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School Bus Driver Training Unit F Safe Driving. Objectives At the end of this session school bus operators will be able to: Describe the basic elements.

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Presentation on theme: "School Bus Driver Training Unit F Safe Driving. Objectives At the end of this session school bus operators will be able to: Describe the basic elements."— Presentation transcript:

1 School Bus Driver Training Unit F Safe Driving

2 Objectives At the end of this session school bus operators will be able to: Describe the basic elements of safe driving, including primary causes of crashes and methods to reduce those crash risks Articulate an awareness of limitations of the bus and of the driver Develop an ability to recognize potential dangers associated with driver, vehicle, natural, and man-made conditions Know the steps necessary to successfully negotiate hazardous situations

3 Why Road Safety is Important In the United States each year: Over 6 million reportable crashes Over 2.5 million people injured Over 40,000 people killed Rate ~= 1.5/100MVM Crashes cost $230.6 billion

4 Putting this into Perspective Crashes are the leading cause of death for people between the ages of 3 and 33 An average of 117 persons die each day in motor vehicle crashes – one every 12 minutes Daily financial loss is $630 million per day

5 Putting this into Perspective One road departure fatality occurs every 21 minutes One intersection fatality occurs every hour One pedestrian fatality occurs about every two hours

6 High Cost of Crashes Property damage only $6000 Serious injury $180,000 Fatality accident $3,100,000 Average cost per Crash Crash Severity of

7 The Good News? School bus transportation is safe! Safest mode of ground transportation In Pennsylvania, 5,839 total crashes over 10 years Less than ½% of the total crashes in PA! In only 36% of those crashes the school bus was considered the prime unit or about 1/10 of 1 percent

8 Crash Causes Human factors Vehicle factors Roadway environment

9 Crash Causes Vehicle Roadway Driver 3 % 57 % 2 % 27% 6 % 1 % 3 % 93% 93% 34% 12%

10 Crash Causes Driver behavior Speeding Failure to use safety belts Aggressive driving

11 Crash Causes Roadway Environment Roadway design Roadside hazards Roadway conditions

12 Crash Causes Vehicle Factors Failures in vehicle or its design a) Brakes b) Tires Poor or neglected maintenance

13 Pennsylvania School Bus Crashes Most people involved in school bus crashes, whether occupants of the buses or of other vehicles involved, were uninjured. Among persons injured in these crashes, most injuries were suffered by occupants of other vehicles, not by occupants of the school buses or school vehicles.

14 Pennsylvania School Bus Crashes Top five driver actions implicated when school bus was the prime unit (main contributor) Failure to Stop (21.3%) Other Improper Driving (20.2%) Improper Turn (16.%7) Speeding (9.5%) Tailgating (8.6%) NOTE: Backing (5.4%) Most crashes occur in urban areas (74.7%)


16 Rear-end CollisionsCrash Factors OddsofCollision 1. Driver Action: Tailgating Tailgating 61 :: Not Tailgating 1 2. Driver Gender Males 1.5 :: Females 1 3. Number of Improper Driving Violations 1 or More Violations 1.5 :: No Violations 1 Interpretation Drivers in rear-end collisions are very likely to be noted as tailgating. They are somewhat more likely to be males then females, and to have one or more improper driving violations on record.

17 Head-on CollisionsCrash Factors OddsofCrashing 1. Driver Action: Wrong Side of Road Wrong Side 22 :: Not Wrong Side 1 2. Road Surface Condition: Dry Road 2 :: Not 1 Interpretation Drivers in head-on collisions are very likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road. The road surface is more likely to be dry than wet or snow/ice covered.

18 Backing CollisionsCrash Factors OddsofCrashing 1. Driver Action: Careless Backing Careless Backing 610 :: Not Careless Backing 1 2. Weather Condition: Clear Clear Weather 4 :: Inclement Weather 1 Interpretation Drivers in backing collisions are very likely to be noted for careless backing. The weather is more likely to be clear than inclement.

19 Angle CollisionsCrash Factors OddsofCrashing 1. Driver Action: Fail to Stop Fail to Stop 33 :: Not Fail to Stop 1 2. Illumination: Dark Dark 3 :: Not Dark 1 3. Any Adverse Environmental Conditions No Adverse Conditions 2 :: Adverse Conditions 1 4. Number of Fail to Stop Violations 1 or More Violations 1.25 :: No Violations 1 Interpretation Drivers in angle collisions are very likely to be noted for failing to stop. These collisions are more likely to occur at night with no adverse conditions (no wind, rain, deer on road, etc.). These drivers may have previous fail to stop violations on record.

20 Sideswipe Same Direction CollisionsCrash Factors OddsofCrashing 1. Driver Action: Careless Passing or Lane Change Careless Passing 157 :: Not Careless Passing 1 2. Number of Speeding Violations No Violations 1.75 :: 1 or More Violations 1 Interpretation Drivers in sideswipe same direction collisions are very likely to be noted for careless passing or lane change. They may have previous speeding violations on record.

21 Sideswipe Opposite Direction CollisionsCrash Factors OddsofCrashing 1. Driver Action: Wrong Side of Road Wrong Side 8 :: Not Wrong Side 1 2. Any Adverse Environmental Conditions Adverse Conditions 3 :: No Adverse Conditions 1 3. Number of DUI Violations 1 or More Violations 2 :: No Violations 1 Interpretation Drivers in sideswipe opposite direction collisions are likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road. Adverse environmental conditions (e.g., wind, rain, deer on road) are likely. These drivers may have previous DUI violations on record.

22 Hit Fixed Object CollisionsCrash Factors OddsofCrashing 1. Driver Action: Speeding/Too Fast for Conditions Speeding 4 :: Not Speeding 1 2. Driver Gender Females 2 :: Males 1 3. Road Surface Condition: Dry Road 1.75 :: Not 1 4. Weather Condition: Clear Clear Weather 1.25 :: Inclement Weather 1 Interpretation: Drivers in hit fixed object collisions are likely to be noted as speeding/too fast for conditions. These drivers are more likely to be female than male. These collisions are more likely to occur on dry roads in clear weather.

23 Hit Pedestrian CollisionsCrash Factors OddsofCrashing 1. Driver Action: Other Improper Driving Other Improper Driving 8 :: Not Other Improper Driving 1 Interpretation Drivers in hit pedestrian collisions are likely to be noted as other improper driving.

24 Solutions? This Unit will examine things YOU can do to help reduce the collisions just discussed.

25 The Driving Task Three phases: 1) Information 2) Decision 3) Action

26 The Driving Task Three phases apply to all processes: Loading students Unloading students Using radio Braking Steering Shifting

27 Information As drivers, we all have to make assumptions when we drive

28 How many triangles?

29 Information - Sight

30 Information: Touch and Hearing

31 Decision

32 Right or Left?

33 Decision Example 1

34 Decision Example 2

35 Preventing Decision Errors Pay attention Spread decision points Adequate sight distance Advance warning or information

36 Action

37 Vehicles Influence Action How many? How fast? What kind?

38 Roads Influence Action Traffic control Surface Geometry

39 Road Users Influence Action Novice Older Pedestrians Walkers Truckers Cyclists

40 Your JOB Influences Action Distractions Unique nature of work Student passengers Responsibilities

41 Question If it all starts with Information, where do we get information when we drive?

42 Traffic Control Devices (TCDs)

43 Driver Conditions: Knowledge Why are traffic control devices important to the driving task? KNOWLEDGE! Regulations Principles Signs Pavement markings Traffic signals

44 What is a Traffic Control Device? Sign Signal Pavement Marking Other (miscellaneous)

45 Why are TCDs Important to School Bus Drivers? COMMUNICATION Information phase

46 Traffic Control Device Principles Fulfill a need Command attention Command respect Have a simple, clear meaning Allow adequate time for response

47 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) National standard for all traffic control devices on public roads

48 Traffic Signs Functional class Regulatory Warning Guide

49 Regulatory Signs Used to control actions of road users Require law, ordinance, or regulation Authority varies with agency

50 Stop Signs Octagonal in shape Red and white in color What do you do with pedestrians? What about student loading & unloading? What do you do with cross traffic? Where do you stop? What if there is a crosswalk? Rolling stops

51 Multiway Stops Stop signs at each approach What do you do if you arrive first? What happens if two vehicles reach the intersection at the same time?

52 Yield Signs Triangular (3-sided) in shape Who has right-of-way? When do you proceed? Is this the same as merge?

53 Turn Restrictions Symbol signs Prohibit unsafe movements

54 Speed Limits Maximum legal speed Reasonable and prudent driver

55 Warning Signs Warn of conditions on or near road Posted in advance of condition Overuse reduces effectiveness

56 A curve where there is a potential for a vehicle roll over Curve to the right with a recommended speed Lane Ends Cross Road Narrow Bridge Slippery When Wet Pedestrian Crossing School Advanced Warning What do These Signs Mean?

57 Object Markers Objects adjacent to the roadway Bridge piers, abutments, culvert headwalls

58 Work Zone Signs Orange and black Diagonal shape Maintenance, construction, or utility work Stay alert Exercise extra caution Slow down

59 Indicates work is in progress on the roadway Indicates which lane is closed Indicates traffic flow is controlled by a person Work Zone Signs

60 Work Zones

61 Guide Signs Provide navigational information Guide and inform Minimize confusion

62 Pavement Markings Convey warnings or information without diverting attention from road Convey certain regulation and warning such as no parking or pedestrian walkways Used alone, produce results other devices can’t such as passing zones or through intersections

63 Pavement Markings Longitudinal pavement markings Yellow: delineate traffic flow in opposite direction White: delineate traffic flow in same direction Red: delineate roadways that shall not be entered Blue: delineate parking spaces for people with disabilities Transverse markings are usually white

64 Pavement Markings What does a single broken centerline mean?

65 Pavement Markings What does a double solid yellow centerline mean?

66 Pavement Markings What does a combination solid yellow and broken yellow centerline mean?

67 Pavement Markings What does this pattern mean?

68 Pavement Markings What do these pavement markings communicate?

69 Pavement Markings What do these pavement markings communicate?

70 Edge Lines Generally used with center lines Road shifts or narrows Guide past obstacles Mark paved shoulders Use these for guidance in poor weather conditions!

71 Transverse Lines Stop lines Railroad clearance lines Crosswalks

72 Traffic Signals Power operated device by which motorists are warned or directed to take a specific action Help assign right-of-way Help control intersection traffic flow

73 Signal Terminology Signal Face Contains 3, 4, or 5 sections Signal Section Each light is a section Must be red, green, or yellow Modern sections are 12” diameter Section Face

74 Signal Terminology Interval - Period of time that one color illuminates on the signal face Red IntervalYellow IntervalGreen Interval

75 Traffic Signals What do you do? Right turn? One way street? Pedestrians? Red Interval

76 Traffic Signals What do you do? Yellow Interval

77 Traffic Signals What do you do? Pedestrians? Green Interval

78 Traffic Signals Flashing red and flashing yellow What do you do?

79 Driver Conditions: Expectancy What drivers expect of the road Surprise is bad!

80 Expectancy Example 1

81 Expectancy Example 1 (cont.)


83 Driver Conditions So far, we’ve discussed KNOWLEDGE and EXPECTENCY What other driver condition is critical to safely operating a bus? Health!

84 Driver Health Annual physical exam Occasional illness Alcohol and drugs Pennsylvania has zero tolerance for drug and alcohol use by school bus and school vehicle drivers. Refer to Sections 1612, 1606 and 3802 of Title 75.

85 Alcohol and Driving FALSETRUE Alcohol enhances your ability to drive. Alcohol is a drug that will make you less alert and reduce your ability to drive safely. Some people can drink a lot and not be affected by it. Everyone who drinks is affected by alcohol. If you eat a lot first, you won’t get drunk. Food will not keep you from getting drunk. Coffee and a little fresh air will help a drinker sober up. Only time will help a drinker sober up; other methods just don’t work. Stick with beer – it’s not as strong as wine or whiskey. A few beers are the same as a few shots of whiskey or a few glasses of wine.

86 What is a Drink? All of the following drinks contain the same amount of alcohol: 12 oz glass of 5% beer 5 oz glass of 12% wine 1 ½ oz shot of 80 proof liquor

87 How does Alcohol Affect Driving? Slower reactions to hazards Driving too fast or too slow Driving in the wrong lane Running over the curb Weaving Straddling lanes Quick, jerky starts Not signaling, failure to use lights Running stop signs and red lights Improper passing

88 Drugs and Driving Illegal drugs are always unlawful to possess and use Prescription medicine Can affect eyesight, hearing, judgment Read the labels Talk to you doctor or pharmacist Work with your supervisor

89 Driver Conditions So far, we’ve discussed KNOWLEDGE, EXPECTENCY, HEALTH What other driver conditions are critical to safely operating a bus? Concentration and Attitude

90 Attitude RECOGNIZE the hazard DEFEND yourself ACT to prevent

91 Concentration and Attitude Be alert and attentive Be positive Focus on your work Be careful of being an aggressive driver Do you speed excessively? Do you tailgate slower vehicles? Do you race to beat red lights or run stop signs? Do you weave in and out of traffic? Do you pass illegally on the right? Do you fail to yield the right of way to oncoming vehicles?

92 Mitigate Aggressive Driving Plan ahead Concentrate Relax Drive to posted speed limit Be late rather than unsafe Set an example for younger passengers

93 Attention and Monitoring Challenge for school bus operators: Students Road Traffic Your bus Determine what you need to observe Prioritize your monitoring and attention Balance between many items Safety first E.g., Pre-trip, monitor gauges; When loading students, concentrate on them!

94 Attention and Monitoring

95 There is a LOT to monitor as a school bus operator Highest rate of injury in PA school bus crashes involved speeding and distracted, or speeding and tailgating. Crash data also showed some crashes are more likely to occur with no adverse weather conditions. Don’t get complacent! Pay attention and monitor your behavior!

96 Driver Fatigue Who has driven their own vehicle while tired? What behavior did you notice? How were your actions different when you were fatigued compared to when you were alert and well rested?

97 Warning Signs of Driver Fatigue Your eyes feel heavy You blink and yawn frequently You become less attentive to the road Your head feels heavy and you have trouble keeping your head up You can't remember the last few miles driven You drift from your lane or hit a rumble strip You experience wandering thoughts Difficulty focusing or keeping eyes open You have to jerk your vehicle back into the lane. You tailgate or miss traffic signs

98 Avoid the Consequences of Driver Fatigue Get a good night's sleep Be alert and recognize early warning signs of fatigue Avoid alcohol and medications (over-the-counter and prescribed) that may impair performance Don't rely on your students, the radio or opening a window to keep you awake Eat sensibly and avoid heavy meals Remember not to use any drug that hides fatigue - the only cure for fatigue is rest

99 Cell Phones and Texting While Driving Cell Phone /Other Related TasksRisk of Crash or Near Crash event Light Vehicle/Cars Dialing Cell Phone2.8 times as high as non-distracted driving Talking/Listening to Cell Phone1.3 times as high as non-distracted driving Reaching for object (i.e. electronic device and other) 1.4 times as high as non-distracted driving Heavy Vehicles/Trucks Dialing Cell phone5.9 times as high as non-distracted driving Talking/Listening to Cell Phone1.0 times as high as non-distracted driving Use/Reach for electronic device6.7 times as high as non-distracted driving Text messaging23.2 times as high as non-distracted driving

100 Cell Phones and Texting While Driving Safest course of action is to refrain from using a cell phone Only use your cell phone in emergency situations

101 Driver Conditions Summary – We examined: Knowledge Expectancy Health Concentration and attitude Attention and monitoring Driver fatigue Cell phones and texting

102 Driver Conditions Summary – We learned: Observe traffic defensively Visualize the route and what you are going to do Keep extra space between you and the vehicle ahead of you Have a systematic pattern of mirror checks Maintain a safety circle around the bus Remind yourself of the responsibility you have transporting students Do not talk/text on your cell phone while driving Count the students as they get off the bus and watch where they all go Drive mindfully, not mindlessly

103 Vehicle Conditions Discussed in detail in Unit E Pre-trip conditions Is the school bus you are assigned to drive in safe operating condition? Will it respond instantly and effectively to all controls? Have you checked it over? Did you report deficiencies to your supervisor and have they been corrected?

104 Vehicle Conditions Discussed in detail in Unit E Operating (on-the-road) conditions Sight: constantly check all gauges for proper readings, check lights, and watch for smoke or fire Smell: constantly check for telltale odors of smoke, exhaust fumes, gasoline, oil, and burning rubber Sound: listen for unusual noises such as engine knocking or clashing gears Touch: often you will feel the first sign of trouble. Be alert for loss of steering, brakes, transmission, power, or other vehicular functions

105 Environmental and Roadway Conditions Scanning ahead Driving on slippery surfaces Reduced visibility Equipment adjustments Heavy wind Highway hazards Pedestrian hazards Other vehicle hazards

106 Scanning Ahead Have a clean windshield and properly adjusted mirrors. Develop the habit of scanning 360 degrees around the bus: front, sides, and rear. Don’t stare too long at a particular object, as you will be less aware of clues from your larger field of indirect vision. Focus farther ahead as your speed increases and slow down if your view becomes limited by hills or curves.

107 Know What to Look For Habits for Improving Scanning and Perception Use Efficient Eye Habits Use Systematic Search Pattern Search for Conflict Situations

108 Projected Path of Travel

109 Picture Path of Travel Look Down Middle Look Far Ahead Eye Habits for Bus Control

110 Search seconds ahead Search from side to side Search The Scene Ahead

111 To detect changes in direction To assess speed of other cars To check for pedestrians between parked cars Search the Road Surface

112 Detect and ANTICIPATE Changes Highway conditions Other traffic Sight distance Roadway surface a) Type b) Slope c) Roughness d) Shoulders e) Oil, water, ice

113 Check inside and outside mirrors Check every 5-8 seconds Check dash regularly Search Mirrors and Dash

114 Look for Clues Mailboxes, utility lines, houses, cloud of dust

115 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Crashes Drivers were more likely to be noted for driving too fast for conditions in rain-fog and especially in snow- sleet conditions than in clear weather conditions Drivers were more likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road under snow-sleet conditions, perhaps indicating loss of control of the vehicle on slick roads and/or difficulty in seeing the center line. So…SLOW DOWN…ADJUST YOUR DRIVING

116 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Crashes Although 75% of prime school bus crashes overall occurred in urban areas, snow-sleet crashes were more likely to occur in rural than urban areas, perhaps due to lower levels of winter services on rural routes. If your drivers operate buses in rural areas, be particularly careful in adverse weather conditions.

117 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Crashes Snow-sleet crashes were likely to involve single-vehicle hit fixed object crashes. This suggests school bus operators are not adjusting their speeds based on weather conditions. Head-on collisions were twice as likely to occur on dry roads as on other road surface conditions. It appears that some drivers attempt risky maneuvers on dry roads that they perhaps avoid in less favorable conditions.

118 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Driving Recommendations Start on time, but adjust to conditions Safety first, schedule second Use windshield wipers in inclement weather Use of headlights is mandatory Check brakes immediately after driving through deep puddles or standing water. If they fail to work properly, pump the brakes to help dry them while the vehicle is moving. For air brakes, cautiously apply steady pressure. Set a regular speed, and drive slower than posted speed limit

119 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Driving Recommendations Start the bus in the lowest appropriate gear for better traction if ice or wet snow is on the driving surface To avoid getting stuck or spinning the wheels, try to keep the bus moving slowly and steadily forward in gear When approaching intersections and when stopping, pump the brakes once or twice so that the wheels won’t lock on the ice. With air brakes, use gentle but steady pressure. Make turns smoothly; avoid applying the brake Avoid skidding

120 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Driving Recommendations Plan ahead for expected hazardous areas of the route Bridges, Stretches of road that have been slippery in the past Uphill stops Intersections Maintain a greater than normal safe following distance from other vehicles When pulling onto the highway, allow for longer acceleration time required for school buses

121 Reduced Visibility: Weather Conditions Follow local pre-trip inspection guidelines Keep the windshield clear Stop the bus and remove snow or ice build-up Don’t hesitate to leave the roadway at a safe spot to sit out a heavy shower, snow squall, or thick fog Always remember to keep in contact with your supervisor

122 Reduced Visibility: Bright Sunlight Carry sunglasses and use them when necessary Adjust visors to block out direct sun Avoid looking directly at the sun, bright reflections, or glare; they can affect your vision for several seconds Clean the windshield inside/outside

123 Reduced Visibility: Night Driving ~6% of crashes involving a school bus occurred at night Fatalities were more likely to occur in dark than daylight or dawn-dusk conditions Improper highway entrance/exit was least likely to be noted in daylight conditions and most likely to be noted in dark conditions This might suggest that drivers may have difficulty pulling onto roadways in dark conditions.

124 Reduced Visibility: Night Driving Failure to stop was less likely to be noted in dark conditions than in dawn-dusk or daylight conditions, perhaps because drivers are more cautious when visibility is poor. Improper turning was more likely to be noted in dark conditions than in daylight or dawn-dusk conditions.

125 Reduced Visibility: Night Driving SLOW DOWN Change other driving techniques Increase your following distance Exercise extra caution Don’t look directly at oncoming lights Don’t look off into the darkness Use pavement markings and delineators as guidance devices Note that your eyes need to adjust to night lighting and driving in dark conditions.

126 Equipment Adjustments Keep headlights and windshield clean Always use low beams on sharp curves and when traffic is approaching Keep headlights on low beam in cities or towns and in fog or haze Keep your instrument panel lights dim If oncoming drivers fail to dim their lights, don’t blind them with your high beams Don’t tailgate

127 Equipment Adjustments

128 Headlights Dual purpose: see and be seen Required use by law: a) Insufficient light or on overcast days b) Between sunset and sunrise c) Inclement weather d) Certain work zones

129 Headlights Low beams: use during fog, snow, and rain; or within 500’ of oncoming traffic; or within 300’ of vehicle you are following High beaming is not a punishment

130 Heavy Wind Because of height of bus Can act like a sail Know your routes Use extreme caution when passing other vehicles, especially large trucks

131 Highway Hazards Geometry Curves Hills Dips Lane width Shoulders

132 Intersections: Crashes 60% of crashes involving school buses occur at intersections Drivers who crashed at T or Y intersections had fewer total training hours than drivers who crashed at mid- block or 4-way intersection locations This suggests that navigating through intersections can be tricky and more experienced drivers have learned strategies to help

133 Intersections: Crashes Adverse environmental conditions were more likely to be noted at mid-block locations than intersections Intersection crashes were more likely to be in urban areas, perhaps due to greater exposure at high traffic locations A greater number of injuries were sustained in mid- block than intersection crashes perhaps because of the speeds involved A greater number of vehicles were involved in 4-way intersection than T or Y intersection or mid-block crashes

134 Intersections: Crashes Angle collisions Failure to stop More likely in darkness It appears that some bus drivers have a tendency to roll past stop signs when the way appears to be clear, fail to see an oncoming vehicle under low light conditions, and collide with the oncoming vehicle Rear end collisions also more common Tailgating More likely if you have a previous violation Be particularly vigilant

135 Intersections: Right-of-Way This concept legally establishes who has the right to use the conflicting part of the road and who has to wait until the other does so. Right-of-way laws are designed to prevent collisions by prescribing which vehicle must move last. Note that the law only names the vehicle that must yield right of way; it never states that any vehicle expressly has the right to proceed. Intersections: Controlled Uncontrolled

136 Yield Control Approach with caution Reasonable speed for geometry and traffic conditions Yield, NOT merge!

137 Stop Control Stop at stop line Stop 4’ in advance of crosswalk Stop at nearest point where driver has best view of approaching traffic Best line of sight Look in all directions at least twice Remember the acceleration capabilities of your bus Don’t take chances!

138 Signal Control Red signal: STOP Use right turn on red with extreme caution Follow local procedures and policies Yellow signal: Prepare for stop…do not accelerate Green signal: Check before proceeding for pedestrians and other traffic Be careful when making the left turn; yield to oncoming traffic! Flashing yellow: Slowly proceed with caution Flashing red: Stop completely, check, proceed with caution.

139 Roundabouts Counterclockwise rotation Yield before entering Circulate until desired exit is reached Pedestrians are not allowed; they cross at approaches

140 Bicycle Treatment Center Island Sidewalk Landscaping Buffer Yield Line Apron Splitter Island Circulatory Roadway Counterclockwise Circulation Accessible Pedestrian Crossing

141 Why Do They Work? Drivers don’t need to stop unnecessarily Average speed is very low ( mph) Left turn volume does not greatly impact operation All traffic movement given equal priority Traffic queues move continuously

142 Large Vehicles (Buses) on Roundabouts Truck Apron

143 Last Notes on Intersections Uniformed Police Officer Always has authority over signs and signals Private roads When leaving a driveway, always yield right-of way Rule of thumb: School bus never have right of way – be conservative Whenever possible don’t back out of a driveway Crossing main (divided) highways Check and recheck Use extreme caution NEVER take a risk

144 Roadside Hazards Key is to stay on the road! Be careful of surfaces that are: Loose Rough Slippery Slow down! Crash data indicates: Bus drivers may be too overconfident in good and bad weather, leading to a crash Driving too fast for conditions

145 Pedestrian Hazards Greater number of fatalities associated with hit pedestrians (and head-on collisions) than any other crash Pay particular attention: During student loading and unloading (Unit C) School areas Kids getting out of cars Crossing between parked cars At intersections Right on red Peds failing to pay attention to traffic control devices In hours of darkness

146 Pedestrian Hazards Urban and rural pedestrian hazards

147 Pedestrian Hazards


149 Hazards From Other Drivers Drivers in a hurry Drivers losing control of their vehicles Lack of communication Vehicle slowing down… may be about to turn Parked car with a driver in the driver’s seat, engine running, or turned wheels… may be about to pull out from the curb Parked car with a driver in the driver’s seat… may be getting ready to exit his vehicle Pickup and delivery vehicles with backup lights on… may be about to back into another street or driveway

150 Hazards from Other Drivers Inadequate adjustment by other driver to various roadway or environmental conditions Failure of other driver to observe Not responding to an upcoming intersection or to your signals Not looking at the road or what is in front of him/her Dirty windows, bright sunlight, or other objects obscuring or restricting the other driver’s view. Other driver’s vehicle being detectable to you only by reflection, headlight glow, or dust cloud. If you cannot see them, they can’t see you!


152 Aggressive Drivers Get out of their way Do not challenge Stay relaxed, avoid eye contact and ignore rude gestures Don’t block the passing lane if you are driving slower than most of the traffic Put your pride in the back seat and DO NOT RETALIATE Do not try to teach another driver a lesson Wear your seat belt.

153 Aggressive Drivers Report aggressive drivers to the appropriate authorities Vehicle description License plate Location Direction of travel. If you have a cell phone, and can do it safely, pull to the side of the road and call the police and/or your supervisor Do NOT unload any students if an aggressive driver pursues you. Call for help.

154 Slow Moving Vehicles Amish buggies Do not blow your horn Leave enough room when passing Farm equipment Heavy vehicles Vehicles going up steep grades Watch for reflective orange triangle bordered with red

155 Work Zones May be confusing Unexpected events Expectancy! Higher crash rates

156 Unique Traffic Control Devices Electronic arrow panels Merge Right Merge Left Caution

157 Unique Traffic Control Devices

158 Work Zone Components Advanced warning area Transition area Activity area Termination area

159 Scan for Hazards

160 Work Zone Areas for concern? Safe driver maneuvers?

161 Work Zone Safe Driving Tips Obey speed limits Follow flagger instructions Do not tailgate Be alert for lane shifts and closures Expect the unexpected

162 Motorcycles Look for motorcycles…then look again. Look twice at intersections, especially when turning left. Respect motorcyclists’ rights. Anticipate a motorcyclist’s maneuvers Allow plenty of following distance Check and re-check your blind spots.

163 Controlling Speed School bus crash data indicates: Most severe injuries occur in crashes that involve speeding Speeding and tailgating are listed as factors in 18% of crashes where school buses were the prime vehicle Driver actions with highest injury rates, by far, were: Combination of speeding & distracted driving Combination of speeding & tailgating Among single driver action categories, the highest injury rate was for tailgating The message: SLOW DOWN! Safety first, schedule second

164 Proper Following Distance Speeding and tailgating are a deadly combination Keep space between your vehicle and other vehicles Know your bus!

165 Four Second Rule Select a fixed object on the road or roadside ahead When the vehicle ahead of you passes that mark, start counting until you reach the same spot If you reach the same mark before your count is complete, you are following to closely

166 Four Second Rule NOT a be-all / end-all! You need to adjust this based on conditions Add a second to the 4 seconds if you are: traveling over 40 mph driving on a wet or loose surface or other poor roadway condition following motorcycles or large vehicles following another school bus driving at night driving in adverse weather conditions being tailgated

167 If YOU are Being Tailgated: Avoid quick changes Increase your following distance Don’t speed up Avoid tricks

168 Why is Perception Important? STOPPING Stopping distance has three basic components: 1. Perception Distance 2. Reaction Distance 3. Braking Distance Sometimes the first two are referred to as PIEV Distance

169 Stopping PIEV distance + Braking distance Stopping distance

170 What is Different in a Bus? Brake lag distance The distance your vehicle travels after you have applied the brake pedal, but before the air brakes are activated Normally, this is discounted in stopping sight distance Air brakes add.5 seconds brake lag = at least 32 feet at 55 mph

171 PIEV distance + Braking distance + Brake lag distance Stopping distance Stopping a Bus

172 PIEV distance (120 feet) + Braking distance (170 feet) + Brake lag distance (32 feet) Stopping distance (322 feet) About the length of a football field! Stopping a Bus at 55 MPH

173 Remaining ‘Stopping’ Points Keep your brakes well maintained Keep adequate following distance Slowing down decreases stopping distance Adjust following distance and speed based on conditions Go with the flow of traffic as long as it is safe

174 Safe Driving Summary Prepare Attitude Scan/Perceive Give yourself time to decide and act Act defensively Use your tools Know the rules

175 The Driving Task Difficult! Minimize distractions Concentrate Think safety first Attitude

176 Learn to anticipate Expect the unexpected Fault ultimately does NOT matter

177 Break the Bad Habits Fatigue Cell phones Grooming Reading Eating and drinking Failure to obey laws Aggressive driving

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