Presentation on theme: "School Bus Driver Training"— Presentation transcript:
1 School Bus Driver Training Unit F Safe DrivingThis Unit considers how you can apply these steps to the following types of normal and unusual conditions you must face while driving a school bus.This Unit will focus on safe driving techniques for school bus operators geared towards reducing the number of crashes in the categories listed above. It will focus on:The driving task.Your condition to drive (Driver).The condition of your vehicle (Vehicle).The weather and road conditions (Environmental and Roadway).Road construction, pedestrians and other obstacles (Other).Note that Unit H (Crash and Emergency Procedures) covers procedures and techniques for emergency and crash situations where the driver did not or could not avoid a potential hazard.
2 ObjectivesAt the end of this session school bus operators will be able to:Describe the basic elements of safe driving, including primary causes of crashes and methods to reduce those crash risksArticulate an awareness of limitations of the bus and of the driverDevelop an ability to recognize potential dangers associated with driver, vehicle, natural, and man-made conditionsKnow the steps necessary to successfully negotiate hazardous situations
3 Why Road Safety is Important In the United States each year:Over 6 million reportable crashesOver 2.5 million people injuredOver 40,000 people killedRate ~= 1.5/100MVMCrashes cost $230.6 billionNote that these statistics are approximate values. The actual annual numbers are a bit larger or a bit smaller, depending on the year, but the point is to give trainees some perspective on what is happening on the roadways.Indicate to trainees that State or local statistics can be substituted or compared to those shown. For recent data, Instructors may want to access PA’s Crash Statistics at :2000 Statistics (10 years ago):6.4 million crashes41,821 fatalities3.2 million injuriesEmphasize that local road crash rates (number of crashes divided by traffic volume) are nearly twice as high as arterials (high-speed roads that carry large amounts of traffic).2005 (5 years ago):6.2 million crashes2.7 million people hurt43,443 people killedRate = 1.46/100MVM*Crashes cost $230.6 billion* Million Vehicle MilesDOT HS
4 Putting this into Perspective Crashes are the leading cause of death for people between the ages of 3 and 33An average of 117 persons die each day in motor vehicle crashes – one every 12 minutesDaily financial loss is $630 million per dayRoad Safety BasicsPutting this into PerspectiveMotor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for Americans of every age from 3 through 33 based on 2002 dataAn average of 117 persons died each day in motor vehicle crashes in 2004 – one every 12 minutesMore people die on highways each week than the number of people killed in airline crashes annuallyDuring your lifetime, 1 out of 2 people will be killed or injured in a traffic crashDaily financial loss is $630 million per dayNHTSA estimates that 15,434 lives were saved in 2004 by the use of safety beltsAlcohol related traffic fatalities fell to 16,694 in 2004 – 39 percent of all traffic fatalities for the yearThe economic cost of speed-related crashes is estimated to be $40.4 billion each yearIn 2004, older people made up 12 percent of all traffic fatalities and 16 percent of all pedestrian fatalitiesSources:NHTSA Traffic Safety FactsFHWA Road Safety Fact Sheet
5 Putting this into Perspective One road departure fatality occurs every 21 minutesOne intersection fatality occurs every hourOne pedestrian fatality occurs about every two hoursRoad Safety BasicsPutting this into Perspective (FHWA Safety Focus Areas)One road departure fatality every 21 minutesOne intersection fatality every hourOne pedestrian fatality about every two hoursSources:NHTSA Traffic Safety FactsFHWA Road Safety Fact Sheet
6 High Cost of Crashes Average cost per Crash Crash Severity of Property damage only $6000 Serious injury $180,000 Fatality accident $3,100,000Based on the average cost per crash in the graphic, consider the following example:A roadway segment with trees near the travel lanes experiences an average of 5 serious injury crashes and 15 property damage only crashes per year based on historical crash data. The local transportation agency installs guiderail between the roadway and trees in an attempt to reduce the frequency and severity of crashes. Several years after installing the guiderail, an average of 4 injury and 25 property damage only crashes per year occur. Although the crash frequency increases, the severity decreases. The crash cost in the before period is $990,00 – the crash cost in the after period is $870,000. Installing the guiderail results in a net safety benefit. The benefit, however, must be compared to the cost of installing and maintaining the guiderail to determine a benefit-cost ratio.Safe driving can also help reduce the financial impacts of crashes.
7 The Good News? School bus transportation is safe! Safest mode of ground transportationIn Pennsylvania, 5,839 total crashes over 10 yearsLess than ½% of the total crashes in PA!In only 36% of those crashes the school bus was considered the prime unit or about 1/10 of 1 percentLooks at Pennsylvania crash data over a recent 10 year period.NOTE: Note that when discussing crashes in this Unit, Pubs 117 and 52, as well as these slides reference is made to crashes where the school bus was the prime unit in the crash. This is in reference to the unit (vehicle) identified by the police as being associated with the first harmful event.
8 Crash Causes Human factors Vehicle factors Roadway environment Road Safety BasicsCrash CausesHuman factorsRoadway environmentVehicle factorsGeneralMany factors contribute to circumstances that may cause a motor vehicle crash – there is rarely a single cause of such an eventHuman factors are generally seen as the most prevalent contributing factor of crashes followed by roadway environment and vehicle factors
9 Crash Causes Roadway Driver 34% 57 % 3 % 27% 93% 1 % 6 % Vehicle 2 % Police officers investigating traffic crashes usually list factors that contribute to a crash. The graphic is based on studies of these police reports of traffic crashes. As the figure illustrates, driver error is the cause of most crashes, followed by road condition as a contributing factor 34 percent of the time—although it may be more. A vehicle defect or malfunction is involved 12 percent of the time. For school bus drivers the 93% is both a problem and an opportunity. Obviously it is a problem in terms of the contributing factor to crashes, but it is an opportunity to improve driving habits to reduce crashes.Vehicle12%
10 Crash Causes Driver behavior Speeding Failure to use safety belts Aggressive drivingRoad Safety BasicsCrash CausesTwo examples of human factors that have a significant impact on traffic crashes are speeding and seat belt usage.SpeedingDriving either faster than the posted speed limit or faster than conditions would safely dictateReduces a drivers ability to steer safely around curves or objects in the roadwayExtends the distance necessary to stop a vehicleIncreases the distance a vehicle travels when a driver reacts to a dangerous situationExcessive speeding is a factor in nearly one-third of all traffic fatalitiesMost dangerous roads (crash severity) are those with posted speed limits of 60 mph or greaterEconomic cost of speed-related crashes is estimated to be $40.4 billion each yearSpeeding and School buses is discussed later in this Unit.Failure to use safety beltsSeat belt use can prevent thousands of highway deaths and save billions of dollars annuallyNHTSA estimates that a nationwide seat belt use rate of 90% would prevent an additional 5,000 deaths and 130,000 serious injuries every yearNationwide seatbelt usage rate is approximately 80 percent based on 2005 dataAggressive drivingAggressive drivers pose a high risk – they are more likely to drink and drive, speed and drive unbeltedRun stop signs and red lightsTailgate, weave in-and-out of traffic, pass on the right, make improper and unsafe lane changes, make hand and facial gestures, scream, honk and flash their lights
11 Crash Causes Roadway Environment Roadway design Roadside hazards Roadway conditionsRoad Safety BasicsCrash CausesRoadway EnvironmentThe roadway environment – factors that are external to the driver and the vehicle that increase the risk of a crash – is generally considered the second most prevalent contributing factor of crashes. Roadway environment factors that contribute to or are associated with crashes include the design of the roadway, including features such as medians, narrow lanes, a lack of shoulders, curves, access points or intersections; roadside hazards are features adjacent to the road that vehicles can crash into such as poles, trees or embankments; and roadway conditions are features such as rain, ice, snow or fog. However, the contribution of these factors to crashes is difficult to quantify.
12 Crash Causes Vehicle Factors Failures in vehicle or its design BrakesTiresPoor or neglected maintenanceRoad Safety BasicsCrash CausesVehicle FactorsFailures in vehicle or its designMechanical failures such as brakes or tiresEmphasize points made from Unit E
13 Pennsylvania School Bus Crashes Most people involved in school bus crashes, whether occupants of the buses or of other vehicles involved, were uninjured.Among persons injured in these crashes, most injuries were suffered by occupants of other vehicles, not by occupants of the school buses or school vehicles.Data from a quantitative analysis of Pennsylvania school bus crashes for a recent 10-year period:No school bus or school vehicle passengers were killed in these crashes, but three school bus drivers were killed. The remaining 82 persons killed were occupants of other vehicles.
14 Pennsylvania School Bus Crashes Top five driver actions implicated when school bus was the prime unit (main contributor)Failure to Stop (21.3%)Other Improper Driving (20.2%)Improper Turn (16.%7)Speeding (9.5%)Tailgating (8.6%)NOTE: Backing (5.4%)Most crashes occur in urban areas (74.7%) When looking at the percent of all school bus prime unit crashes (where the school bus was the main contributor) in which a given driver action was implicated, in descending order, the top five are: failure to stop (21.3%), other improper driving (20.2%), improper turn (16.7%), speeding (9.5%), and tailgating (8.6%).When reading this, think of it in terms of the following: Speeding was recorded as a contributing driver action in 9.5% of school bus crashes in which the bus was the prime unit.
15 The following slides examine the types of school bus collisions as gathered from data from a quantitative analysis of Pennsylvania school bus crashes for a recent 10-year period. This summary slide leads into each specific type of crash.
16 Interpretation Rear-end Collisions Crash Factors Odds of Collision 1. Driver Action: TailgatingTailgating61::Not Tailgating12. Driver GenderMales1.5Females3. Number of Improper Driving Violations1 or More ViolationsNo ViolationsThis slide examines rear end crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in rear-end collisions are very likely to be noted as tailgating. They are somewhat more likely to be males then females, and to have one or more improper driving violations on record.As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a rear end collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes.InterpretationDrivers in rear-end collisions are very likely to be noted as tailgating. They are somewhat more likely to be males then females, and to have one or more improper driving violations on record.
17 Head-on CollisionsCrash FactorsOddsofCrashing1. Driver Action: Wrong Side of RoadWrong Side22::Not Wrong Side12. Road Surface Condition:Dry Road2NotThis slide examines head-on crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in head-on collisions are very likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road. The road surface is more likely to be dry than wet or snow/ice covered.As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a head-on collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes.InterpretationDrivers in head-on collisions are very likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road. The road surface is more likely to be dry than wet or snow/ice covered.
18 Backing CollisionsCrash FactorsOddsofCrashing1. Driver Action: Careless BackingCareless Backing610::Not Careless Backing12. Weather Condition: ClearClear Weather4Inclement WeatherThis slide examines backing crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in backing collisions are very likely to be noted for careless backing. The weather is more likely to be clear than inclement. This is an interesting finding and may be indicative of drivers being more complacent in good weather.As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a backing collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes.NOTE: Backing a school bus is discussed further in Unit GInterpretationDrivers in backing collisions are very likely to be noted for careless backing. The weather is more likely to be clear than inclement.
19 Angle CollisionsCrash FactorsOddsofCrashing1. Driver Action: Fail to StopFail to Stop33::Not Fail to Stop12. Illumination: DarkDark3Not Dark3. Any Adverse Environmental ConditionsNo Adverse Conditions2Adverse Conditions4. Number of Fail to Stop Violations1 or More Violations1.25No ViolationsThis slide examines angle crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in angle collisions are very likely to be noted for failing to stop. These collisions are more likely to occur at night with no adverse conditions (no wind, rain, deer on road, etc.). These drivers may have previous fail to stop violations on record.As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in an angle collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes.We will examine this in more detail later in this Unit.InterpretationDrivers in angle collisions are very likely to be noted for failing to stop. These collisions are more likely to occur at night with no adverse conditions (no wind, rain, deer on road, etc.). These drivers may have previous fail to stop violations on record.
20 Sideswipe Same Direction Collisions Crash FactorsOddsofCrashing1. Driver Action: Careless Passing or Lane ChangeCareless Passing157::Not Careless Passing12. Number of Speeding ViolationsNo Violations1.751 or More ViolationsThis slide examines sideswipe crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in sideswipe collisions are very likely to be noted for careless passing or lane change. They may have previous speeding violations on record.As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a sideswipe collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes.InterpretationDrivers in sideswipe same direction collisions are very likely to be noted for careless passing or lane change. They may have previous speeding violations on record.
21 Sideswipe Opposite Direction Collisions Crash FactorsOddsofCrashing1. Driver Action: Wrong Side of RoadWrong Side8::Not Wrong Side12. Any Adverse Environmental ConditionsAdverse Conditions3No Adverse Conditions3. Number of DUI Violations1 or More Violations2No ViolationsThis slide examines sideswipe – opposite direction crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in sideswipe opposite direction collisions are very likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road. Adverse environmental conditions (e.g., wind, rain, deer on road) are likely. These drivers may have previous DUI violations on record.As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a sideswipe opposite direction collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes.InterpretationDrivers in sideswipe opposite direction collisions are likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road. Adverse environmental conditions (e.g., wind, rain, deer on road) are likely. These drivers may have previous DUI violations on record.
22 Hit Fixed Object Collisions Crash FactorsOddsofCrashing1. Driver Action: Speeding/Too Fast for ConditionsSpeeding4::Not Speeding12. Driver GenderFemales2Males3. Road Surface Condition:Dry Road1.75Not4. Weather Condition: ClearClear Weather1.25Inclement WeatherThis slide examines hit fixed object crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in hit fixed object collisions are likely to be noted as speeding/too fast for conditions. These drivers are more likely to be female than male. These collisions are more likely to occur on dry roads in clear weather.As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a hit fixed object collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes.We will examine this in more detail later in this Unit.Interpretation: Drivers in hit fixed object collisions are likely to be noted as speeding/too fast for conditions. These drivers are more likely to be female than male. These collisions are more likely to occur on dry roads in clear weather.
23 Hit Pedestrian Collisions Crash FactorsOddsofCrashing1. Driver Action: Other Improper DrivingOther Improper Driving8::Not Other Improper Driving1This slide examines pedestrian crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in pedestrian collisions are very likely to be noted for improper driving.As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a pedestrian collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes.We will examine this in more detail later in this Unit.InterpretationDrivers in hit pedestrian collisions are likely to be noted as other improper driving.
24 Solutions?This Unit will examine things YOU can do to help reduce the collisions just discussed.The formula above is simple. Follow it to work to reduce the number of highway crashes!
25 The Driving Task Three phases: Information Decision Action There are three distinct phases to the task of driving – information, decision, and action. Roadway information leads the driver to decide to do something. The results of that action provide more information, which then starts the process over again. Further complicating the task of driving are distractions for the driver both inside and outside the vehicle. For example, cell phones or weather conditions influence the driving task.
26 The Driving Task Three phases apply to all processes: Loading students Unloading studentsUsing radioBrakingSteeringShiftingThere are three distinct phases to the task of driving – information, decision, and action. Roadway information leads the driver to decide to do something. The results of that action provide more information, which then starts the process over again. Further complicating the task of driving are distractions for the driver both inside and outside the vehicle. For example, cell phones or weather conditions influence the driving task.
27 Information As drivers, we all have to make assumptions when we drive Assumptions are made on our past driving experiences. As you learn to drive a bus, you may need to re-think some of the assumptions, such as stopping distance, use of mirrors, etc.
28 How many triangles?What we can see is important, but so is how our brain processes what we see. I'm going to flash a picture up on the screen for just a second (animation), and I want you to tell me how many triangles were in the diagram. Ready?How many saw one? Two? Three or more? How many say there weren't any?Definition of a triangle is "The plane figure formed by connecting three points not in a straight line by straight line segments; a three-sided polygon." (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition ) These three points are not connected. Therefore, there aren't any triangles.The point is, our brain tends to make assumptions comparing what it sees to past experience. Most of the time, this lets us make decisions quickly. This is usually a good thing. It's bad when what we see isn't quite what it appears to be.
29 Information - SightThis is an animated slide. The first shows an intersection during the daytime and then the same intersection is shown during nighttime.What visual cues can you use to guide your car around this bend (during daylight)?Edge of pavement, signs and markings, house, utility poles, trees, guiderailWhich ones would be visible after dark (nighttime graphic)?Just the chevrons and pavement markings. We'll get into reflectivity of signs and markings later, but this shows why it's important.
30 Information: Touch and Hearing The painted arrows on the roadway surface indicate the proper travel direction as does the sign. The centerline rumble strips provide touch and noise indicators that a vehicle is crossing into the oncoming traffic lane. The rumble strips reinforce the appropriate lane of travel.
31 DecisionThe second phase of driving after Information. We make decisions based on the information we receive.
32 Right or Left?This is an object marker intended to warn drivers of an obstruction within the roadway. The alternating black and yellow stripes are sloped down at an angle of 45 degrees toward the side on which traffic is to pass the obstruction. This object marker should be placed on the right side of the roadway to warn motorists that they should pass on the left-side of the marker. Object markers are commonly used at underpass bridge piers, bridge abutments, handrails, narrow shoulders, small islands, and culvert headwalls.
33 Decision Example 1This slide is an example of object markers used on a bridge approach. Drivers should stay between the markers to safely traverse the bridge.
34 Decision Example 2There are many decision points in this graphic – pedestrian crossing, several intersection legs, driveways, etc. As a school bus driver, explain what makes the decisions difficult at this location.
35 Preventing Decision Errors Pay attentionSpread decision pointsAdequate sight distanceAdvance warning or informationIt takes skill and experience to make safe driving decisions. Drivers must pay attention so they can keep track of several information messages at once, yet ignore what they do not need. These are skills that novice drivers are still learning and older drivers sometimes find difficult to process.We help all drivers reach the right decision by separating information and decision points. It is easier to make several simple decisions, one after the other, than it is to make one complex decision in a hurry.
36 ActionAction happens when the driver makes a decision and does something. The results of the action provide more information, which starts the information-decision-action process over again.For a road to be safe, the driver needs time to respond. Reaction time is the time it takes for the driver to notice a condition, decide what to do about it, then do it. The more information a driver must process, or the more complex the decision required, the longer it takes the driver to react.Although a perception-reaction time of 2.5 seconds is commonly used in highway design, driver response times can range from 1.5 seconds for a simple decision like initiating a panic stop to 15 seconds for a complex decision like choosing the correct exit in a convoluted highway interchange.
37 Vehicles Influence Action How many?How fast?What kind?We’re interested in the characteristics of traffic that use roads.Why are we interested in traffic?How does the type of traffic using a road affect your decision making?The types of vehicles using the road affect many of your driving decisions. For example, buses need more room to turn than passenger cars. Driving with the flow of traffic is generally safer than driving too fast or too slow.
38 Roads Influence Action Traffic controlSurfaceGeometryThe relative safety of a road is influenced by how drivers use it. The types of traffic on the road, the number and type of road users on an average day, and how fast they travel, what type of road surface is present all influence driver decisions.
39 Road Users Influence Action NoviceOlderPedestriansWalkersTruckersCyclistsWhile motor vehicles are typically the largest group of road users, others have the right to use the road. As the photo in the slide illustrates, this can include pedestrians and bicyclists.Be particularly careful around loading and unloading zones, but also in school zones. At schools, you may encounter students who are walking or biking to school, crossing guards stopping traffic that would not normally be stopped, etc. Driving vigilance is essential to safety.
40 Your JOB Influences Action DistractionsUnique nature of workStudent passengersResponsibilitiesTalk about why being a school bus driver is different than driving a passenger vehicle. This will be followed up in Unit G where it is discussed in more detail.
41 QuestionIf it all starts with Information, where do we get information when we drive?
43 Driver Conditions: Knowledge Why are traffic control devices important to the driving task?KNOWLEDGE!RegulationsPrinciplesSignsPavement markingsTraffic signalsThis section of Unit F will provide the information necessary to answer the question shown in the slide and will discuss why traffic control devices are important to the safe driving task.
44 What is a Traffic Control Device? SignSignalPavement MarkingOther (miscellaneous)‘Other’ includes cones, barricades, barrels, etc.
45 Why are TCDs Important to School Bus Drivers? COMMUNICATIONInformation phaseTraffic control devices are essentially communication devices – it is a way for a highway agency to get information to motorists. If TCDs are not installed or maintained properly, important information may not get to the motorists. If information is missed, a crash may occur.As a safe driver, it is important to pay particular attention to traffic control devices to obtain necessary information to get to your destinations safely.
46 Traffic Control Device Principles Fulfill a needCommand attentionCommand respectHave a simple, clear meaningAllow adequate time for responseThe principles of traffic control devices are listed. To be effective, all of the five basic requirements should be met.Design, placement, operation, maintenance, and uniformity are aspects that should be carefully considered in order to maximize the ability of a traffic control device to meet the five principles listed. Vehicle speed should also be considered in the design, operation, placement, and location of traffic control devices. Proper use (and uniformity) provides reasonable and prudent drivers with the information necessary to operate safety and lawfully on public roads.School bus operators can think about and discuss common signs they see on the roadways and how they can influence their behavior. Do they notice or bring up any signs that DON’T meet any of these requirements? If so, ask how it can influence their behavior and how it can influence safety.
47 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) National standard for all traffic control devices on public roadsPurpose of traffic control devices is to promote highway safety and efficiency by providing for orderly movement of all road users. MUTCD provides uniformity in size, shape, color, composition, lighting or retroreflectivity, and contrast to command attention to devices. Legibility and size combine with placement to permit adequate time for response by road users. Sign size, shape, color, and simplicity combine to produce a clear meaning. Uniformity, size, legibility, and reasonableness of the message combine to command respect by road users.
48 Traffic Signs Functional class Regulatory Warning Guide Regulatory signs tell road users about traffic regulations and laws. Road departments use them to control vehicle and pedestrian movements. Examples include STOP signs, NO PARKING signs, and speed limit signs.Warning signs tell road users to be cautious because of a condition on or near the roadway. Warning signs are especially helpful to drivers who are not familiar with the road. Overuse of warning signs can lead to disrespect for all warning signs, which reduces their effectiveness.Guide and information signs provide navigation and service information to drivers. These signs include route markers, destination signs, and information signs. They have green, blue, or brown backgrounds and white letters. Guide signs in work zones should be orange with black lettering.By giving information to drivers when they need it, we can reduce the unpredictable behavior of drivers who suddenly realize they are going the wrong way or just missed a turn.
49 Regulatory Signs Used to control actions of road users Require law, ordinance, or regulationAuthority varies with agencyMany regulations are unenforceable unless the proper signs are posted. Regulatory signs remind drivers of statutory rules, but statutory rules do not need signs to be enforceable. For example, we know it is illegal to park a vehicle in front of a fire hydrant, whether or not a sign prohibits it. To prohibit parking where it would otherwise be legal requires no parking regulations and signs.School bus drivers should know that these signs communicate statutes or local ordinances. They are not to be ignored.The Uniform Vehicle Code covers use of traffic regulations. Appropriate enabling ordinances or legislation must be in place before a regulatory sign is installed. In Pennsylvania, authority is given in Title 75, the Vehicle Code.Most regulatory signs are rectangular and taller than they are wide. Exceptions include STOP and YIELD signs. White, black, and red are used for regulatory signs.Regulatory signs can promote smooth, orderly traffic flow, but only when they are properly used and enforced. When used incorrectly, they can cause more problems than they solve. For example, unnecessary STOP signs cause needless air and noise pollution. Drivers often disobey regulations they think are unnecessary. These road users may intentionally disregard what they believe are irrelevant or unrealistic traffic regulations. Other roadway users may expect them to obey the regulation, and act accordingly, with potentially fatal results. For example, a pedestrian may assume an approaching driver will stop at the STOP sign. A serious injury could occur if the driver does not stop.
50 Stop Signs Octagonal in shape Red and white in color What do you do with pedestrians?What about student loading & unloading?What do you do with cross traffic?Where do you stop? What if there is a crosswalk?Rolling stopsOctagonal in shape. Red and White in color.You must stop and wait for pedestrians and cross traffic to clear the intersection before proceeding.If there is a crosswalk you must stop at least 4’ before the crosswalk.Slowing down without stopping is illegal. (rolling stop)
51 Multiway Stops Stop signs at each approach What do you do if you arrive first?What happens if two vehicles reach the intersection at the same time?Multiway Stop- there are stop signs at each approach.The first vehicle at the intersection should move forward first.If two vehicles reach the intersection at the same time, the driver on the left yields to the driver on the right.This will be emphasized later in the Unit.
52 Yield Signs Triangular (3-sided) in shape Who has right-of-way? When do you proceed?Is this the same as merge?Yield sign - triangular (3-sided) in shape.You must slow down and give the right-of-way to approaching traffic.Proceed when you can do so safely without interfering with normal traffic flow.You must have a sufficient gap before you can merge with traffic.
53 Turn Restrictions Symbol signs Prohibit unsafe movements These signs prohibit a driver from performing turns that are unsafe on a particular stretch of roadway.
54 Speed Limits Maximum legal speed Reasonable and prudent driver A speed limit sign indicates the maximum legal speed for a particular stretch of roadway.
55 Warning Signs Warn of conditions on or near road Posted in advance of conditionOveruse reduces effectivenessWarning signs are usually diamond-shaped, with black text or symbols on a yellow background. Road work warning signs should have orange backgrounds. An exception is the railroad crossing sign. It is always round and always has a yellow background, even when used in a work zone.The fluorescent yellow-green background is optional on certain warning signs, including pedestrian, bicyclist, playground, school bus, and school signs.
56 What do These Signs Mean? A curve where there is a potential for a vehicle roll overCurve to the right with a recommended speedSlippery When WetLane EndsDiscuss each one as a question and what driving behavior is required.Narrow BridgeCross RoadPedestrian CrossingSchool AdvancedWarning
57 Object Markers Objects adjacent to the roadway Bridge piers, abutments, culvert headwalls
58 Work Zone Signs Orange and black Diagonal shape Maintenance, construction, or utility workStay alertExercise extra cautionSlow downWork Zone signs are normally shaped like warning signs, but they are black and orange.These are used on maintenance, construction or utility work areas.Stay alert and slow down when you see these signs.
59 Work Zone Signs Indicates work is in progress on the roadway Indicates which lane is closedIndicates traffic flow is controlled by a person
60 Work ZonesWhen approaching a work zone, pay special attention to flaggers who may signal you to stop or slow down.
61 Guide Signs Provide navigational information Guide and inform Minimize confusionSigns shown above are examples of freeway and expressway guide signs. They are green with white letters.If exit sign is on the top right, you will exit to the right.If exit sign is on the top left, you will exit to the left.
62 Pavement MarkingsConvey warnings or information without diverting attention from roadConvey certain regulation and warning such as no parking or pedestrian walkwaysUsed alone, produce results other devices can’t such as passing zones or through intersectionsMost roads have permanent markings to show the center line of the road, travels lanes, or road edge.Yellow lines divide traffic traveling in opposite directions.White lines divide lanes of traffic traveling in the same direction or definite pavement edge.Broken traffic lines you can cross.Solid lines you cannot cross.
63 Pavement Markings Longitudinal pavement markings Yellow: delineate traffic flow in opposite directionWhite: delineate traffic flow in same directionRed: delineate roadways that shall not be enteredBlue: delineate parking spaces for people with disabilitiesTransverse markings are usually white
64 Pavement Markings What does a single broken centerline mean? Passing is permitted when there is a single broken yellow centerline.That DOESN’T mean it is a safe maneuver. Follow local polices and procedures regarding passing while you are driving a school bus.
65 Pavement Markings What does a double solid yellow centerline mean? NO PASSING when there is a double solid yellow centerline.
66 Pavement MarkingsWhat does a combination solid yellow and broken yellow centerline mean?You may pass if the broken yellow line is on your side of the road and only when it is safe.Follow local polices and procedures regarding passing while you are driving a school bus.You may NOT PASS when the solid yellow line is on your side of the road.
67 Pavement Markings What does this pattern mean? The solid yellow centerline means you CAN NOT use the center lane for passing vehicles moving in your direction.The broken yellow centerlines indicate vehicles traveling in either direction may use the center lane for making left turns.
68 Pavement Markings What do these pavement markings communicate? Broken White line shows which lane can be used for travel and passing.Yellow centerline indicate opposite lanes of travel and you can not cross these lines to pass.Multi-lane highways without medians are often mark as shown.
69 Pavement Markings What do these pavement markings communicate? This pattern is used on most limited access highways with medians or center barriers.Right edge of the road is marked with a solid white line.Left edge is marked with a solid yellow line.The travel lanes on both sides are marked with broken white lines, which may be crossed.
70 Edge Lines Generally used with center lines Road shifts or narrows Guide past obstaclesMark paved shouldersUse these for guidance in poor weather conditions!Used to separate traffic that have the same direction of travel. For instance, solid white edge lines may be used to separate through traffic lanes from auxiliary lanes, such as truck climbing lanes, left- or right-turn lanes, and other special use lanes. Lane lines are required on all freeways and Interstate highways.
71 Transverse Lines Stop lines Railroad clearance lines Crosswalks Stop lines indicate the point on an approach at which vehicle are intended to or required to stop. They are 12- to 24-inches wide.Crosswalk markings provide guidance for pedestrians who are crossing roadways by delineating the intended path. They should be between 6- and 24-inches wide and be separated by at least 6-feet.Railroad clearance lines should be 8-ft from the gate, but no closer than 15-ft to the nearest rail.
72 Traffic SignalsPower operated device by which motorists are warned or directed to take a specific actionHelp assign right-of-wayHelp control intersection traffic flow
73 Signal Terminology Section Face Signal Face Signal Section Contains 3, 4, or 5 sectionsSignal SectionEach light is a sectionMust be red, green, or yellowModern sections are 12” diameterSectionThe signal face is the surface on a signal head that contains the indicator lights. Each indicator light is a signal section. Each face can have 3, 4 or 5 sections. Each section has a red, green, or yellow colored lens. Larger signal lenses are significantly more visible and can reduce the frequency of crashes that result from failing to see the signal.Face
74 Signal TerminologyInterval - Period of time that one color illuminates on the signal faceAn interval is the period of time that a single color illuminates on the signal face. The signal face is only capable of displaying one interval at a time. Red and yellow intervals can illuminate only one section each. The green interval can illuminate one or more sections.Discuss the green interval above. Explain that the green arrow is a protected movement in that vehicles in the other direction have a red signal. You still need to be careful for pedestrians!The green ‘ball’ is permissive: you can make the left, but you have to wait for a sufficient gap in traffic. Drivers will practice this in the in-bus portion. Gap estimation is critical to safety…be conservative in a bus!Red IntervalGreen IntervalYellow Interval
75 Traffic Signals What do you do? Right turn? One way street? Pedestrians?Steady Red- you must come to a complete stop before crossing the marked stop line.You may turn right on red unless a “No Turn on Red” sign is posted. You must first stop and yield to pedestrians and other traffic.Be careful with turning right on red and follow local guidelines and procedures. Just because you are ALLOWED to make this maneuver, doesn’t mean it is SAFE.You may also turn left onto a “One Way Street” from a “One Way Street” unless posted No Turn on Red. You must first stop and yield to pedestrians and other traffic.Red Interval
76 Traffic Signals What do you do? Yellow Interval Steady Yellow- tells you a “Red” light will soon appear.(slow down and prepare to stop)Yellow Interval
77 Traffic Signals What do you do? Pedestrians? Green Interval Green Light- you can drive through the intersection if the road is clear. However, when turning, you must yield to other vehicles and pedestrians.Green Interval
78 Traffic Signals Flashing red and flashing yellow What do you do? Flashing Red Light- you must come to a complete stop, look and proceed only after intersection is clearFlashing Yellow Light- slow down, look and proceed carefully.
79 Driver Conditions: Expectancy What drivers expect of the roadSurprise is bad!As drivers gain experience they expect things to happen as they always have. For example, drivers expect that a green light on a traffic signal will lead to a yellow light (green light on bottom of signal and yellow immediately above it). Note the reverse order of the signal indications in the photo. In this example, green is the top indicator on the signal and red is the bottom indicator. This signal may violate a driver’s expectancy, and the driver will react in an erratic or incorrect way. Removing expectancy violations helps improve safety.
80 Expectancy Example 1This is a pretty typical intersection – a T with a short auxiliary right turn lane.
81 Expectancy Example 1 (cont.) This is the next intersection on the same roadway. If you don't look at the pavement arrows, this looks like a conventional intersection with a right turn auxiliary lane (as in previous slide). If you act on this assumption and get in the left lane to go straight, you are in the left turn lane.This is a relatively low volume intersection in a low speed area. Both of these roads are local or minor collectors. The left turn leads to a minor arterial.What could be done to fix this? In order of cost and complexity:Add lane designation signing (separate left-turn lane and shared through/right-turn lane) – in fact it's needed to be enforceable in most statesIf traffic volumes allow, change lane designation from L TR to LT R (L is left; T is through; R is right).Rebuild intersection to make it more obvious that left lane is for lefts only (see next slide)Pay attention to situations that violate expectancy! Be a careful driver in a school bus
82 Expectancy Example 1 (cont.) This is what the previous intersection might look like after realigning the curb and adding a flush median island to lead traffic into the right lane. This treatment would make the left turn lane stand out to the driver.Would this be easier to navigate?
83 Driver Conditions Health! So far, we’ve discussed KNOWLEDGE and EXPECTENCYWhat other driver condition is critical to safely operating a bus?Health!
84 Driver Health Annual physical exam Occasional illness Alcohol and drugsPennsylvania has zero tolerance for drug and alcohol use by school bus and school vehicle drivers. Refer to Sections 1612, 1606 and 3802 of Title 75.
85 Alcohol and Driving FALSE TRUE Alcohol enhances your ability to drive. Alcohol is a drug that will make you less alert and reduce your ability to drive safely.Some people can drink a lot and not be affected by it.Everyone who drinks is affected by alcohol.If you eat a lot first, you won’t get drunk.Food will not keep you from getting drunk.Coffee and a little fresh air will help a drinker sober up.Only time will help a drinker sober up; other methods just don’t work.Stick with beer – it’s not as strong as wine or whiskey.A few beers are the same as a few shots of whiskey or a few glasses of wine.
86 What is a Drink?All of the following drinks contain the same amount of alcohol:12 oz glass of 5% beer5 oz glass of 12% wine1 ½ oz shot of 80 proof liquor
87 How does Alcohol Affect Driving? Slower reactions to hazardsDriving too fast or too slowDriving in the wrong laneRunning over the curbWeavingStraddling lanesQuick, jerky startsNot signaling, failure to use lightsRunning stop signs and red lightsImproper passing
88 Drugs and Driving Illegal drugs are always unlawful to possess and use Prescription medicineCan affect eyesight, hearing, judgmentRead the labelsTalk to you doctor or pharmacistWork with your supervisor
89 Concentration and Attitude Driver ConditionsSo far, we’ve discussed KNOWLEDGE, EXPECTENCY, HEALTHWhat other driver conditions are critical to safely operating a bus?Concentration and Attitude
90 AttitudeRECOGNIZE the hazardDEFEND yourselfACT to prevent
91 Concentration and Attitude Be alert and attentiveBe positiveFocus on your workBe careful of being an aggressive driverDo you speed excessively?Do you tailgate slower vehicles?Do you race to beat red lights or run stop signs?Do you weave in and out of traffic?Do you pass illegally on the right?Do you fail to yield the right of way to oncoming vehicles?If trainees can answer yes to any of these questions, they are most likely driving aggressively. There is no place for this when operating a school bus.
92 Mitigate Aggressive Driving Plan aheadConcentrateRelaxDrive to posted speed limitBe late rather than unsafeSet an example for younger passengersPlan ahead. Allow yourself enough travel time to prevent a time crunch. Safety first, schedule second.• Concentrate. Don’t allow yourself to become distracted by students. Do NOT talk on your cell phone while driving.• Relax.• Drive the posted speed limit. Fewer crashes occur when vehicles are travelling at or about the same speed. Driving too fast can lead to “bottle-necking,” bringing traffic to a standstill and frustrating drivers.• Be late rather than unsafe. Obviously schedule is important, but just be late if safety will be compromised.• Set an example for younger passengers. Children are keenly observant. Educating them at an early age through your actions will teach them the importance of being courteous.
93 Attention and Monitoring Challenge for school bus operators:StudentsRoadTrafficYour busDetermine what you need to observePrioritize your monitoring and attentionBalance between many itemsSafety firstE.g., Pre-trip, monitor gauges; When loading students, concentrate on them!
94 Attention and Monitoring There are many ways to pay attention to your surroundings while driving the bus. Use the method that is most comfortable to you and allows you to be more aware of everything around you. For example, when stopped at a bus stop and loading passengers, you should concentrate on the students outside the bus. Most of your time should be spent focusing on the cross view mirrors and directly at the students through the front and side windows, while monitoring other traffic through the side mirrors. When the bus is in motion, your attention is focused less on the cross view mirrors, and more on the road in front of the bus. Your view must alternate between the front window of the bus, the side mirrors, the rearview mirror (if present), the interior of the bus, and the dashboard. While looking at each of these in a systematic order, it is important that you always remember to check everything.More attention is needed on areas that are more critical for student’s safety.
95 Attention and Monitoring There is a LOT to monitor as a school bus operatorHighest rate of injury in PA school bus crashes involved speeding and distracted, or speeding and tailgating.Crash data also showed some crashes are more likely to occur with no adverse weather conditions.Don’t get complacent!Pay attention and monitor your behavior!Don’t forget to pay careful attention when the weather is good too; others will be enjoying the nice weather and may not be paying attention either. Surprisingly, Pennsylvania school bus crash data reveal that head-on, backing, angle, and hit fixed object crashes are more likely to occur with no adverse weather conditions and on dry pavement than in adverse weather conditions. It appears from this that drivers may be complacent in better weather. It is important to pay attention and be vigilant at all times.
96 Driver Fatigue Who has driven their own vehicle while tired? What behavior did you notice?How were your actions different when you were fatigued compared to when you were alert and well rested?One response you might get is a trainee describing driving and not remembering a section of roadway, or not remembering how he/she got there. This is called a ‘microsleep.’ A microsleep is an episode of sleep which may last for a fraction of a second or up to thirty seconds and may be the result of fatigue. Microsleeps can occur at any time, typically without significant warning.Microsleeps (or microsleep episodes) become extremely dangerous when occurring during situations which demand continual alertness, such as driving a bus.Point out that fatigue increases information processing time and lowers reaction time. Also point out that while individuals vary, generally people experience sleepiness between 3:00 and 5:00 PM – the time during the afternoon trip home from school.
97 Warning Signs of Driver Fatigue Your eyes feel heavyYou blink and yawn frequentlyYou become less attentive to the roadYour head feels heavy and you have trouble keeping your head upYou can't remember the last few miles drivenYou drift from your lane or hit a rumble stripYou experience wandering thoughtsDifficulty focusing or keeping eyes openYou have to jerk your vehicle back into the lane.You tailgate or miss traffic signs
98 Avoid the Consequences of Driver Fatigue Get a good night's sleepBe alert and recognize early warning signs of fatigueAvoid alcohol and medications (over-the-counter and prescribed) that may impair performanceDon't rely on your students, the radio or opening a window to keep you awakeEat sensibly and avoid heavy mealsRemember not to use any drug that hides fatigue - the only cure for fatigue is restWhile a good night’s sleep varies from individual to individual, the average person requires about 8 hours of sleep a night.
99 Cell Phones and Texting While Driving Cell Phone /Other Related TasksRisk of Crash or Near Crash eventLight Vehicle/CarsDialing Cell Phone2.8 times as high as non-distracted drivingTalking/Listening to Cell Phone1.3 times as high as non-distracted drivingReaching for object (i.e. electronic device and other)1.4 times as high as non-distracted drivingHeavy Vehicles/TrucksDialing Cell phone5.9 times as high as non-distracted driving1.0 times as high as non-distracted drivingUse/Reach for electronic device6.7 times as high as non-distracted drivingText messaging23.2 times as high as non-distracted drivingResults of a Virginia Tech research study on Distracted Driving:*Texting while operating a CMV is a prohibited offense.
100 Cell Phones and Texting While Driving Safest course of action is to refrain from using a cell phoneOnly use your cell phone in emergency situations
101 Driver Conditions Summary – We examined: KnowledgeExpectancyHealthConcentration and attitudeAttention and monitoringDriver fatigueCell phones and texting
102 Driver Conditions Summary – We learned: Observe traffic defensivelyVisualize the route and what you are going to doKeep extra space between you and the vehicle ahead of youHave a systematic pattern of mirror checksMaintain a safety circle around the busRemind yourself of the responsibility you have transporting studentsDo not talk/text on your cell phone while drivingCount the students as they get off the bus and watch where they all goDrive mindfully, not mindlessly
103 Vehicle Conditions Discussed in detail in Unit E Pre-trip conditions Is the school bus you are assigned to drive in safe operating condition?Will it respond instantly and effectively to all controls?Have you checked it over?Did you report deficiencies to your supervisor and have they been corrected?
104 Vehicle Conditions Discussed in detail in Unit E Operating (on-the-road) conditionsSight: constantly check all gauges for proper readings, check lights, and watch for smoke or fireSmell: constantly check for telltale odors of smoke, exhaust fumes, gasoline, oil, and burning rubberSound: listen for unusual noises such as engine knocking or clashing gearsTouch: often you will feel the first sign of trouble. Be alert for loss of steering, brakes, transmission, power, or other vehicular functions
105 Environmental and Roadway Conditions Scanning aheadDriving on slippery surfacesReduced visibilityEquipment adjustmentsHeavy windHighway hazardsPedestrian hazardsOther vehicle hazards
106 Scanning Ahead Have a clean windshield and properly adjusted mirrors. Develop the habit of scanning 360 degrees around the bus: front, sides, and rear.Don’t stare too long at a particular object, as you will be less aware of clues from your larger field of indirect vision.Focus farther ahead as your speed increases and slow down if your view becomes limited by hills or curves.
107 Habits for Improving Scanning and Perception Know What to Look ForUse Efficient Eye HabitsUse Systematic Search PatternSearch for Conflict Situations
109 Eye Habits for Bus Control Picture Path of TravelLook Down MiddleLook Far Ahead
110 Search The Scene Ahead Search 12-15 seconds ahead Make your drive safer by scanning the entire roadway, including the side of the road.Search seconds aheadSearch from side to side
111 Search the Road Surface To detect changes in directionTo assess speed of other carsTo check for pedestrians between parked cars
112 Detect and ANTICIPATE Changes Highway conditionsOther trafficSight distanceRoadway surfaceTypeSlopeRoughnessShouldersOil, water, iceHighway conditions: Number of lanes, width of pavement, width of shoulders, guard rails Embankments, fencing, posts, trees, snow bank, rock slide, barricades, hills, curves, dips in road, embankments, signs, shrubs, farm crops, buildings, snow banksOther Traffic: Oncoming line of cars, cars waiting to turn left, parked delivery trucks, turning trucks, bikes, pedestrians, stalled cars, large trucks or buses ahead, cars or trucks standing, parking, turning or waiting to turnSight distance: Present speed becomes unsafe for changes in sight distance or view to sides, required stopping distance becomes greater than actualRoadway surface: Less grip of tires on road surface, less ability to control car
113 Search Mirrors and Dash Check inside and outside mirrorsCheck every 5-8 secondsCheck dash regularly
114 Look for Clues Mailboxes, utility lines, houses, cloud of dust These clues can indicate where the road goes and whether vehicles are approaching from a different directionMailboxes, utility lines, houses, cloud of dust
115 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Crashes Drivers were more likely to be noted for driving too fast for conditions in rain-fog and especially in snow-sleet conditions than in clear weather conditionsDrivers were more likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road under snow-sleet conditions, perhaps indicating loss of control of the vehicle on slick roads and/or difficulty in seeing the center line.So…SLOW DOWN…ADJUST YOUR DRIVINGQuantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania.In fact, these collisions were three times more likely to occur under adverse environmental conditions than when no such conditions were present.
116 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Crashes Although 75% of prime school bus crashes overall occurred in urban areas, snow-sleet crashes were more likely to occur in rural than urban areas, perhaps due to lower levels of winter services on rural routes.If your drivers operate buses in rural areas, be particularly careful in adverse weather conditions.Quantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania.Failure to stop was less likely to be noted under snow-sleet conditions than under clear or rain-fog conditions. This suggests that on slick roads drivers proceed cautiously enough to enable stopping when necessary.One point to make to drivers is while they appear to be approaching stopping cautiously, speeding remains a concern.
117 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Crashes Snow-sleet crashes were likely to involve single-vehicle hit fixed object crashes.This suggests school bus operators are not adjusting their speeds based on weather conditions.Head-on collisions were twice as likely to occur on dry roads as on other road surface conditions.It appears that some drivers attempt risky maneuvers on dry roads that they perhaps avoid in less favorable conditions.Quantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania.
118 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Driving Recommendations Start on time, but adjust to conditionsSafety first, schedule secondUse windshield wipers in inclement weatherUse of headlights is mandatoryCheck brakes immediately after driving through deep puddles or standing water.If they fail to work properly, pump the brakes to help dry them while the vehicle is moving.For air brakes, cautiously apply steady pressure.Set a regular speed, and drive slower than posted speed limitReinforce that school bus operators need to limit the loss of traction by driving smoothly. Sudden applications of power or brakes can make wheels break traction and skid. Turning quickly can make wheels slide sideways, causing understeer, or the bus not turning commensurate with the steering application. Sometimes during understeer, wheels sliding sideways will suddenly grip, causing oversteer, or a condition in which the bus turns too much for the given steering application. Oversteer can cause the rear end of the bus to swing around.Driving on slippery surfaces means not expecting the normal response from the bus commensurate with the normal applications of control. Operators will have to learn how to modulate accelerator and brake pedal pressures and apply steering control smoothly and gently. Refer to Unit H for additional information on this topic.
119 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Driving Recommendations Start the bus in the lowest appropriate gear for better traction if ice or wet snow is on the driving surfaceTo avoid getting stuck or spinning the wheels, try to keep the bus moving slowly and steadily forward in gearWhen approaching intersections and when stopping, pump the brakes once or twice so that the wheels won’t lock on the ice. With air brakes, use gentle but steady pressure.Make turns smoothly; avoid applying the brakeAvoid skidding
120 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Driving Recommendations Plan ahead for expected hazardous areas of the routeBridges,Stretches of road that have been slippery in the pastUphill stopsIntersectionsMaintain a greater than normal safe following distance from other vehiclesWhen pulling onto the highway, allow for longer acceleration time required for school busesFor buses with manual transmissions, do not disengage the clutch until the bus is almost completely stopped.
121 Reduced Visibility: Weather Conditions Follow local pre-trip inspection guidelinesKeep the windshield clearStop the bus and remove snow or ice build-upDon’t hesitate to leave the roadway at a safe spot to sit out a heavy shower, snow squall, or thick fogAlways remember to keep in contact with your supervisor
122 Reduced Visibility: Bright Sunlight Carry sunglasses and use them when necessaryAdjust visors to block out direct sunAvoid looking directly at the sun, bright reflections, or glare; they can affect your vision for several secondsClean the windshield inside/outside
123 Reduced Visibility: Night Driving ~6% of crashes involving a school bus occurred at nightFatalities were more likely to occur in dark than daylight or dawn-dusk conditionsImproper highway entrance/exit was least likely to be noted in daylight conditions and most likely to be noted in dark conditionsThis might suggest that drivers may have difficulty pulling onto roadways in dark conditions.When discussing this section, you may want to share some results of the quantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania as included on the slide.
124 Reduced Visibility: Night Driving Failure to stop was less likely to be noted in dark conditions than in dawn-dusk or daylight conditions, perhaps because drivers are more cautious when visibility is poor.Improper turning was more likely to be noted in dark conditions than in daylight or dawn-dusk conditions.When discussing this section, you may want to share some results of the quantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania as included on the slide.
125 Reduced Visibility: Night Driving SLOW DOWNChange other driving techniquesIncrease your following distanceExercise extra cautionDon’t look directly at oncoming lightsDon’t look off into the darknessUse pavement markings and delineators as guidance devicesNote that your eyes need to adjust to night lighting and driving in dark conditions.SLOW DOWN. Just because the speed limit is 40 mph, it doesn’t mean you have to drive that fast. Remember, the speed limit is an indication of the maximum safe speed during optimal driving conditions.Change other driving techniques. For example, don’t overdrive your headlights. If you are driving at 55 mph, it will take you up to 300 feet to stop while the average headlights will illuminate only 250 feet ahead.Increase your following distance behind the vehicle in front of you because distance perception is more difficult to judge at night.Exercise caution. It takes time for the average eye to adjust to night vision. Drive with special caution during this critical adjustment period. Avoid highway hypnosis caused by prolonged and forced staring.Don’t look directly at oncoming lights. Visibility is affected considerably by oncoming headlights at distances of 3,000 feet or more. Staring at oncoming headlights will also distort your vision for up to seven seconds. That translates to a distortion lasting a distance of 565 feet when traveling at 55 mph.Don’t look off into the darkness, because your eyes will have trouble adjusting to the road lights again. You may be able to learn to steer by the side light cast by cars ahead of you.Use pavement markings and delineators as guidance devices. Often, they form a corridor of reflected light in which a stalled car or pedestrian will show up as a blank spot.Your eyes need to adjust to night lighting and driving in dark conditions. If you are exposed to bright sunlight during the day, it will take your eyes longer to adjust, and it can impair your night vision considerably. Therefore, wear your sunglasses if exposed to bright sunlight during the day.
126 Equipment Adjustments Keep headlights and windshield cleanAlways use low beams on sharp curves and when traffic is approachingKeep headlights on low beam in cities or towns and in fog or hazeKeep your instrument panel lights dimIf oncoming drivers fail to dim their lights, don’t blind them with your high beamsDon’t tailgate
127 Equipment Adjustments If it is necessary to stop the bus on the shoulder of an open highway, choose a spot visible for at least 500 feet to oncoming and following traffic (see Figure above). Turn off the headlights, but leave parking lights and/or hazard warning lights on.
128 Headlights Dual purpose: see and be seen Required use by law: Insufficient light or on overcast daysBetween sunset and sunriseInclement weatherCertain work zones
129 Headlights High beaming is not a punishment Low beams: use during fog, snow, and rain; orwithin 500’ of oncoming traffic; orwithin 300’ of vehicle you are followingHigh beaming is not a punishmentIf another driver coming toward you has their high beam on, do not punish them by keeping yours on. Flash your lights quickly a few times and look toward the right side of the road.
130 Heavy Wind Because of height of bus Can act like a sail Know your routesUse extreme caution when passing other vehicles, especially large trucks
132 Intersections: Crashes 60% of crashes involving school buses occur at intersectionsDrivers who crashed at T or Y intersections had fewer total training hours than drivers who crashed at mid-block or 4-way intersection locationsThis suggests that navigating through intersections can be tricky and more experienced drivers have learned strategies to helpQuantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania.In-bus training will help with intersection crashes.
133 Intersections: Crashes Adverse environmental conditions were more likely to be noted at mid-block locations than intersectionsIntersection crashes were more likely to be in urban areas, perhaps due to greater exposure at high traffic locationsA greater number of injuries were sustained in mid-block than intersection crashes perhaps because of the speeds involvedA greater number of vehicles were involved in 4-way intersection than T or Y intersection or mid-block crashesQuantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania.In-bus training will help with intersection crashes.
134 Intersections: Crashes Angle collisionsFailure to stopMore likely in darknessIt appears that some bus drivers have a tendency to roll past stop signs when the way appears to be clear, fail to see an oncoming vehicle under low light conditions, and collide with the oncoming vehicleRear end collisions also more commonTailgatingMore likely if you have a previous violationBe particularly vigilantAngle collisions are common at intersections. In the quantitative review of Pennsylvania school bus crash data, it was determined that several factors contributed to angle collisions. Failure to stop was by far the most impactful – drivers noted for this were 33 times more likely to be involved in an angle collision than drivers who were not. Angle collisions were 3 times as likely to occur in darkness as in other illumination conditions. Other contributing factors were: the absence of adverse environmental conditions (angle collisions were twice as likely to occur under no adverse conditions as when adverse conditions were present); and failure to stop violations on record (drivers with 1 or more fail to stop violations were slightly more likely to be involved in angle collisions than drivers with no such violations). It appears that these findings are consistent with a scenario whereby some drivers have a tendency to roll past stop signs when the way appears to be clear, fail to see an oncoming vehicle under low light conditions, and collide with the oncoming vehicle.Rear end collisions are also more common at intersections. Drivers noted as tailgating were 61 times more likely to be involved in a rear-end collision than drivers involved in collisions who were not noted as tailgating. Other contributing factors to rear-end collisions were gender (males were 1.5 times more likely than females) and improper driving violations on record (drivers with 1 or more improper driving violations were 1.5 times more likely to be involved in rear-end collisions than drivers with no improper driving violations).Drivers should be made aware that if they have a driving record with one or more fail to stop violations, they should be particularly vigilant when operating a school bus not to repeat this behavior.
135 Intersections: Right-of-Way This concept legally establishes who has the right to use the conflicting part of the road and who has to wait until the other does so.Right-of-way laws are designed to prevent collisions by prescribing which vehicle must move last.Note that the law only names the vehicle that must yield right of way; it never states that any vehicle expressly has the right to proceed.Intersections:ControlledUncontrolled
136 Yield Control Approach with caution Reasonable speed for geometry and traffic conditionsYield, NOT merge!
137 Stop Control Stop at stop line Stop 4’ in advance of crosswalk Stop at nearest point where driver has best view of approaching trafficBest line of sightLook in all directions at least twiceRemember the acceleration capabilities of your busDon’t take chances!Drivers’ responsibilities at stop-controlled intersections are stated in Section 3323(b) of Title 75, The Vehicle Code. This section states “Duties at stop signs.--Except when directed to proceed by a police officer or appropriately attired persons authorized to direct, control or regulate traffic, every driver of a vehicle approaching a stop sign shall stop at a clearly marked stop line or, if no stop line is present, before entering a crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if no crosswalk is present, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering. If, after stopping at a crosswalk or clearly marked stop line, a driver does not have a clear view of approaching traffic, the driver shall, after yielding the right-of-way to any pedestrian in the crosswalk, slowly pull forward from the stopped position to a point where the driver has a clear view of approaching traffic. The driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute a hazard during the time when the driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways, and enter the intersection when it is safe to do so.”
138 Signal Control Red signal: STOP Use right turn on red with extreme cautionFollow local procedures and policiesYellow signal: Prepare for stop…do not accelerateGreen signal: Check before proceeding for pedestrians and other trafficBe careful when making the left turn; yield to oncoming traffic!Flashing yellow: Slowly proceed with cautionFlashing red: Stop completely, check, proceed with caution.The qualitative portion of school bus crash analyses indicate that school bus drivers should take extra precautions at signalized intersections in wet weather; poor visibility affecting distance judgments may be a contributing factor in these crashes.
139 Roundabouts Counterclockwise rotation Yield before entering Circulate until desired exit is reachedPedestrians are not allowed; they cross at approachesRoundabouts follow four key operational rules:.(1) In the U.S., traffic in the circular roadway flows in a counterclockwise direction.(2) Traffic entering the circular roadway must yield and wait for a gap in traffic before entering. Yielding before entering is a key feature of roundabouts that separate them from other circular intersections like rotaries.(3) Drivers yield, then enter the roundabout and circulate counterclockwise until the desired exit is reached.(4) Pedestrians are not allowed in the circular roadway. They cross at approaches.
140 Accessible Pedestrian Crossing Bicycle TreatmentAccessible Pedestrian CrossingCounterclockwiseCirculationCenter IslandCirculatoryRoadwaySidewalkThis illustration is from the FHWA publication “Roundabouts: An Informational Guide.” One of the key geometric design features of a roundabout is the diameter of the central island. The inscribed diameter of the circular roadway (the diameter of the outside curb on the circular road way) of a typical roundabout is between 80 and 130 feet. This diameter is critical because it must be small enough to force vehicles to slow down to 15 mph to negotiate the turn, but must also be large enough to allow large trucks and buses to negotiate the roundabout. In some roundabouts where large trucks and buses are anticipated on a regular basis a truck apron is installed. This apron is a slightly raised concrete section with corrugations formed in it’s surface which will allow a truck’s rear wheels to track over it. The corrugations in the surface of the apron discourage smaller vehicles from cutting across the apron. Another key design feature of a roundabout is the pedestrian crossing, which is located away from the circular roadway. Pedestrians and bikes are not allowed in the circular roadway.LandscapingBufferSplitter IslandYield LineApron
141 Why Do They Work? Drivers don’t need to stop unnecessarily Average speed is very low ( mph)Left turn volume does not greatly impact operationAll traffic movement given equal priorityTraffic queues move continuouslyFrom a traffic operations perspective roundabouts function very well. In general, every time a vehicle has to stop unnecessarily at an intersection, that translates directly to time delays, extra fuel use, and wear and tear on the vehicle. This is especially noticeable when traffic volumes are low and a driver pulls up to an all-way stop sign. Even if there are no other vehicles at the intersection the vehicle has to stop. The same is true for signal control. If the signal is red the driver must stop even if there are no other vehicles approaching. This is not true for roundabouts, which allow drivers to make decisions on when to stop and when it is safe to go. Roundabouts are an improvement over stop-controlled or signalized intersections because of this free-flow nature.The geometric design of roundabouts makes them inherently safer than cross intersections. In order to comfortably negotiate the circular roadway of a roundabout, vehicles must travel at slow speeds. This translates to safety, since it provides approaching drivers time to see and anticipate gaps in traffic and quickly accelerate to circulating speeds.High left-turn volumes at signalized intersections create a big operational problems, including congestion and low level of service. Roundabouts, on the other hand, are unaffected by high left turn volumes because its operation gives equal priority to all traffic movements.A psychological benefit of roundabouts is that if a queue of cars does develop, drivers are generally more accepting because the queue is constantly moving, unlike signals which tend to move in stop-and-go phases.
142 Large Vehicles (Buses) on Roundabouts Truck ApronA common objection to roundabouts is their perceived inability to accommodate heavy truck or bus traffic. The circular roadway of a roundabout is specifically designed to slow traffic. This design, which is basically a narrow lane around a sharp left turn, does not accommodate truck or bus traffic very well.Truck aprons are the solution to this problem.A truck apron is a slightly raised section of pavement on the inner edge of the circular roadway, which provides additional room for the rear wheels of a larger vehicle, but discourages use by passenger vehicles.
143 Last Notes on Intersections Uniformed Police OfficerAlways has authority over signs and signalsPrivate roadsWhen leaving a driveway, always yield right-of wayRule of thumb: School bus never have right of way – be conservativeWhenever possible don’t back out of a drivewayCrossing main (divided) highwaysCheck and recheckUse extreme cautionNEVER take a risk
144 Roadside Hazards Key is to stay on the road! Be careful of surfaces that are:LooseRoughSlipperySlow down!Crash data indicates:Bus drivers may be too overconfident in good and bad weather, leading to a crashDriving too fast for conditionsWhen a sample of individual run-off-the-road crashes involving school buses were qualitatively analyzed, all these crashes occurred because the school bus driver failed to properly control the vehicle, and it appears that these crashes could have been avoided if the drivers exercised greater caution, in particular driving at slower speeds in hazardous roadway conditions.This was supported by the qualitative data analyses. These analyses indicate that it appears that hit fixed object collisions occur when drivers, perhaps overconfident in their ability to handle the vehicle in good weather, fail to properly control the vehicle while driving too fast for conditions. Driving too fast for conditions was the most impactful factor contributing to hit fixed object crashes – drivers noted for this were 4 times more likely to be involved in a hit fixed object collision than drivers who were not. Also, hit fixed object collisions were 1.75 times more likely to occur on dry roads and 1.25 times more likely to occur in clear weather.
145 Pedestrian HazardsGreater number of fatalities associated with hit pedestrians (and head-on collisions) than any other crashPay particular attention:During student loading and unloading (Unit C)School areasKids getting out of carsCrossing between parked carsAt intersectionsRight on redPeds failing to pay attention to traffic control devicesIn hours of darknessGreater numbers of fatalities were associated with hit pedestrian and head-on collisions with school buses than any other crash type. Pedestrians pose a particular hazard because their movements are difficult to predict – the school bus operator must be ready for anything – and a school bus does not stop or swerve quickly.In the qualitative portion of the analyses of Pennsylvania school bus crash data, some school bus crashes involved pedestrians, and most of these pedestrians sustained minor or moderate injuries though there were some fatalities. Some examples include:One crash occurred when a student exited the school bus and was standing near the front of the bus when the bus moved forward, struck and ran over the student – the crossing control arm was not deployed.One crash occurred as a school bus made a right turn through an intersection and a pedestrian at a crosswalk walked into the side of the bus, fell and was run over.Two crashes occurred as school buses traversed through intersections at green lights and struck pedestrians in crosswalks.One crash occurred as a pedestrian crossed a road mid-block without a crosswalk, wearing dark colored clothing at dawn, and was struck by an oncoming school bus.In the quantitative portion of the analyses, it was determined that hit pedestrian collisions were more likely to occur at dawn or dusk (visibility appears to be a key factor), and at intersection locations.
146 Pedestrian HazardsUrban and rural pedestrian hazards
148 Pedestrian HazardsPEDESTRIAN BEHIND VEHICLEPEDESTRIAN AT LIGHT POLE
149 Hazards From Other Drivers Drivers in a hurryDrivers losing control of their vehiclesLack of communicationVehicle slowing down…may be about to turnParked car with a driver in the driver’s seat, engine running, or turned wheels…may be about to pull out from the curbParked car with a driver in the driver’s seat…may be getting ready to exit his vehiclePickup and delivery vehicles with backup lights on…may be about to back into another street or driveway
150 Hazards from Other Drivers Inadequate adjustment by other driver to various roadway or environmental conditionsFailure of other driver to observeNot responding to an upcoming intersection or to your signalsNot looking at the road or what is in front of him/herDirty windows, bright sunlight, or other objects obscuring or restricting the other driver’s view.Other driver’s vehicle being detectable to you only by reflection, headlight glow, or dust cloud.If you cannot see them, they can’t see you!
151 S - 17 A BUS IS STOPPED TO LOAD STUDENTS AT THE CURB A CAR PULLS INTO INTERSECTION TO SEE AROUND BUSS - 17
152 Aggressive Drivers Get out of their way Do not challenge Stay relaxed, avoid eye contact and ignore rude gesturesDon’t block the passing lane if you are driving slower than most of the trafficPut your pride in the back seat and DO NOT RETALIATEDo not try to teach another driver a lessonWear your seat belt.
153 Aggressive DriversReport aggressive drivers to the appropriate authoritiesVehicle descriptionLicense plateLocationDirection of travel.If you have a cell phone, and can do it safely, pull to the side of the road and call the police and/or your supervisorDo NOT unload any students if an aggressive driver pursues you. Call for help.
154 Slow Moving Vehicles Amish buggies Farm equipment Heavy vehicles Do not blow your hornLeave enough room when passingFarm equipmentHeavy vehiclesVehicles going up steep gradesWatch for reflective orange triangle bordered with red
155 Work Zones May be confusing Unexpected events Expectancy! Higher crash ratesWork zones are considered high risk areas because work zones are:Unexpected eventsConfusing to motoristsIn general, crash rates in work zones are higher than crash rates outside of work zones on similar segments or roadway.
156 Unique Traffic Control Devices Electronic arrow panelsMerge RightMerge LeftCaution
157 Unique Traffic Control Devices Automated Flagger Assistance Device. Treat these as you would a flagger or signal in a work zone.
158 Work Zone Components Advanced warning area Transition area Activity areaTermination areaThis diagram identifies the five (5) components. INSTRUCTOR SHOULD POINT OUT EACH COMPONENT TO THE CLASS:Advance Warning Area- The advance warning area is the area approaching the work space where advance warning signs are placed.Transition Area-the transition area is used to move or “transition” traffic around the work space.Buffer Zone-the buffer zone is a clear area between the end of the transition area and the work spaceWork Area- the work area is actual location of the work in progress.Termination Area- the termination area is the end of the work zone.
160 Work Zone Areas for concern? Safe driver maneuvers? This is a photo of an example single flagger operation.Note the sight distance to traffic approaching from both directions.
161 Work Zone Safe Driving Tips Obey speed limitsFollow flagger instructionsDo not tailgateBe alert for lane shifts and closuresExpect the unexpected
162 MotorcyclesLook for motorcycles…then look again. Look twice at intersections, especially when turning left.Respect motorcyclists’ rights.Anticipate a motorcyclist’s maneuversAllow plenty of following distanceCheck and re-check your blind spots.
163 Controlling Speed School bus crash data indicates: Most severe injuries occur in crashes that involve speedingSpeeding and tailgating are listed as factors in 18% of crashes where school buses were the prime vehicleDriver actions with highest injury rates, by far, were:Combination of speeding & distracted drivingCombination of speeding & tailgatingAmong single driver action categories, the highest injury rate was for tailgatingThe message: SLOW DOWN!Safety first, schedule secondThe most severe injuries associated with school bus crashes involve speed along with other factors causing those crashes. Emphasize the importance of adjusting speed to maintain safe following distances.Based on a quantitative analysis of Pennsylvania school bus crash data, most school bus crashes do not cause injuries, but some school bus driver actions are more consequential than others with respect to crash outcomes. For example, the greatest number of injuries was in crashes attributed to other improper driving (typically coded by investigating officers when several factors are implicated in a crash), followed by failure to stop, tailgating, improper turn, speeding/too fast for conditions, and distracted driving.When looking at rates of injuries by driver actions for school bus crashes in which the bus was the prime unit, actions with high injury rates, by far, were the combinations of speeding & distracted driving, and speeding & tailgating. Among single driver action categories, the highest injury rate was for tailgating.For fatality rates, by far the highest fatality rate was for the driver actions of speeding & other improper driving, followed by driving on the wrong side of road.The message for school bus drivers is clear: SLOW DOWN!
164 Proper Following Distance Speeding and tailgating are a deadly combinationKeep space between your vehicle and other vehiclesKnow your bus!If another driver makes a mistake , you need time to react.
165 Four Second Rule Select a fixed object on the road or roadside ahead When the vehicle ahead of you passes that mark, start counting until you reach the same spotIf you reach the same mark before your count is complete, you are following to closelyThis is just a guide. Another variation is the 5 second rule.
166 Four Second Rule NOT a be-all / end-all! You need to adjust this based on conditionsAdd a second to the 4 seconds if you are:traveling over 40 mphdriving on a wet or loose surface or other poor roadway conditionfollowing motorcycles or large vehiclesfollowing another school busdriving at nightdriving in adverse weather conditionsbeing tailgatedIn general, add a second for every hazard (large vehicle, traveling over 40 MPH, etc.)Some safe driving instructors teach that in heavy traffic, at night, or when weather conditions are not ideal (e.g.. light rain, light fog, light snow), double the four second rule to eight seconds, for added safety.Also, if weather conditions are very poor, e.g. heavy rain, heavy fog, or heavy snow, start by tripling the four second rule to twelve seconds to determine a safe following distance.Add a second for every hazard
167 If YOU are Being Tailgated: Avoid quick changesIncrease your following distanceDon’t speed upAvoid tricksAvoid quick changes. If you have to slow down or turn, signal early and reduce speed very gradually.Increase your following distance. Opening up room in front of you will help you avoid having to make sudden speed or direction changes that could surprise the driver behind you. Leaving room ahead also makes it easier for the tailgater to get around you.Don’t speed up. It’s safer to be tailgated at a low speed than a high speed.Avoid tricks. Don’t turn on your tail lights or flash your brake lights. Follow the suggestions above.
168 Why is Perception Important? STOPPING Stopping distance has three basic components:Perception DistanceReaction DistanceBraking DistanceSometimes the first two are referred to as PIEV DistanceA driver’s ability to see the roadway ahead is critical for safety reasons. The available stopping sight distance is the distance necessary for a vehicle to stop before it reaches an object in its path. Think of the sight distance as the space between when a driver identifies and processes information, decides on a course of action, and acts. The action can be as simple as deciding to change lanes and turning on the turn signal, or more complex such as rounding a curve and seeing a cow standing in the roadway. If the action requires the vehicle to stop, the sight distance will also include the vehicle braking distance.Variables are speed, grade, friction PIEV timePIEV is perception identification emotion and volition.Median value is .9 sec for unexpected events, individuals with slow reaction times, it may be up to 2.7 seconds. Design is 2.5 secondsPerception Reaction time is: The distance your vehicle travels from the time you spot a problem to the time you decide to do something about it and move your foot from the accelerator to the brake pedal.Braking distance is the distance your vehicle travels after the brakes have started to work, until your vehicle comes to a complete stop.
169 Stopping + Braking distance Stopping distance PIEV distance A driver’s ability to see the roadway ahead is critical for safety reasons. The available stopping sight distance is the distance necessary for a vehicle to stop before it reaches an object in its path. Think of the sight distance as the space between when a driver identifies and processes information, decides on a course of action, and acts. The action can be as simple as deciding to change lanes and turning on the turn signal, or more complex such as rounding a curve and seeing a cow standing in the roadway. If the action requires the vehicle to stop, the sight distance will also include the vehicle braking distance.Variables are speed, grade, friction PIEV timePIEV is perception identification emotion and volition.Median value is .9 sec for unexpected events, individuals with slow reaction times, it may be up to 2.7 seconds. Design is 2.5 secondsPerception Reaction time is The distance your vehicle travels from the time you spot a problem to the time you decide to do something about it and move your foot from the accelerator to the brake pedal.Braking distance is the distance your vehicle travels after the brakes have started to work, until your vehicle comes to a complete stop.
170 What is Different in a Bus? Brake lag distanceThe distance your vehicle travels after you have applied the brake pedal, but before the air brakes are activatedNormally, this is discounted in stopping sight distanceAir brakes add .5 seconds brake lag = at least 32 feet at 55 mphDue to the time required for the brakes to work after the brake pedal is pushed, air brakes delay stopping distance. With hydraulic brakes, used on cars and light/medium trucks, the brakes work instantly. However, with air brakes, it takes a little time (one half second or more) for the air to flow through the lines to the brakes. Thus, the total stopping distance for vehicles with air brake systems is made up of four different factors: perception distance, reaction distance, brake lag distance, and effective braking distance. The air brake lag distance at 55 mph on dry pavement adds about 32 feet. So at 55 mph for an average driver under good traction and brake conditions, the total stopping distance is over 300 feet. This is longer than a football field.One thing that balances the additional braking distance needed for trucks is that a truck driver tends to see substantially further beyond vertical sight obstructions because of the higher seat position.This is advantage is minimized on horizontal curves.
171 + Braking distance + Brake lag distance Stopping distance Stopping a BusPIEV distance+ Braking distance+ Brake lag distanceStopping distanceA driver’s ability to see the roadway ahead is critical for safety reasons. The available stopping sight distance is the distance necessary for a vehicle to stop before it reaches an object in its path. Think of the sight distance as the space between when a driver identifies and processes information, decides on a course of action, and acts. The action can be as simple as deciding to change lanes and turning on the turn signal, or more complex such as rounding a curve and seeing a cow standing in the roadway. If the action requires the vehicle to stop, the sight distance will also include the vehicle braking distance.Variables are speed, grade, friction PIEV timePIEV is perception identification emotion and volition.Median value is .9 sec for unexpected events, individuals with slow reaction times, it may be up to 2.7 seconds. Design is 2.5 secondsPerception Reaction time is The distance your vehicle travels from the time you spot a problem to the time you decide to do something about it and move your foot from the accelerator to the brake pedal.Braking distance is the distance your vehicle travels after the brakes have started to work, until your vehicle comes to a complete stop.
172 + Braking distance (170 feet) + Brake lag distance (32 feet) Stopping a Bus at 55 MPHPIEV distance (120 feet)+ Braking distance (170 feet)+ Brake lag distance (32 feet)Stopping distance (322 feet)About the length of a football field!A driver’s ability to see the roadway ahead is critical for safety reasons. The available stopping sight distance is the distance necessary for a vehicle to stop before it reaches an object in its path. Think of the sight distance as the space between when a driver identifies and processes information, decides on a course of action, and acts. The action can be as simple as deciding to change lanes and turning on the turn signal, or more complex such as rounding a curve and seeing a cow standing in the roadway. If the action requires the vehicle to stop, the sight distance will also include the vehicle braking distance.Variables are speed, grade, friction PIEV timePIEV is perception identification emotion and volition.Median value is .9 sec for unexpected events, individuals with slow reaction times, it may be up to 2.7 seconds. Design is 2.5 secondsPerception Reaction time is The distance your vehicle travels from the time you spot a problem to the time you decide to do something about it and move your foot from the accelerator to the brake pedal.Braking distance is the distance your vehicle travels after the brakes have started to work, until your vehicle comes to a complete stop.
173 Remaining ‘Stopping’ Points Keep your brakes well maintainedKeep adequate following distanceSlowing down decreases stopping distanceAdjust following distance and speed based on conditionsGo with the flow of traffic as long as it is safe
174 Safe Driving Summary Prepare Attitude Scan/Perceive Give yourself time to decide and actAct defensivelyUse your toolsKnow the rules
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