very bad event. A national / natural / social calamity

37 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Cataclysm, orig. a deluge or geological convulsion, earthquake, applies to an event or situation that produces an upheaval or complete reversal. a financial cataclysm

38 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 10. scandal: – If sth is a scandal, a lot of people know about it and think that it is very shocking and immoral. – If you say sth is a scandal, you are angry about it and think that the people responsible for it should be ashamed.

39 IV. Detailed Study of the Text – The way that official wastes public money is a scandal. – She brought scandal to her family by her outrageous behaviour. – 陈希同 was involved in a scandal of corruption and embezzlement.

40 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 11. editorial: an article in a newspaper which gives the opinion of the editor or publisher on a topic or item of the news.

41 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 12. deteriorate: cause to become worse, worsen – His sight began to deteriorate. – She has suffered progressive deterioration of health.

42 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 13. stern: very firm or hard towards others' behaviour. Someone who is stern is very serious and expects to be obeyed. – a stern teacher / father – A puritanical person tends to be stern to himself and others as well.

43 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 14. betray: – a. If you betray someone's trust, confidence, etc., or you betray your principles, you fail to act in the good and morally correct way that was expected of you. – He betrayed his friends to the enemy. – She betrayed her promise.

44 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Judas betrayed Jesus (to the authorities. b. If you betray a secret, a plan, etc, you tell people things that you have been asked to keep secret. c. To betray a feeling means to show it without wanting to or intending to.

45 IV. Detailed Study of the Text – I’m afraid that my face may betray sth. – Her eyes betrayed her sadness. – His accent betrayed the fact that he was foreign.

46 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 15. bar: the railing in a courtroom that encloses the place about the judge; barrier in a law court separating the judge, prisoner, lawyers, etc from the spectators. the bar:(all those who belong to) the legal profession the bar: the whole body of lawyers qualified to practice in any jurisdiction

47 IV. Detailed Study of the Text – She's training for the bar. be called to the bar : be received into the profession of barrister – After finishing her legal studies she was called / admitted to the bar.

48 IV. Detailed Study of the Text the prisoner at the bar 受审讯的犯人 – She will be judged at the bar of public opinion. behind bars: in prison – The murderer is now safely behind bars. cf: – bartender = barman.

49 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 16. deplorable: disgraceful, distressing, heartbreaking, lamentable, wretched, 17. flagrant: used to describe a bad or shocking action, situation, or attitude that is very obvious and not concealed in any way, conspicuous, notorious, open, scandalous – a flagrant violation of human rights, a flagrant injustices / cheating

50 IV. Detailed Study of the Text cf: fragrant: apprec. having a sweet or pleasant smell – a fragrant rose / tea / memory

51 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 18. non-word deluge: It's like a flood of unacceptable words. non: so bad as not to deserve the name – It was really a bad book --- non-story with non-characters. non-words: words that are not acceptable, such as new slang or newly coined words. deluge: a sudden very heavy fall of rain, a great flood

52 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 19. abominable: Something abominable is very unpleasant, very bad, or very poor in quality, causing disgust and strong dislike.heinous, villainous – They work 7 days a week in abominable conditions. – Wages for primary school teachers in some area were abominable.

53 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 20. dismay: feeling of fear and discouragement, disappointment, distress be struck with dismay at the news

54 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 21. They doubted that "Lincoln could have modelled... a concept that... doubt (affirm. + that): to consider unlikely – I doubt that he will come. – I doubt that he is honest. They doubted that... could have done...: They believed that... could not have done...

55 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Life declared that Lincoln could not have formed or shaped his Gettysburg Address after the patterns set by the Third International or, if Lincoln had used the Third International as a model, his Gettysburg Address could not have been so excellent.

56 IV. Detailed Study of the Text This declaration reveals a foolish idea of the editors, that one should write things strictly after the patterns set by a dictionary, or in other words, if you have a good dictionary, you can write good articles. This ridiculous concept does not provide any clue or information on how Lincoln composed his famous Address, but exposes/ discloses how foolish the editors of LIFE are.

57 IV. Detailed Study of the Text In the author's opinion, it is an absolute nonsense to claim that one could model an article on a dictionary.

58 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 22. model...on: take as a model, or example – She modelled herself on her mother. – They model themselves on the F4.

59 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 23. throw light on: make sth. clearer – A spotlight threw a pool of violet light onto the stage. – His assistant was in a position to throw light on his character. – His speech throws a different light on what happened.

60 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 24. underlie: When you say A underlies B, then A is the cause or basis of B. – His essay is badly written, but the idea underlying it is good. – Does some personal difficulty underlie his lack of interest in work?

61 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 25. citation: the act of quotation, a short passage taken from something written or spoken by someone else

62 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 26. fraud:a. sth that deceives people in a illegal or immoral way, a crime of gaining money or other benefits by trickery – The judge found him guilty of fraud. – The elder brother gained control of the property by fraud.

63 IV. Detailed Study of the Text b. a person who pretends or claims to be what he is not – People who offer to tell your future by means of a pack of cards are frauds. – The hair-restorer is a fraud; he is as bald as ever.

64 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 27. hoax: a trick in which sb. tells the police, emergency services, or the public – The fire brigade answered the emergency call but there was no fire --- it was all a hoax. – If someone tries to convince you that a forged work of art is genuine, it is a hoax. – a hoax phone call

65 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 28. discrepancy: difference. If there is a discrepancy between two things, they ought to be the same. – You say you paid $5 and the bill says $3; how do you explain the discrepancy? – There was little / much discrepancy in the testimony of the two witnesses. – There is a discrepancy between what you say and what John says.

66 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 29. interpose: to place, put in between; interrupt with a comment or question – He interposed his body between me and the window, so that I could not see out. – interpose a barrier between A and B

67 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 30. remedy: treatment, medicine, etc that cures or relieves a disease or pain – a popular remedy for flu, toothache, etc. – I often use herbal remedies. – He found a remedy for his grief in constant hard work.

68 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 31. compel: to make sb. do sth. by or as if by force – force: general term, which implies the exertion of strength, typically physical strength – force slaves to labour – force food upon a child

69 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Sometimes force carries additional implications when followed by a simple object. – To force a woman is to rape her. – To force a door is to break it open.

70 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Compel differs from force in typically requiring a personal object. Compel commonly implies the exercise of authority, the exertion of great effort or driving force. – There is no possible method of compelling a child to feel sympathy or affection.

71 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 32. extraneous: not belonging to what is being dealt with, unrelated, alien – to avoid extraneous things – to eliminate extraneous interference 32. tout: to praise loudly or extravagantly clout: to hit forcefully

72 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 34. buggy: a light one-horse carriage made with two wheels in England and with four wheels in the US 35. linguistics: the systematic study of language

73 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 36. charter: written or printed statement of rights, permission to do sth, constitution – the Charter of the United Nations – the Atlantic Charter – the citizens’ rights laid down by charter

74 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 37. philology: – a. the study of literature and of disciplines relevant to literature or to language as used in literature. – b. linguistics. esp. historical and comparative linguistics.

75 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 38. inseminating: to sow seed in, to implant – inseminate the minds of the young with revolutionary ideas – inseminating scholar: a scholar who implants new ideas in the minds of others semen: liquid containing sperm of male animals

76 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 39. relegate: to dismiss to a lower position or condition – If you relegate sth. you cause it to have a less important position or status. – He relegated his wife to the position of a mere housekeeper. – You can't relegate the pop song singer / movie star to the third rate.

77 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 40. category: a division within a system of classification Party committee meetings can be divided into 2 categories, standing committee meetings and plenary sessions.

78 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 41. Yale University: one of the 8 Ivy League universities (because there was ivy on campus walls) on the East Coast. – Brown, Rhode Is. – Columbia, N.Y. City – Cornell, N.Y. – Dartmouth, New Hampshire – Harvard, Massachusetts – Pennsylvania, Philadelphia – Princeton, New Jersey – Yale, Connecticut.

79 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Bloomfield was one of the most outstanding scholars who bring creative thinking into others' minds. He had such broad range of knowledge that you can not regard him merely as a professor of certain specific field. He was a genius who would never take it for granted that those accepted rules and conventions were correct just because they were well established.

80 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 42. anthropology: the science of human beings, esp. the study of human beings in relation to distribution, origin, classification, and relationship of races, physical character, environmental and social relations, and culture

81 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 43. unique: having no like or equal, being the only one of its sort, sole, peculiar The beauty of the Mona Lisa is unique. As a writer, he is unique.

82 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 44. term: word or expression with a special meaning or used in a particular activity, job, profession, etc. medical / scientific / technical / legal terms Here: One cannot use the principles of logical reason or the rules and principles of a theoretical, ideal language to describe a living language.

83 IV. Detailed Study of the Text in terms of: with regard to, in relation to – In terms of natural resources it is one of the poorest countries in Western Europe. – He thought of everything in terms of money. – The job is bad in terms of money, but it's nice in terms of joy. – He referred to your work in terms of high praise.

84 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 45. dynamic: marked by continuous usu. productive change, full of power and activity – a dynamic person / period in history 46. static: showing little change, characterized by lacking of movement – static electricity – Life on campus seemed static. – Civilization does not remain static, but changes constantly.

85 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 47. proposition: an unproved statement in which an opinion or judgement is expressed, an assertion (观点主张) – The proposition is so clear that it needs no explanation. – The two teams prepared to debate the given proposition. – a new nation dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal

86 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Proposal: the act of suggesting or putting forward (提议建议) – to place a proposal – the proposal of new terms for a peace treaty – propose: offer for consideration – What do you propose to do next? – Jack proposed to Mary and she accepted his proposal.

87 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 48. follow: come after, to happen as a necessary result of; to occur as a consequence – Because he is good, it does not follow that he is wise. – It follows from what you have just said that he must be innocent.

88 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 49. insofar as, in so far as, in as far as: to the extent or degree that – He is a Russian in so far as he was born in Russia, but he became a French citizen in 1920. – I will help you insofar as I can. – He can be trusted in as far as he has never yet told a lie.

89 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 50. accurate: exact, correct, free from error or fault, esp. as the result of care – His information was accurate. – You are not quite accurate when you call a computer an electronic brain.

90 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 51. indication: sign or suggestion – There was no indication this morning that it would rain. – There is every indication of a change in the weather. – With a nod of his head he indicated to me where I should sit. – A red sky at night indicates fine weather the following day.

91 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 52. adapt: to change so as to be suitable for new needs, different conditions etc. – He was obliged to adapt himself to the situation. – The shrewd politician adapts his speech to suit the interests of his audience. – The author is going to adapt his play for television.

92 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 53. unparalleled: having no equal or match, unique in kind or quality – an unparalleled victory – rains of unparalleled intensity parallel: (of two or more lines) having the same distance between each other at every point – The highway runs parallel with the railroad.

93 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 54. precedent: an earlier occurrence of sth. similar; sth done or said that may serve as an example to justify a subsequent act of the same kind – There is no precedent for electing the same man President of the United States three times. – It is something without precedent in history. cf: antecedent

94 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 55. subtle: delicate, difficult to understand or distinguish, obscure – By subtle means he managed to persuade her. – He has a subtle mind. – There is a subtle difference between these two words.

95 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 56. pervasive: widespread; a kind that will easily pervade (for smell or ideas, feelings) to spread through every part – the pervasive influence of television – I can sense the pervasive mood of pessimism in the country.

96 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 57. utilitarian: concerned with practical use; not made for perfect forms; characterized by usefulness rather than by beauty; convenient, useful, functional – A good down-filled coat is more utilitarian than a fur coat.

97 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 58. unbuttoned: with the buttons not fastened, (fig.) relaxed, free from formality 59. gibber /'d  ib  / ; /  /: talk fast or make meaningless sounds, esp. talk that doesn't make sense

98 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 60. caption: (here) a noun used as a verb meaning entitle Not that: though one is not suggesting that; one is not saying that – Not that it matters, but how did you spend the money I gave you? – If he ever said so, --- not that I ever heard him say so, --- he told a lie.

99 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 61. hang on to: to hold, grip or keep firmly – The child hanged on to her mother's hand, and would not let go. – There are some people who hang on to their positions long after they should have retired.

100 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 62. label: n. a piece of paper or other material fixed to sth., on which is written what it is, where it is to go, who owns it,etc. verb. to fix or tie a label on – Tom has been given the label of "playboy" by his friends. – He labelled the parcel before posting it. – She was labelled as a “rightist”/ social butterfly. – The bottle is labelled "poison".

101 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 63. scorn: contempt; feeling that sb. or sth. deserves no respect; to feel contempt – Honest boys scorn liars. – You have no right to scorn someone who is poor. – He scorned to ask / asking for help.

102 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 64. coincidence: an occurrence of events that happen at the same time by accident but seem to have some connection co: prefix, together with another or others – co-author, -ed, -exist, -ordinate, -operation, colleague, correspond – By coincidence we both arrived at the same time. – These meetings happen too often to be coincidental.

103 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 65. furnish: to put furniture in a building, (fml) to supply what is necessary for a special purpose – The newlyweds couldn't wait to furnish the apartment because the baby was already on its way. – No one in the class could furnish the right answer to the question. – One cow furnished milk for all of them.

104 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 66. illustrate: to explain or show the meaning of sth. by giving related examples, pictures etc. – The teacher illustrated his lesson with pictures. – The story he told about her illustrates her true personality very clearly. – These words should be given with illustrative examples.

105 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 67. journal: a. publication issued daily. It gives an account of matters of interest occurring during the preceding 24 hours. b. official publication of some special group (as of American Bar Association)

106 IV. Detailed Study of the Text periodical( 期刊 ): publication appearing at regular intervals, esp. weeklies, biweeklies, monthlies, quarterlies. newspaper: Usual term for a sheet or group of sheets, such a publication is called "journal" only in formal speech or written. People whose profession is writing for newspapers are termed journalists.

107 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Magazine (杂志) : applies chiefly to a periodical, often illustrated, which offers motley collection of articles, such as fiction, poetry and commentary Review (评论) : periodical which emphasises critical writings commenting on important events and significant question of the day

108 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 68. cumbrous, (rare) cumbersome: burdensome; heavy and awkward to carry – A soldier today would find old- fashioned armour very cumbrous. 69. literate: well educated, able to read and write cf: literal, literary illiterate, illiteracy anti-illiteracy campaign, (but) literacy class

109 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 70. current: belonging to the present time, commonly accepted, in general use. This word is no longer in current use. current fashions / events / prices, etc.

110 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 71. variant: different form, as of a word, phrase, or part of a story or piece of writing – The plant is a variant of the common type. – The song is just a variant of an old folk tune. – "Favor" is the American variant of the British "favour".

111 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 72. vanity: the state of having too high an opinion of one's own appearance or ability – to do sth out of vanity – to injure one's vanity – All is vanity. concern: business, a matter of importance – Mind your own concern. – This is none of your concern – That's no concern of mine.

112 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 73. abdicate: to give up officially (an official position, esp. that of king or queen), to give up (a right esp. a responsibility) – King Edward IVI abdicated to marry a commoner. – He abdicated his responsibilities and fled.

113 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 74. distinction: quality of being superior, excellent, and unusual – Hardy was a writer of distinction. – He served with distinction in the army. – A governor should be a man of distinction.

114 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 75. lexicography: the editing or making of a dictionary, the principles and practices of dictionary making 76. conspicuous: noticeable, attracting attention, easily seen – She is always conspicuous because of her fashionable clothes. – A traffic sign should be conspicuous. – conspicuous error

115 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 77. elevate: to make (the mind, soul, etc.) better, higher; (fml.) to raise or lift up – His inspiring speech elevated the audience. – He was elevated to president of the company.

116 IV. Detailed Study of the Text used in place of lift or raise, suggesting uplifting or enhancing – to elevate one's standards of literary taste elevation: the quality of being fine and noble elevator: AmE. lift. (cf: escalator)

117 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 78. convey: to carry or take from one place to another; to make (feelings, ideas, thoughts, etc) known – Wires convey electricity from power stations to the user. – I cannot convey my feelings in words. – Please convey my best wishes to your parents.

118 IV. Detailed Study of the Text conveyer belt:(also conveyor) continuous belt or band that moves on rollers and is used for transporting loads (e.g. products in a factory, luggage at an airport).

119 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 79. auditor: a. one that hears or listens, esp. one that is a member of an audience ( a group of listeners or spectators). b. one who officially examines accounts (审计员)

120 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 80. bombination: buzz, drone, continuous low dull noise (not listed in Longman) 81. barbarism: word or expression that is unacceptable, usu. because it is foreign or vulgar – act like barbarians – barbarian tribes – barbaric cruelty

121 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 82. pretentious: claiming (in an unpleasant way) importance or social rank that one does not possess, showy, pretending to be very important, pompous – He is a pompous, pretentious man. – a pretentious writer, author, book, speech

122 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 83. verbosity: the quality of using or containing too many words; wordy. pretentious and obscure verbosity: using too many words which seem important but actually not clear; using too many showy subtle words.

123 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 84. instance: (fml) (to give) an example – The following are instances of correct use of double prepositions. – Lincoln is an instance of a poor boy who rose to fame. – There are jobs more dangerous than truck driving, for instance, training lions.

124 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Example applies to a typical, representative, or illustrative instance or case. It is impossible to study a writer without examples of his work.

125 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 85. pivot: a fixed central point or pin on which sth. turns 86. hinge: a metal part which joins 2 objects together and allows the first to swing around the (usu. fixed) second, such as one joining a door or gate to a post, or a lid to a box.

126 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 87. groove: a long narrow path or track made in a surface, esp. to guide the movement of sth. 88. accordion: portable musical instrument with bellows, metal reeds, and a keyboard. 89. enclosure: sth. that is shut in on all sides.

127 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 90. admonish: (fml) to scold or warn gently – The teacher admonished the boys not to be so careless (against being careless). – He admonished them of the danger (that it was dangerous).

128 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 91. brevity: shortness or conciseness of expression – the brevity of his writing / his life 92. virtue: goodness, nobleness; any good quality of character or behaviour; – You can trust him; he's a man of the highest virtue. – Justice and kindness are virtues. – The great virtue of air travel is speed.

129 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 93. infer: reach an opinion (from facts or reasoning); conclude – We infer from his letters that he is very unhappy. – The jury inferred from the testimony that the defendant was lying.

130 IV. Detailed Study of the Text cf: imply: Correctly it is the listener or reader who infers things while the speaker or writer implies things. – I looked at his boots and inferred that he must be a policeman. – He said it was late, implying that we ought to go home.

131 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 94. booby trap: sth. balanced on the tip of a door so that it will fall on the first person to pass through; hidden bomb which explodes when some harmless- looking object is touched; any harmless trap used for surprising sb.

132 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 95. whereas: (used for introducing an opposite) but in contrast, while on the other hand – They want a house, whereas we would rather live in a flat. – She prefers yellow, whereas I prefer green. – Some praise him, whereas others condemn him.

133 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 96. ridicule: laugh unkindly at, cause sb. to appear foolish – Why do you ridicule my proposal? – His suggestion met with ridicule by the others. – It is ridiculous to dispute about such things. – The hat makes you look ridiculous.

134 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 97. on this / that score: as far as this / that point is considered – I am perfectly capable of looking after myself, so please don't worry about me on this score.

135 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 98. reticulate: (in fact or in appearance) divide or be divided into a network of small squares decussate: cross or cut so as to form an X interstice: a small or narrow space between things or parts intersection: the point or line where two lines or surfaces meet or cross

136 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 99. merriment: noun of merry, light- hearted gaiety or fun making, laughter, celebration Merry suggests cheerful, joyous, uninhibited enjoyment

137 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 100. subsequent: later, following – The first ticket costs $10, but all subsequent ones only $8. – In subsequent lessons, we shall take up more difficult problems. – He was arrested and subsequently sentenced to five years' imprisonment.

138 IV. Detailed Study of the Text sequence: succession, connected line of events, ideas, etc. – deal with events in historical / time sequence – a sequence of clubs (diamonds etc.) – TV sequence sub: under, of lower rank, less importance – sub -marine, -mersible, -committee, sub-human

139 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 101. proliferate: to grow or reproduce by rapid production of new parts, cells, or offspring; to increase in number, multiply – Non-proliferation Treaty of Nuclear and Chemical Weapons – Tropical vegetation proliferates.

140 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 102. demark: 'demarcate: to set apart, to separate 103. take refuge: find shelter in – During the storm we took refuge in a cave. – He took refuge in telling lies / silence.

141 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 104. seal: piece of wax, lead or other soft material, usu. stamped with a design and fixed to a document to show that it is genuine, or to a letter, packet, container, etc. to prevent it from being opened by the wrong person seal: put a seal on (e.g. a legal document)

142 IV. Detailed Study of the Text ~ sth (up): fasten or close sth securely – seal the parcel (up) with adhesive tape – The jar must be well sealed. – Seal (up) the window to prevent wind. sealing-wax: type of wax that melts quickly when heated and hardens quickly when cooled, used for sealing letters, etc

143 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 105. jet: a narrow stream of liquid, gas, etc. coming forcefully out of a small hole – The firemen directed jets of water at the burning house. jet: any aircraft that is pushed through the air by a jet engine

144 IV. Detailed Study of the Text jets of air: air door, a curtain of air blows across the threshold where a door usually is. It is used in combination with an air conditioner in hot climates to prevent hot air from coming in and cold air from going out.

145 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 106. lease: written agreement, made according to law, by which the use of a building or piece of land is given by its owner to sb for a certain time in return for rent

146 IV. Detailed Study of the Text – the Lend-Lease Act: (passed by U.S. Congress in 1941) in World War II, the furnishing of goods and services to any country whose defence was deemed vital to the defence of the United states – I have a lease on this house for three years.

147 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 107. rent: the regular payment for the use of land, a building, a room, etc. – I rented a small house in Newton for a year. – He rented the house to a young couple. – The apartment rents for $100 a month. – How much rent do you pay for your house? – You owe me three weeks' rent.

148 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Hire, let lease, rent, charter are comparable when they mean to take or grant the use of sth. for a price. – Hire and let are complementary and reciprocal terms, hire meaning to engage the use or occupancy of sth. at a price and let meaning to grant its use or occupancy for a return. – In distinctive use lease means to let on a contract

149 IV. Detailed Study of the Text – Rent implies payment in money for the use of land and the buildings. As long as this idea is stressed, the verb may denote either to hire or to let a property. – Charter means to hire by a contract similar to a lease by which the use of a ship is given for a certain time and the safe delivery of its cargo is promised. The word is often extended to other means of transportation (as buses or aeroplanes) and then usually implies to reserve by hiring or leasing the exclusive use of a vehicle that is normally available to the general public (charter a bus for a club picnic).

150 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 108. gyp: cheat 109. contraption: device that is strange, that one does not fully understand – a peculiar contraption to shell the water melon seeds

151 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 110. in preference to: – He has a preference for meat rather than fish. – A teacher should not show preference for any one of her pupils. – I'd choose the small car in preference to the larger one.

152 IV. Detailed Study of the Text prefer a to b: – I prefer blue to red. – While he was in the office, he preferred doing sth. to doing nothing. prefer a rather than b – He prefers beef rather than mutton. – He preferred to stay at home rather than go with us.

153 IV. Detailed Study of the Text preferable – A dark suit is preferable to a light one for evening wear.

154 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 111. barrier: sth. (e.g. a wall, rail, fence etc.) that prevents, or controls progress or movement 112. cellar: underground room for storing coal, wine, etc. cf: basement: a room in a house which are below street level. barn: covered building for storing hay, grain, etc. on a farm

155 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 113. be open to: a. not safe from b. willing to receive – Her behaviour is open to misunderstanding. – His conduct is open to criticism (likely to be criticized) – The competition is open to all pupils under 12. – The accounts are open to inspection.

156 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 114. eradicate: to pull up by the roots; destroy or put an end to – to eradicate disease / smallpox – Police work diligently to eradicate crime.

157 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 115. meritorious: deserving of honour, esteem, praise merit: the quality of deserving praise, reward, etc. personal worth – You may not like him, but he has his merits. – He knew the merit of his work.

158 IV. Detailed Study of the Text 116. vary: differ – People vary very much in their ideas. – Opinions vary on this point. – These apples vary in size from small to medium.

159 IV. Detailed Study of the Text variable:a. changeable, not staying the same (connotation: unpredictability) – His mood / temper is variable. b. able to be changed deliberately, that can be intentionally varied – The amount of heat produced by this electrical apparatus is variable at will by turning a small handle. – a variable standard

160 IV. Detailed Study of the Text variation: an example of change – There are many variations of this story. – It was a variation from my usual work.

161 IV. Detailed Study of the Text variety: a. difference of condition or quality – We demand more variety for our food. b. type – There are several varieties of red roses.

162 IV. Detailed Study of the Text varied: when meaning different, the stress is on laid on "full of change“ – He had had a varied training, had held many offices. – There is a dining-room that will seat 200 persons, and the menu is varied and cheap.

163 IV. Detailed Study of the Text various: when meaning different, the stress is on "difference“ – His reasons for leaving were many and various. – We have various type of radios.

164 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Vary and differ Differ stresses the fact of unlikeness in kind or nature or in opinion, but does not indicate (except through the context) the extent or degree of divergence. Vary, though often interchangeable with differ, may call attention to readily apparent differences and sometimes suggests a range of differences.

165 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Interchangeable – People vary / differ very much in their ideas. Uninterchangeable – Wisdom differs from cunning. – The two parties differ very sharply from each other over the correct remedies to apply.

166 IV. Detailed Study of the Text Vary is not often found to be followed by from – Our style will vary with our changes in mood. – The colour of the fruit varies with age.

167 IV. Detailed Study of the Text If one varies sth., he deliberately makes changes in them. – You can vary the pressure at will. – You should vary your diet. vary between …and / vary from …to – Consumption of domestic fuel oil varies between / from 150 gallons a month at the height of winter and / to practically nothing in July-August.

168 IV. Detailed Study of the Text If people differ about sth., they don’t agree with each other about it. – We differ about moral standards. – This is basically where we differ. If people agree to differ, they agree to accept the fact that they will never have the same opinion about it. You say “I beg to differ” when you want to say politely that you disagree with someone.

169 V. Type of Writing: Argument (Persuasion) – Argument can hardly be treated as a separate form of composition. It's a kind of exposition with the additional purpose of Convincing or Persuading. While exposition does not always contain argument, Argument always contains exposition.

170 V. Type of Writing: An argument is in reality an answer to a question. When you try to persuade or convince your readers, you use reading to appeal to their understanding. At most basic levels, there are 2 ways of reasoning.

171 V. Type of Writing: 1. begin with details, specific examples or various of evidence and on the basis of these come to the conclusion or generalization. 2. begin with a general assertion which is followed by exploration and explanation of its implications and justification. Finally return to the assertion in the conclusion.

172 VI. Structural analysis : Part 1: para. 1 – para. 3 – The storm of abuse in the popular press. – The claim of the dictionary maker. – The question for argument: What is a dictionary for?

173 VI. Structural analysis : Part 2: para. 4 – para. 13. – section 1: Statement 1. – A dictionary is concerned with words.

174 VI. Structural analysis – section 2: statement 2 Progress in lexicography: Bloomfield and his 4 findings the assertion following the findings the illustration of the findings and the assertion

175 VI. Structural analysis Part 3: para. 14 – para. 25 – section 1: (para. 14) spelling, pronunciation, meaning and usage, certainty, simplification – section 2: (para. 15) spelling – section 3: (paras. 16 - 17) pronunciation – section 4: (paras. 18 - 25) meaning and usage

176 VI. Structural analysis : Part 4: Conclusion

177 VII. Rhetorical Devices Personification: – The storm...that greeted... – An article in the Atlantic viewed it as a disappointment... – The Yew York Times,...felt it – The Journal...saw...

178 VII. Rhetorical Devices Alliteration: –...very little light on Lincoln...on Life Assonance: – The difference between the much- touted... and the much clouted...

179 VII. Rhetorical Devices Synecdoche: – What of those sheets and jets of air that are now being used, in place of old-fashioned oak and hinges...

180 VII. Rhetorical Devices Metonymy – The Washington Post,..."keep Your Old Webster's" – in short,...written in the language that the 3rd International describes...

181 VII. Rhetorical Devices Zeugma: the use of a word to modify or govern 2 or more words usu. in such a manner that it applies to each in different sense or makes sense with only one – The issue of New York Times …hail the Second as the authority… and the Third as a scandal…

182 VII. Rhetorical Devices Zeugma: – Miss Bolo went home in a flood of tears and a sedan chair. – He lost his hat and his temper. – To wage war and peace – With weeping eyes and hearts


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