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GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments1Lecture 5 Lecture 5. Recreational use of wilderness and wildland Outline: nWilderness recreation and benefits.

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Presentation on theme: "GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments1Lecture 5 Lecture 5. Recreational use of wilderness and wildland Outline: nWilderness recreation and benefits."— Presentation transcript:

1 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments1Lecture 5 Lecture 5. Recreational use of wilderness and wildland Outline: nWilderness recreation and benefits nEconomics and development nManagement of recreational use nWorkshop: developing a wildland policy for England and Wales

2 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments2Lecture 5 nTHE main use of wilderness nFocus of much research and management nThis lecture: -estimating levels and benefits -character and distribution -management 1. Recreational use and benefits

3 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments3Lecture 5 nEstimating levels of use -Difficult because: many access points - monitoring difficult use is often dispersed over wide areas use is light and variable -Indirect methods of measurement:methods of measurement sample observations electronic counters and cameras trail registers and mandatory permits guestimates! 1. Recreational use and benefits (cont’d)

4 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments4Lecture 5 nQuantifiable? nUnits of measurement: -number of overnight stays (NPS) -number of visitor days (USFS) -visitor hours -number of visits (regardless of length) -total number of people at one time (PAOT) 1. Recreational use and benefits (cont’d)

5 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments5Lecture 5 nWhich to use? - depends on purpose nImpact of camping and camper congestion: -number of overnight stays nMeasure of solitude:solitude -number of visitor days -PAOT nImpact of overall visitor pressure: -number of visitor days -visitor hours 1. Recreational use and benefits (cont’d)

6 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments6Lecture 5 nCharacter and distribution -Determined by variety of factors: length of stay party size method of travel activities pursued season of use social/organisational groupings visitor residence etc. 1. Recreational use and benefits (cont’d)

7 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments7Lecture 5 nCharacteristics of the individual: -age -physical ability -gender -residence -income -occupation -education -membership of relevant bodies -etc. 1. Recreational use and benefits (cont’d)

8 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments8Lecture 5 Who is the typical wilderness user? Question:

9 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments9Lecture 5 nWho is the “typical” wilderness user?typical nResults of US studies show: -young (though older groups represented) -mostly male (3:1 ratio) -from nearby urban areas -moderately high income -professional-technical occupation -highly educated 1. Recreational use and benefits (cont’d)

10 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments10Lecture 5 nUneven geographical distribution -wilderness recreation varies in popularity -inter-wilderness variations in use variations between wilderness areas -intra-wilderness variations in use many people concentrated in a few places few people dispersed across many places nManagement concerns: -extreme uneven distribution is undesirable -variations in carry capacity mean even distribution also undesirable 1. Recreational use and benefits (cont’d)

11 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments11Lecture 5 nPlanned management requires knowledge of future trends nRecent increase worldwide nCurrent plateau in US usage nPossible reasons: -aging population -changes in population distribution -constraints on leisure time/transport costs -changing education and interests -expansion of NWPS 2. Economics and development

12 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments12Lecture 5 nUse projections nHampered by lack of suitable data: -lack of longitudinal records -poor quality -incomparable (different standards, etc.) nAttempts to predict future use vary widely nNeed to be prepared 2. Economics and development (cont’d)

13 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments13Lecture 5 3. Managing recreational use nThe goal of wilderness management is to: “identify the desired resource, social and managerial conditions to be maintained or restored in wilderness, with these desired conditions expressed as explicit, measurable standards. Thus the focus of management attention shifts from defining maximum use to identifying desired conditions and managing use levels and/or other management parameters so that impacts do not exceed these conditions.” (Shelby and Heberlein, 1986)

14 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments14Lecture 5 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d) n4 basic considerations: -determining impacts and possible implications is dependent on natural resource, socio-political and managerial factors -recognition that recreational use inevitably leads to change -determining acceptable level of change involves value judgement -impacts related to factors other than amount of use i.e. type of use, timing, location, visitor behaviour, etc.

15 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments15Lecture 5 nBasic aims of wilderness management: -manage to provide visitors with opportunity for quality wilderness experience -manage to limit impact of recreation on the wilderness environment/resource to within specified carrying capacities 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

16 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments16Lecture 5 The tragedy of the commons... “Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his [use of the commons] without limit - in a world that is limited. Ruin is the destination to which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interests in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom of the commons brings ruin to all.” (Hardin, 1972, p.255) nPrinciples of wilderness management: -manage under a non-degradation concept -set carrying capacities to prevent unnatural change 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

17 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments17Lecture 5 nDefinition of wilderness carrying capacity: “the amount, kind and distribution of use that can occur without leading to unacceptable impacts on either the physical-biological resource or the available wilderness experience.” (Stankey et al., 1990, p.214) -use an area can tolerate without unacceptable change -wilderness carrying capacity is limited -Biophysical and socio-psychological components 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

18 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments18Lecture 5 Biophysical carrying capacity: -the amount and type of use an ecosystem can sustain without undue evidence of unnatural impact -e.g. soil erosion and disturbance of wildlife Socio-psychological carrying capacity: -the level of human use an area can accommodate before solitude and other experiential values are diminished -e.g. concentration of visitors 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

19 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments19Lecture 5 nOver-use can destroy wilderness quality -e.g. too many people, trail erosion, devegetation of popular campsites, etc. “By anyone’s definition, wilderness has been lost when such conditions prevail.” (Hendee, et al., 1990, p.215) nEstablishment of appropriate levels of use is typically addressed through the concept of carrying capacity -fundamental principle of wilderness management -problem: determining carrying capacity 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

20 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments20Lecture 5 nDetermining carrying capacity: -simple concept - difficult to implement -dynamic nature of ecosystems makes it difficult to calculate -it can be increased/decreased by management actions/human use -it is NOT a fixed value -is different for different uses -varies spatially and temporallyspatially -product of value judgement as well as scientific evidencevalue judgement 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

21 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments21Lecture 5 nManagement implementation: -biophysical and socio-psychological evidence important only as decision aid -based largely on value judgements -determination of consensus view -recognise that wilderness management is really about managing wilderness users and their impacts (Principle 9) -political process -Visitor Impact Management (VIM) -Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

22 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments22Lecture 5 The LAC model 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

23 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments23Lecture 5 nTypical management paradox: -impacts affect visitor experience -reducing these would improve experience -management of impacts restricts visitors -adversely affects visitor experience nQuandry of management: can’t keep everyone happy -i.e. solutions rarely work without affecting something else and/or creating problems elsewhere 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

24 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments24Lecture 5 nTypes of recreational problems: -illegal actions -careless/thoughtless violation of regulations -unskilled actions -uninformed behaviour -unavoidable minimum impacts 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

25 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments25Lecture 5 Question: What kind of problems fit into these categories? - illegal - careless - unskilled - uniformed - unavoidable

26 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments26Lecture 5 nIllegal actions: -direct contravention of regulations -examples: motorised transport graffiti and vandalism -incompatible with wilderness -effects of motorised transport: disruption of wildlife disturbance of other visitors excessive erosion and noise pollution -appropriate management response is law enforcementlaw enforcement 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

27 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments27Lecture 5 nCareless/thoughtless violation of wilderness regulations: -due to irresponsible actionsirresponsible actions -examples: littering short-cutting of trail switchbacks building wood fires in prohibited areas -manager must try to alter behaviour: persuasion making it easier to do the right thing discouraging the wrong thing 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

28 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments28Lecture 5 nUnskilled actions: -many once recommended practices are now considered inappropriateinappropriate -examples: burying rubbish ditching around tents building bivouac shelters -most are unnecessary with modern gear -management response: educate users in new wayseducate enforce rules where necessary 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

29 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments29Lecture 5 nUniformed behaviour: -can intensify impacts -examples:examples use of popular trails and access points leading to concentration of use pursuit of certain activities in sensitive areas -managers can:managers can inform users of alternative areas to disperse use set entry quotas at key access points inform users of sensitive areas 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

30 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments30Lecture 5 nUnavoidable minimum impacts: -every visitor causes unavoidable impactunavoidable impact -examples: trampling vegetation going to the toilet disturbing/attracting wildlife -managers can:managers can encourage minimum impact practices move use to less sensitive areas -If all other options have failed and impact remains unacceptable then manager must regulate to reduce/eliminate use 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

31 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments31Lecture 5 nManagement parameters (aspects of use that can be controlled or influenced): -amount of use -distribution of use -timing of use -method of travel -party size -length of stay -behaviour -effect on environment -effect on other visitor’s experience 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

32 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments32Lecture 5 Question: What problems are likely to arise when attempting to manage wilderness users?

33 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments33Lecture 5 nGeneral management approaches: -direct management -indirect management nDirect management emphasises regulation -loss of experiential value -requires extra resources -set behavioural standards -prevent over use nIndirect management emphasises influencing or modifying visitor behaviour through education 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

34 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments34Lecture 5 nGuidelines for regulatory practices are: -use non-regulatory alternatives if possible -try to develop non-regulatory practices -explain regulations -regulate at minimum level needed -regulate at entry rather than activity level -monitor problem and effects of regulation -remember wilderness exists partly for visitor use 3. Managing recreational use (cont’d)

35 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments35Lecture 5 4. Examples nManaging the impacts of recreations is the main focus of most wilderness management nMain areas of management include: -managing campsite impacts -managing trail impacts -managing horse-related impacts

36 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments36Lecture 5 4. Examples (cont’d) nManaging campsite related impacts: -more time spent on campsite than anywhere else -impacts include:impacts include changes in vegetation and soil characteristics due to trampling, collecting fire wood, etc. -factors influencing impact include: amount and frequency of use type and behaviour of users environmental characteristics of site itself

37 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments37Lecture 5 -management strategies include: limiting use changing type and behaviour of users shifting use to more durable sites -encouraging minimum impact camping: use of proper equipment keeping party sizes small selecting resistant and appropriate sites being careful with fire avoiding ‘site improvement’ minimising pollution (rubbish and human waste) limiting length of stay 4. Examples (cont’d)

38 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments38Lecture 5 nManaging trail impacts -localised impacts but very visible -costly to repair -common problems: excessive erosion boggy areas in saturated soils proliferation of unplanned or impromptu trails -management options include:options rehabilitation of badly eroded/multiple trails relocation of trails to more durable routes trail engineering 4. Examples (cont’d)

39 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments39Lecture 5 nManaging horse related impacts -use of horses still significant in certain areas (e.g. USA, South Africa, Siberia, etc.) but banned in others (e.g. Australia) -impacts similar to hikers but more pronounced and with behavioural differences -management strategies: limit or reduce their use encourage less damaging behaviour discourage use during sensitive seasons encourage use in only resistant areas contain impacts to certain trails 4. Examples (cont’d)

40 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments40Lecture 5 5. Summary nCarrying capacity as a key concept in wilderness management -builds on Harding’s ideas re: the tragedy of the commons -practical application through LAC model nGeneral principles and approaches in managing wilderness recreation nTypes of recreational problems nExamples of recreation management

41 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments41Lecture 5 Directed reading Hendee et al., (1990) Wilderness Management. Fulcrum Publishing, Colorado. [Chapter 9] Mitchell, B. (1979) Geography and Resource Analysis. Longman, London. [Chapter 7]

42 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments42Lecture 5 Workshop Developing an wildland policy for England and Wales

43 GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments43Lecture 5 Next week... 6. Non-recreational use of wilderness nHunting and fishing nForestry and forest products nWater resources nMinerals, oil and gas nAgriculture nRenewable energy nWorkshop: web poster development Q&A session

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