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School Bus Driver Training

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1 School Bus Driver Training
Unit F Safe Driving This Unit considers how you can apply these steps to the following types of normal and unusual conditions you must face while driving a school bus. This Unit will focus on safe driving techniques for school bus operators geared towards reducing the number of crashes in the categories listed above. It will focus on: The driving task. Your condition to drive (Driver). The condition of your vehicle (Vehicle). The weather and road conditions (Environmental and Roadway). Road construction, pedestrians and other obstacles (Other). Note that Unit H (Crash and Emergency Procedures) covers procedures and techniques for emergency and crash situations where the driver did not or could not avoid a potential hazard.

2 Objectives At the end of this session school bus operators will be able to: Describe the basic elements of safe driving, including primary causes of crashes and methods to reduce those crash risks Articulate an awareness of limitations of the bus and of the driver Develop an ability to recognize potential dangers associated with driver, vehicle, natural, and man-made conditions Know the steps necessary to successfully negotiate hazardous situations

3 Why Road Safety is Important
In the United States each year: Over 6 million reportable crashes Over 2.5 million people injured Over 40,000 people killed Rate ~= 1.5/100MVM Crashes cost $230.6 billion Note that these statistics are approximate values. The actual annual numbers are a bit larger or a bit smaller, depending on the year, but the point is to give trainees some perspective on what is happening on the roadways. Indicate to trainees that State or local statistics can be substituted or compared to those shown. For recent data, Instructors may want to access PA’s Crash Statistics at : 2000 Statistics (10 years ago): 6.4 million crashes 41,821 fatalities 3.2 million injuries Emphasize that local road crash rates (number of crashes divided by traffic volume) are nearly twice as high as arterials (high-speed roads that carry large amounts of traffic). 2005 (5 years ago): 6.2 million crashes 2.7 million people hurt 43,443 people killed Rate = 1.46/100MVM* Crashes cost $230.6 billion * Million Vehicle Miles DOT HS

4 Putting this into Perspective
Crashes are the leading cause of death for people between the ages of 3 and 33 An average of 117 persons die each day in motor vehicle crashes – one every 12 minutes Daily financial loss is $630 million per day Road Safety Basics Putting this into Perspective Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for Americans of every age from 3 through 33 based on 2002 data An average of 117 persons died each day in motor vehicle crashes in 2004 – one every 12 minutes More people die on highways each week than the number of people killed in airline crashes annually During your lifetime, 1 out of 2 people will be killed or injured in a traffic crash Daily financial loss is $630 million per day NHTSA estimates that 15,434 lives were saved in 2004 by the use of safety belts Alcohol related traffic fatalities fell to 16,694 in 2004 – 39 percent of all traffic fatalities for the year The economic cost of speed-related crashes is estimated to be $40.4 billion each year In 2004, older people made up 12 percent of all traffic fatalities and 16 percent of all pedestrian fatalities Sources: NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts FHWA Road Safety Fact Sheet

5 Putting this into Perspective
One road departure fatality occurs every 21 minutes One intersection fatality occurs every hour One pedestrian fatality occurs about every two hours Road Safety Basics Putting this into Perspective (FHWA Safety Focus Areas) One road departure fatality every 21 minutes One intersection fatality every hour One pedestrian fatality about every two hours Sources: NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts FHWA Road Safety Fact Sheet

6 High Cost of Crashes Average cost per Crash Crash Severity of
Property damage only $6000 Serious injury $180,000 Fatality accident $3,100,000 Based on the average cost per crash in the graphic, consider the following example: A roadway segment with trees near the travel lanes experiences an average of 5 serious injury crashes and 15 property damage only crashes per year based on historical crash data. The local transportation agency installs guiderail between the roadway and trees in an attempt to reduce the frequency and severity of crashes. Several years after installing the guiderail, an average of 4 injury and 25 property damage only crashes per year occur. Although the crash frequency increases, the severity decreases. The crash cost in the before period is $990,00 – the crash cost in the after period is $870,000. Installing the guiderail results in a net safety benefit. The benefit, however, must be compared to the cost of installing and maintaining the guiderail to determine a benefit-cost ratio. Safe driving can also help reduce the financial impacts of crashes.

7 The Good News? School bus transportation is safe!
Safest mode of ground transportation In Pennsylvania, 5,839 total crashes over 10 years Less than ½% of the total crashes in PA! In only 36% of those crashes the school bus was considered the prime unit or about 1/10 of 1 percent Looks at Pennsylvania crash data over a recent 10 year period. NOTE: Note that when discussing crashes in this Unit, Pubs 117 and 52, as well as these slides reference is made to crashes where the school bus was the prime unit in the crash. This is in reference to the unit (vehicle) identified by the police as being associated with the first harmful event.

8 Crash Causes Human factors Vehicle factors Roadway environment
Road Safety Basics Crash Causes Human factors Roadway environment Vehicle factors General Many factors contribute to circumstances that may cause a motor vehicle crash – there is rarely a single cause of such an event Human factors are generally seen as the most prevalent contributing factor of crashes followed by roadway environment and vehicle factors

9 Crash Causes Roadway Driver 34% 57 % 3 % 27% 93% 1 % 6 % Vehicle 2 %
Police officers investigating traffic crashes usually list factors that contribute to a crash. The graphic is based on studies of these police reports of traffic crashes. As the figure illustrates, driver error is the cause of most crashes, followed by road condition as a contributing factor 34 percent of the time—although it may be more. A vehicle defect or malfunction is involved 12 percent of the time. For school bus drivers the 93% is both a problem and an opportunity. Obviously it is a problem in terms of the contributing factor to crashes, but it is an opportunity to improve driving habits to reduce crashes. Vehicle 12%

10 Crash Causes Driver behavior Speeding Failure to use safety belts
Aggressive driving Road Safety Basics Crash Causes Two examples of human factors that have a significant impact on traffic crashes are speeding and seat belt usage. Speeding Driving either faster than the posted speed limit or faster than conditions would safely dictate Reduces a drivers ability to steer safely around curves or objects in the roadway Extends the distance necessary to stop a vehicle Increases the distance a vehicle travels when a driver reacts to a dangerous situation Excessive speeding is a factor in nearly one-third of all traffic fatalities Most dangerous roads (crash severity) are those with posted speed limits of 60 mph or greater Economic cost of speed-related crashes is estimated to be $40.4 billion each year Speeding and School buses is discussed later in this Unit. Failure to use safety belts Seat belt use can prevent thousands of highway deaths and save billions of dollars annually NHTSA estimates that a nationwide seat belt use rate of 90% would prevent an additional 5,000 deaths and 130,000 serious injuries every year Nationwide seatbelt usage rate is approximately 80 percent based on 2005 data Aggressive driving Aggressive drivers pose a high risk – they are more likely to drink and drive, speed and drive unbelted Run stop signs and red lights Tailgate, weave in-and-out of traffic, pass on the right, make improper and unsafe lane changes, make hand and facial gestures, scream, honk and flash their lights

11 Crash Causes Roadway Environment Roadway design Roadside hazards
Roadway conditions Road Safety Basics Crash Causes Roadway Environment The roadway environment – factors that are external to the driver and the vehicle that increase the risk of a crash – is generally considered the second most prevalent contributing factor of crashes. Roadway environment factors that contribute to or are associated with crashes include the design of the roadway, including features such as medians, narrow lanes, a lack of shoulders, curves, access points or intersections; roadside hazards are features adjacent to the road that vehicles can crash into such as poles, trees or embankments; and roadway conditions are features such as rain, ice, snow or fog. However, the contribution of these factors to crashes is difficult to quantify.

12 Crash Causes Vehicle Factors Failures in vehicle or its design
Brakes Tires Poor or neglected maintenance Road Safety Basics Crash Causes Vehicle Factors Failures in vehicle or its design Mechanical failures such as brakes or tires Emphasize points made from Unit E

13 Pennsylvania School Bus Crashes
Most people involved in school bus crashes, whether occupants of the buses or of other vehicles involved, were uninjured. Among persons injured in these crashes, most injuries were suffered by occupants of other vehicles, not by occupants of the school buses or school vehicles. Data from a quantitative analysis of Pennsylvania school bus crashes for a recent 10-year period: No school bus or school vehicle passengers were killed in these crashes, but three school bus drivers were killed. The remaining 82 persons killed were occupants of other vehicles.

14 Pennsylvania School Bus Crashes
Top five driver actions implicated when school bus was the prime unit (main contributor) Failure to Stop (21.3%) Other Improper Driving (20.2%) Improper Turn (16.%7) Speeding (9.5%) Tailgating (8.6%) NOTE: Backing (5.4%) Most crashes occur in urban areas (74.7%)  When looking at the percent of all school bus prime unit crashes (where the school bus was the main contributor) in which a given driver action was implicated, in descending order, the top five are: failure to stop (21.3%), other improper driving (20.2%), improper turn (16.7%), speeding (9.5%), and tailgating (8.6%). When reading this, think of it in terms of the following: Speeding was recorded as a contributing driver action in 9.5% of school bus crashes in which the bus was the prime unit.

15 The following slides examine the types of school bus collisions as gathered from data from a quantitative analysis of Pennsylvania school bus crashes for a recent 10-year period. This summary slide leads into each specific type of crash.

16 Interpretation Rear-end Collisions Crash Factors Odds of Collision
1. Driver Action: Tailgating Tailgating 61 :: Not Tailgating 1 2. Driver Gender Males 1.5 Females 3. Number of Improper Driving Violations 1 or More Violations No Violations This slide examines rear end crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in rear-end collisions are very likely to be noted as tailgating. They are somewhat more likely to be males then females, and to have one or more improper driving violations on record. As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a rear end collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes. Interpretation Drivers in rear-end collisions are very likely to be noted as tailgating. They are somewhat more likely to be males then females, and to have one or more improper driving violations on record.

17 Head-on Collisions Crash Factors Odds of Crashing 1. Driver Action: Wrong Side of Road Wrong Side 22 :: Not Wrong Side 1 2. Road Surface Condition: Dry Road 2 Not This slide examines head-on crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in head-on collisions are very likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road. The road surface is more likely to be dry than wet or snow/ice covered. As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a head-on collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes. Interpretation Drivers in head-on collisions are very likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road. The road surface is more likely to be dry than wet or snow/ice covered.

18 Backing Collisions Crash Factors Odds of Crashing 1. Driver Action: Careless Backing Careless Backing 610 :: Not Careless Backing 1 2. Weather Condition: Clear Clear Weather 4 Inclement Weather This slide examines backing crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in backing collisions are very likely to be noted for careless backing. The weather is more likely to be clear than inclement. This is an interesting finding and may be indicative of drivers being more complacent in good weather. As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a backing collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes. NOTE: Backing a school bus is discussed further in Unit G Interpretation Drivers in backing collisions are very likely to be noted for careless backing. The weather is more likely to be clear than inclement.

19 Angle Collisions Crash Factors Odds of Crashing 1. Driver Action: Fail to Stop Fail to Stop 33 :: Not Fail to Stop 1 2. Illumination: Dark Dark 3 Not Dark 3. Any Adverse Environmental Conditions No Adverse Conditions 2 Adverse Conditions 4. Number of Fail to Stop Violations 1 or More Violations 1.25 No Violations This slide examines angle crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in angle collisions are very likely to be noted for failing to stop. These collisions are more likely to occur at night with no adverse conditions (no wind, rain, deer on road, etc.). These drivers may have previous fail to stop violations on record. As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in an angle collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes. We will examine this in more detail later in this Unit. Interpretation Drivers in angle collisions are very likely to be noted for failing to stop. These collisions are more likely to occur at night with no adverse conditions (no wind, rain, deer on road, etc.). These drivers may have previous fail to stop violations on record.

20 Sideswipe Same Direction Collisions
Crash Factors Odds of Crashing 1. Driver Action: Careless Passing or Lane Change Careless Passing 157 :: Not Careless Passing 1 2. Number of Speeding Violations No Violations 1.75 1 or More Violations This slide examines sideswipe crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in sideswipe collisions are very likely to be noted for careless passing or lane change. They may have previous speeding violations on record. As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a sideswipe collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes. Interpretation Drivers in sideswipe same direction collisions are very likely to be noted for careless passing or lane change. They may have previous speeding violations on record.

21 Sideswipe Opposite Direction Collisions
Crash Factors Odds of Crashing 1. Driver Action: Wrong Side of Road Wrong Side 8 :: Not Wrong Side 1 2. Any Adverse Environmental Conditions Adverse Conditions 3 No Adverse Conditions 3. Number of DUI Violations 1 or More Violations 2 No Violations This slide examines sideswipe – opposite direction crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in sideswipe opposite direction collisions are very likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road. Adverse environmental conditions (e.g., wind, rain, deer on road) are likely. These drivers may have previous DUI violations on record. As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a sideswipe opposite direction collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes. Interpretation Drivers in sideswipe opposite direction collisions are likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road. Adverse environmental conditions (e.g., wind, rain, deer on road) are likely. These drivers may have previous DUI violations on record.

22 Hit Fixed Object Collisions
Crash Factors Odds of Crashing 1. Driver Action: Speeding/Too Fast for Conditions Speeding 4 :: Not Speeding 1 2. Driver Gender Females 2 Males 3. Road Surface Condition: Dry Road 1.75 Not 4. Weather Condition: Clear Clear Weather 1.25 Inclement Weather This slide examines hit fixed object crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in hit fixed object collisions are likely to be noted as speeding/too fast for conditions. These drivers are more likely to be female than male. These collisions are more likely to occur on dry roads in clear weather. As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a hit fixed object collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes. We will examine this in more detail later in this Unit. Interpretation: Drivers in hit fixed object collisions are likely to be noted as speeding/too fast for conditions. These drivers are more likely to be female than male. These collisions are more likely to occur on dry roads in clear weather.

23 Hit Pedestrian Collisions
Crash Factors Odds of Crashing 1. Driver Action: Other Improper Driving Other Improper Driving 8 :: Not Other Improper Driving 1 This slide examines pedestrian crashes. The factors on the left are statistically significant factors in the type of crash, and the odds of collision based on that factor are presented on the right. So, for this slide, drivers in pedestrian collisions are very likely to be noted for improper driving. As an instructor, you can do a lot with your trainees with this data. Present it to them as stated in the slide and ask them to examine their own driving habits: do they exhibit these crash habits which would make them more likely to be in a pedestrian collision? This would lead to the discussion on slides for the rest of this Unit regarding methods to change driving habits to prevent crashes. We will examine this in more detail later in this Unit. Interpretation Drivers in hit pedestrian collisions are likely to be noted as other improper driving.

24 Solutions? This Unit will examine things YOU can do to help reduce the collisions just discussed. The formula above is simple. Follow it to work to reduce the number of highway crashes!

25 The Driving Task Three phases: Information Decision Action
There are three distinct phases to the task of driving – information, decision, and action. Roadway information leads the driver to decide to do something. The results of that action provide more information, which then starts the process over again. Further complicating the task of driving are distractions for the driver both inside and outside the vehicle. For example, cell phones or weather conditions influence the driving task.

26 The Driving Task Three phases apply to all processes: Loading students
Unloading students Using radio Braking Steering Shifting There are three distinct phases to the task of driving – information, decision, and action. Roadway information leads the driver to decide to do something. The results of that action provide more information, which then starts the process over again. Further complicating the task of driving are distractions for the driver both inside and outside the vehicle. For example, cell phones or weather conditions influence the driving task.

27 Information As drivers, we all have to make assumptions when we drive
Assumptions are made on our past driving experiences. As you learn to drive a bus, you may need to re-think some of the assumptions, such as stopping distance, use of mirrors, etc.

28 How many triangles? What we can see is important, but so is how our brain processes what we see. I'm going to flash a picture up on the screen for just a second (animation), and I want you to tell me how many triangles were in the diagram. Ready? How many saw one? Two? Three or more? How many say there weren't any? Definition of a triangle is "The plane figure formed by connecting three points not in a straight line by straight line segments; a three-sided polygon." (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition ) These three points are not connected. Therefore, there aren't any triangles. The point is, our brain tends to make assumptions comparing what it sees to past experience. Most of the time, this lets us make decisions quickly. This is usually a good thing. It's bad when what we see isn't quite what it appears to be.

29 Information - Sight This is an animated slide. The first shows an intersection during the daytime and then the same intersection is shown during nighttime. What visual cues can you use to guide your car around this bend (during daylight)? Edge of pavement, signs and markings, house, utility poles, trees, guiderail Which ones would be visible after dark (nighttime graphic)? Just the chevrons and pavement markings. We'll get into reflectivity of signs and markings later, but this shows why it's important.

30 Information: Touch and Hearing
The painted arrows on the roadway surface indicate the proper travel direction as does the sign. The centerline rumble strips provide touch and noise indicators that a vehicle is crossing into the oncoming traffic lane. The rumble strips reinforce the appropriate lane of travel.

31 Decision The second phase of driving after Information. We make decisions based on the information we receive.

32 Right or Left? This is an object marker intended to warn drivers of an obstruction within the roadway. The alternating black and yellow stripes are sloped down at an angle of 45 degrees toward the side on which traffic is to pass the obstruction. This object marker should be placed on the right side of the roadway to warn motorists that they should pass on the left-side of the marker. Object markers are commonly used at underpass bridge piers, bridge abutments, handrails, narrow shoulders, small islands, and culvert headwalls.

33 Decision Example 1 This slide is an example of object markers used on a bridge approach. Drivers should stay between the markers to safely traverse the bridge.

34 Decision Example 2 There are many decision points in this graphic – pedestrian crossing, several intersection legs, driveways, etc. As a school bus driver, explain what makes the decisions difficult at this location.

35 Preventing Decision Errors
Pay attention Spread decision points Adequate sight distance Advance warning or information It takes skill and experience to make safe driving decisions. Drivers must pay attention so they can keep track of several information messages at once, yet ignore what they do not need. These are skills that novice drivers are still learning and older drivers sometimes find difficult to process. We help all drivers reach the right decision by separating information and decision points. It is easier to make several simple decisions, one after the other, than it is to make one complex decision in a hurry.

36 Action Action happens when the driver makes a decision and does something. The results of the action provide more information, which starts the information-decision-action process over again. For a road to be safe, the driver needs time to respond. Reaction time is the time it takes for the driver to notice a condition, decide what to do about it, then do it. The more information a driver must process, or the more complex the decision required, the longer it takes the driver to react. Although a perception-reaction time of 2.5 seconds is commonly used in highway design, driver response times can range from 1.5 seconds for a simple decision like initiating a panic stop to 15 seconds for a complex decision like choosing the correct exit in a convoluted highway interchange.

37 Vehicles Influence Action
How many? How fast? What kind? We’re interested in the characteristics of traffic that use roads. Why are we interested in traffic? How does the type of traffic using a road affect your decision making? The types of vehicles using the road affect many of your driving decisions. For example, buses need more room to turn than passenger cars. Driving with the flow of traffic is generally safer than driving too fast or too slow.

38 Roads Influence Action
Traffic control Surface Geometry The relative safety of a road is influenced by how drivers use it. The types of traffic on the road, the number and type of road users on an average day, and how fast they travel, what type of road surface is present all influence driver decisions.

39 Road Users Influence Action
Novice Older Pedestrians Walkers Truckers Cyclists While motor vehicles are typically the largest group of road users, others have the right to use the road. As the photo in the slide illustrates, this can include pedestrians and bicyclists. Be particularly careful around loading and unloading zones, but also in school zones. At schools, you may encounter students who are walking or biking to school, crossing guards stopping traffic that would not normally be stopped, etc. Driving vigilance is essential to safety.

40 Your JOB Influences Action
Distractions Unique nature of work Student passengers Responsibilities Talk about why being a school bus driver is different than driving a passenger vehicle. This will be followed up in Unit G where it is discussed in more detail.

41 Question If it all starts with Information, where do we get information when we drive?

42 Traffic Control Devices (TCDs)

43 Driver Conditions: Knowledge
Why are traffic control devices important to the driving task? KNOWLEDGE! Regulations Principles Signs Pavement markings Traffic signals This section of Unit F will provide the information necessary to answer the question shown in the slide and will discuss why traffic control devices are important to the safe driving task.

44 What is a Traffic Control Device?
Sign Signal Pavement Marking Other (miscellaneous) ‘Other’ includes cones, barricades, barrels, etc.

45 Why are TCDs Important to School Bus Drivers?
COMMUNICATION Information phase Traffic control devices are essentially communication devices – it is a way for a highway agency to get information to motorists. If TCDs are not installed or maintained properly, important information may not get to the motorists. If information is missed, a crash may occur. As a safe driver, it is important to pay particular attention to traffic control devices to obtain necessary information to get to your destinations safely.

46 Traffic Control Device Principles
Fulfill a need Command attention Command respect Have a simple, clear meaning Allow adequate time for response The principles of traffic control devices are listed. To be effective, all of the five basic requirements should be met. Design, placement, operation, maintenance, and uniformity are aspects that should be carefully considered in order to maximize the ability of a traffic control device to meet the five principles listed. Vehicle speed should also be considered in the design, operation, placement, and location of traffic control devices. Proper use (and uniformity) provides reasonable and prudent drivers with the information necessary to operate safety and lawfully on public roads. School bus operators can think about and discuss common signs they see on the roadways and how they can influence their behavior. Do they notice or bring up any signs that DON’T meet any of these requirements? If so, ask how it can influence their behavior and how it can influence safety.

47 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)
National standard for all traffic control devices on public roads Purpose of traffic control devices is to promote highway safety and efficiency by providing for orderly movement of all road users. MUTCD provides uniformity in size, shape, color, composition, lighting or retroreflectivity, and contrast to command attention to devices. Legibility and size combine with placement to permit adequate time for response by road users. Sign size, shape, color, and simplicity combine to produce a clear meaning. Uniformity, size, legibility, and reasonableness of the message combine to command respect by road users.

48 Traffic Signs Functional class Regulatory Warning Guide
Regulatory signs tell road users about traffic regulations and laws. Road departments use them to control vehicle and pedestrian movements. Examples include STOP signs, NO PARKING signs, and speed limit signs. Warning signs tell road users to be cautious because of a condition on or near the roadway. Warning signs are especially helpful to drivers who are not familiar with the road. Overuse of warning signs can lead to disrespect for all warning signs, which reduces their effectiveness. Guide and information signs provide navigation and service information to drivers. These signs include route markers, destination signs, and information signs. They have green, blue, or brown backgrounds and white letters. Guide signs in work zones should be orange with black lettering. By giving information to drivers when they need it, we can reduce the unpredictable behavior of drivers who suddenly realize they are going the wrong way or just missed a turn.

49 Regulatory Signs Used to control actions of road users
Require law, ordinance, or regulation Authority varies with agency Many regulations are unenforceable unless the proper signs are posted. Regulatory signs remind drivers of statutory rules, but statutory rules do not need signs to be enforceable. For example, we know it is illegal to park a vehicle in front of a fire hydrant, whether or not a sign prohibits it. To prohibit parking where it would otherwise be legal requires no parking regulations and signs. School bus drivers should know that these signs communicate statutes or local ordinances. They are not to be ignored. The Uniform Vehicle Code covers use of traffic regulations. Appropriate enabling ordinances or legislation must be in place before a regulatory sign is installed. In Pennsylvania, authority is given in Title 75, the Vehicle Code. Most regulatory signs are rectangular and taller than they are wide. Exceptions include STOP and YIELD signs. White, black, and red are used for regulatory signs. Regulatory signs can promote smooth, orderly traffic flow, but only when they are properly used and enforced. When used incorrectly, they can cause more problems than they solve. For example, unnecessary STOP signs cause needless air and noise pollution. Drivers often disobey regulations they think are unnecessary. These road users may intentionally disregard what they believe are irrelevant or unrealistic traffic regulations. Other roadway users may expect them to obey the regulation, and act accordingly, with potentially fatal results. For example, a pedestrian may assume an approaching driver will stop at the STOP sign. A serious injury could occur if the driver does not stop.

50 Stop Signs Octagonal in shape Red and white in color
What do you do with pedestrians? What about student loading & unloading? What do you do with cross traffic? Where do you stop? What if there is a crosswalk? Rolling stops Octagonal in shape. Red and White in color. You must stop and wait for pedestrians and cross traffic to clear the intersection before proceeding. If there is a crosswalk you must stop at least 4’ before the crosswalk. Slowing down without stopping is illegal. (rolling stop)

51 Multiway Stops Stop signs at each approach
What do you do if you arrive first? What happens if two vehicles reach the intersection at the same time? Multiway Stop- there are stop signs at each approach. The first vehicle at the intersection should move forward first. If two vehicles reach the intersection at the same time, the driver on the left yields to the driver on the right. This will be emphasized later in the Unit.

52 Yield Signs Triangular (3-sided) in shape Who has right-of-way?
When do you proceed? Is this the same as merge? Yield sign - triangular (3-sided) in shape. You must slow down and give the right-of-way to approaching traffic. Proceed when you can do so safely without interfering with normal traffic flow. You must have a sufficient gap before you can merge with traffic.

53 Turn Restrictions Symbol signs Prohibit unsafe movements
These signs prohibit a driver from performing turns that are unsafe on a particular stretch of roadway.

54 Speed Limits Maximum legal speed Reasonable and prudent driver
A speed limit sign indicates the maximum legal speed for a particular stretch of roadway.

55 Warning Signs Warn of conditions on or near road
Posted in advance of condition Overuse reduces effectiveness Warning signs are usually diamond-shaped, with black text or symbols on a yellow background. Road work warning signs should have orange backgrounds. An exception is the railroad crossing sign. It is always round and always has a yellow background, even when used in a work zone. The fluorescent yellow-green background is optional on certain warning signs, including pedestrian, bicyclist, playground, school bus, and school signs.

56 What do These Signs Mean?
A curve where there is a potential for a vehicle roll over Curve to the right with a recommended speed Slippery When Wet Lane Ends Discuss each one as a question and what driving behavior is required. Narrow Bridge Cross Road Pedestrian Crossing School Advanced Warning

57 Object Markers Objects adjacent to the roadway
Bridge piers, abutments, culvert headwalls

58 Work Zone Signs Orange and black Diagonal shape
Maintenance, construction, or utility work Stay alert Exercise extra caution Slow down Work Zone signs are normally shaped like warning signs, but they are black and orange. These are used on maintenance, construction or utility work areas. Stay alert and slow down when you see these signs.

59 Work Zone Signs Indicates work is in progress on the roadway
Indicates which lane is closed Indicates traffic flow is controlled by a person

60 Work Zones When approaching a work zone, pay special attention to flaggers who may signal you to stop or slow down.

61 Guide Signs Provide navigational information Guide and inform
Minimize confusion Signs shown above are examples of freeway and expressway guide signs. They are green with white letters. If exit sign is on the top right, you will exit to the right. If exit sign is on the top left, you will exit to the left.

62 Pavement Markings Convey warnings or information without diverting attention from road Convey certain regulation and warning such as no parking or pedestrian walkways Used alone, produce results other devices can’t such as passing zones or through intersections Most roads have permanent markings to show the center line of the road, travels lanes, or road edge. Yellow lines divide traffic traveling in opposite directions. White lines divide lanes of traffic traveling in the same direction or definite pavement edge. Broken traffic lines you can cross. Solid lines you cannot cross.

63 Pavement Markings Longitudinal pavement markings
Yellow: delineate traffic flow in opposite direction White: delineate traffic flow in same direction Red: delineate roadways that shall not be entered Blue: delineate parking spaces for people with disabilities Transverse markings are usually white

64 Pavement Markings What does a single broken centerline mean?
Passing is permitted when there is a single broken yellow centerline. That DOESN’T mean it is a safe maneuver. Follow local polices and procedures regarding passing while you are driving a school bus.

65 Pavement Markings What does a double solid yellow centerline mean?
NO PASSING when there is a double solid yellow centerline.

66 Pavement Markings What does a combination solid yellow and broken yellow centerline mean? You may pass if the broken yellow line is on your side of the road and only when it is safe. Follow local polices and procedures regarding passing while you are driving a school bus. You may NOT PASS when the solid yellow line is on your side of the road.

67 Pavement Markings What does this pattern mean?
The solid yellow centerline means you CAN NOT use the center lane for passing vehicles moving in your direction. The broken yellow centerlines indicate vehicles traveling in either direction may use the center lane for making left turns.

68 Pavement Markings What do these pavement markings communicate?
Broken White line shows which lane can be used for travel and passing. Yellow centerline indicate opposite lanes of travel and you can not cross these lines to pass. Multi-lane highways without medians are often mark as shown.

69 Pavement Markings What do these pavement markings communicate?
This pattern is used on most limited access highways with medians or center barriers. Right edge of the road is marked with a solid white line. Left edge is marked with a solid yellow line. The travel lanes on both sides are marked with broken white lines, which may be crossed.

70 Edge Lines Generally used with center lines Road shifts or narrows
Guide past obstacles Mark paved shoulders Use these for guidance in poor weather conditions! Used to separate traffic that have the same direction of travel. For instance, solid white edge lines may be used to separate through traffic lanes from auxiliary lanes, such as truck climbing lanes, left- or right-turn lanes, and other special use lanes. Lane lines are required on all freeways and Interstate highways.

71 Transverse Lines Stop lines Railroad clearance lines Crosswalks
Stop lines indicate the point on an approach at which vehicle are intended to or required to stop. They are 12- to 24-inches wide. Crosswalk markings provide guidance for pedestrians who are crossing roadways by delineating the intended path. They should be between 6- and 24-inches wide and be separated by at least 6-feet. Railroad clearance lines should be 8-ft from the gate, but no closer than 15-ft to the nearest rail.

72 Traffic Signals Power operated device by which motorists are warned or directed to take a specific action Help assign right-of-way Help control intersection traffic flow

73 Signal Terminology Section Face Signal Face Signal Section
Contains 3, 4, or 5 sections Signal Section Each light is a section Must be red, green, or yellow Modern sections are 12” diameter Section The signal face is the surface on a signal head that contains the indicator lights. Each indicator light is a signal section. Each face can have 3, 4 or 5 sections. Each section has a red, green, or yellow colored lens. Larger signal lenses are significantly more visible and can reduce the frequency of crashes that result from failing to see the signal. Face

74 Signal Terminology Interval - Period of time that one color illuminates on the signal face An interval is the period of time that a single color illuminates on the signal face. The signal face is only capable of displaying one interval at a time. Red and yellow intervals can illuminate only one section each. The green interval can illuminate one or more sections. Discuss the green interval above. Explain that the green arrow is a protected movement in that vehicles in the other direction have a red signal. You still need to be careful for pedestrians! The green ‘ball’ is permissive: you can make the left, but you have to wait for a sufficient gap in traffic. Drivers will practice this in the in-bus portion. Gap estimation is critical to safety…be conservative in a bus! Red Interval Green Interval Yellow Interval

75 Traffic Signals What do you do? Right turn? One way street?
Pedestrians? Steady Red- you must come to a complete stop before crossing the marked stop line. You may turn right on red unless a “No Turn on Red” sign is posted. You must first stop and yield to pedestrians and other traffic. Be careful with turning right on red and follow local guidelines and procedures. Just because you are ALLOWED to make this maneuver, doesn’t mean it is SAFE. You may also turn left onto a “One Way Street” from a “One Way Street” unless posted No Turn on Red. You must first stop and yield to pedestrians and other traffic. Red Interval

76 Traffic Signals What do you do? Yellow Interval
Steady Yellow- tells you a “Red” light will soon appear. (slow down and prepare to stop) Yellow Interval

77 Traffic Signals What do you do? Pedestrians? Green Interval
Green Light- you can drive through the intersection if the road is clear. However, when turning, you must yield to other vehicles and pedestrians. Green Interval

78 Traffic Signals Flashing red and flashing yellow What do you do?
Flashing Red Light- you must come to a complete stop, look and proceed only after intersection is clear Flashing Yellow Light- slow down, look and proceed carefully.

79 Driver Conditions: Expectancy
What drivers expect of the road Surprise is bad! As drivers gain experience they expect things to happen as they always have. For example, drivers expect that a green light on a traffic signal will lead to a yellow light (green light on bottom of signal and yellow immediately above it). Note the reverse order of the signal indications in the photo. In this example, green is the top indicator on the signal and red is the bottom indicator. This signal may violate a driver’s expectancy, and the driver will react in an erratic or incorrect way. Removing expectancy violations helps improve safety.

80 Expectancy Example 1 This is a pretty typical intersection – a T with a short auxiliary right turn lane.

81 Expectancy Example 1 (cont.)
This is the next intersection on the same roadway. If you don't look at the pavement arrows, this looks like a conventional intersection with a right turn auxiliary lane (as in previous slide). If you act on this assumption and get in the left lane to go straight, you are in the left turn lane. This is a relatively low volume intersection in a low speed area. Both of these roads are local or minor collectors. The left turn leads to a minor arterial. What could be done to fix this? In order of cost and complexity: Add lane designation signing (separate left-turn lane and shared through/right-turn lane) – in fact it's needed to be enforceable in most states If traffic volumes allow, change lane designation from L TR to LT R (L is left; T is through; R is right). Rebuild intersection to make it more obvious that left lane is for lefts only (see next slide) Pay attention to situations that violate expectancy! Be a careful driver in a school bus

82 Expectancy Example 1 (cont.)
This is what the previous intersection might look like after realigning the curb and adding a flush median island to lead traffic into the right lane. This treatment would make the left turn lane stand out to the driver. Would this be easier to navigate?

83 Driver Conditions Health!
So far, we’ve discussed KNOWLEDGE and EXPECTENCY What other driver condition is critical to safely operating a bus? Health!

84 Driver Health Annual physical exam Occasional illness
Alcohol and drugs Pennsylvania has zero tolerance for drug and alcohol use by school bus and school vehicle drivers. Refer to Sections 1612, 1606 and 3802 of Title 75.

85 Alcohol and Driving FALSE TRUE Alcohol enhances your ability to drive.
Alcohol is a drug that will make you less alert and reduce your ability to drive safely. Some people can drink a lot and not be affected by it. Everyone who drinks is affected by alcohol. If you eat a lot first, you won’t get drunk. Food will not keep you from getting drunk. Coffee and a little fresh air will help a drinker sober up. Only time will help a drinker sober up; other methods just don’t work. Stick with beer – it’s not as strong as wine or whiskey. A few beers are the same as a few shots of whiskey or a few glasses of wine.

86 What is a Drink? All of the following drinks contain the same amount of alcohol: 12 oz glass of 5% beer 5 oz glass of 12% wine 1 ½ oz shot of 80 proof liquor

87 How does Alcohol Affect Driving?
Slower reactions to hazards Driving too fast or too slow Driving in the wrong lane Running over the curb Weaving Straddling lanes Quick, jerky starts Not signaling, failure to use lights Running stop signs and red lights Improper passing

88 Drugs and Driving Illegal drugs are always unlawful to possess and use
Prescription medicine Can affect eyesight, hearing, judgment Read the labels Talk to you doctor or pharmacist Work with your supervisor

89 Concentration and Attitude
Driver Conditions So far, we’ve discussed KNOWLEDGE, EXPECTENCY, HEALTH What other driver conditions are critical to safely operating a bus? Concentration and Attitude

90 Attitude RECOGNIZE the hazard DEFEND yourself ACT to prevent

91 Concentration and Attitude
Be alert and attentive Be positive Focus on your work Be careful of being an aggressive driver Do you speed excessively? Do you tailgate slower vehicles? Do you race to beat red lights or run stop signs? Do you weave in and out of traffic? Do you pass illegally on the right? Do you fail to yield the right of way to oncoming vehicles? If trainees can answer yes to any of these questions, they are most likely driving aggressively. There is no place for this when operating a school bus.

92 Mitigate Aggressive Driving
Plan ahead Concentrate Relax Drive to posted speed limit Be late rather than unsafe Set an example for younger passengers Plan ahead. Allow yourself enough travel time to prevent a time crunch. Safety first, schedule second. • Concentrate. Don’t allow yourself to become distracted by students. Do NOT talk on your cell phone while driving. • Relax. • Drive the posted speed limit. Fewer crashes occur when vehicles are travelling at or about the same speed. Driving too fast can lead to “bottle-necking,” bringing traffic to a standstill and frustrating drivers. • Be late rather than unsafe. Obviously schedule is important, but just be late if safety will be compromised. • Set an example for younger passengers. Children are keenly observant. Educating them at an early age through your actions will teach them the importance of being courteous.

93 Attention and Monitoring
Challenge for school bus operators: Students Road Traffic Your bus Determine what you need to observe Prioritize your monitoring and attention Balance between many items Safety first E.g., Pre-trip, monitor gauges; When loading students, concentrate on them!

94 Attention and Monitoring
There are many ways to pay attention to your surroundings while driving the bus. Use the method that is most comfortable to you and allows you to be more aware of everything around you. For example, when stopped at a bus stop and loading passengers, you should concentrate on the students outside the bus. Most of your time should be spent focusing on the cross view mirrors and directly at the students through the front and side windows, while monitoring other traffic through the side mirrors. When the bus is in motion, your attention is focused less on the cross view mirrors, and more on the road in front of the bus. Your view must alternate between the front window of the bus, the side mirrors, the rearview mirror (if present), the interior of the bus, and the dashboard. While looking at each of these in a systematic order, it is important that you always remember to check everything. More attention is needed on areas that are more critical for student’s safety.

95 Attention and Monitoring
There is a LOT to monitor as a school bus operator Highest rate of injury in PA school bus crashes involved speeding and distracted, or speeding and tailgating. Crash data also showed some crashes are more likely to occur with no adverse weather conditions. Don’t get complacent! Pay attention and monitor your behavior! Don’t forget to pay careful attention when the weather is good too; others will be enjoying the nice weather and may not be paying attention either. Surprisingly, Pennsylvania school bus crash data reveal that head-on, backing, angle, and hit fixed object crashes are more likely to occur with no adverse weather conditions and on dry pavement than in adverse weather conditions. It appears from this that drivers may be complacent in better weather. It is important to pay attention and be vigilant at all times.

96 Driver Fatigue Who has driven their own vehicle while tired?
What behavior did you notice? How were your actions different when you were fatigued compared to when you were alert and well rested? One response you might get is a trainee describing driving and not remembering a section of roadway, or not remembering how he/she got there. This is called a ‘microsleep.’ A microsleep is an episode of sleep which may last for a fraction of a second or up to thirty seconds and may be the result of fatigue. Microsleeps can occur at any time, typically without significant warning. Microsleeps (or microsleep episodes) become extremely dangerous when occurring during situations which demand continual alertness, such as driving a bus. Point out that fatigue increases information processing time and lowers reaction time. Also point out that while individuals vary, generally people experience sleepiness between 3:00 and 5:00 PM – the time during the afternoon trip home from school.

97 Warning Signs of Driver Fatigue
Your eyes feel heavy You blink and yawn frequently You become less attentive to the road Your head feels heavy and you have trouble keeping your head up You can't remember the last few miles driven You drift from your lane or hit a rumble strip You experience wandering thoughts Difficulty focusing or keeping eyes open You have to jerk your vehicle back into the lane. You tailgate or miss traffic signs

98 Avoid the Consequences of Driver Fatigue
Get a good night's sleep Be alert and recognize early warning signs of fatigue Avoid alcohol and medications (over-the-counter and prescribed) that may impair performance Don't rely on your students, the radio or opening a window to keep you awake Eat sensibly and avoid heavy meals Remember not to use any drug that hides fatigue - the only cure for fatigue is rest While a good night’s sleep varies from individual to individual, the average person requires about 8 hours of sleep a night.

99 Cell Phones and Texting While Driving
Cell Phone /Other Related Tasks Risk of Crash or Near Crash event Light Vehicle/Cars Dialing Cell Phone 2.8 times as high as non-distracted driving Talking/Listening to Cell Phone 1.3 times as high as non-distracted driving Reaching for object (i.e. electronic device and other) 1.4 times as high as non-distracted driving Heavy Vehicles/Trucks Dialing Cell phone 5.9 times as high as non-distracted driving 1.0 times as high as non-distracted driving Use/Reach for electronic device 6.7 times as high as non-distracted driving Text messaging 23.2 times as high as non-distracted driving Results of a Virginia Tech research study on Distracted Driving: *Texting while operating a CMV is a prohibited offense.

100 Cell Phones and Texting While Driving
Safest course of action is to refrain from using a cell phone Only use your cell phone in emergency situations

101 Driver Conditions Summary – We examined:
Knowledge Expectancy Health Concentration and attitude Attention and monitoring Driver fatigue Cell phones and texting

102 Driver Conditions Summary – We learned:
Observe traffic defensively Visualize the route and what you are going to do Keep extra space between you and the vehicle ahead of you Have a systematic pattern of mirror checks Maintain a safety circle around the bus Remind yourself of the responsibility you have transporting students Do not talk/text on your cell phone while driving Count the students as they get off the bus and watch where they all go Drive mindfully, not mindlessly

103 Vehicle Conditions Discussed in detail in Unit E Pre-trip conditions
Is the school bus you are assigned to drive in safe operating condition? Will it respond instantly and effectively to all controls? Have you checked it over? Did you report deficiencies to your supervisor and have they been corrected?

104 Vehicle Conditions Discussed in detail in Unit E
Operating (on-the-road) conditions Sight: constantly check all gauges for proper readings, check lights, and watch for smoke or fire Smell: constantly check for telltale odors of smoke, exhaust fumes, gasoline, oil, and burning rubber Sound: listen for unusual noises such as engine knocking or clashing gears Touch: often you will feel the first sign of trouble. Be alert for loss of steering, brakes, transmission, power, or other vehicular functions

105 Environmental and Roadway Conditions
Scanning ahead Driving on slippery surfaces Reduced visibility Equipment adjustments Heavy wind Highway hazards Pedestrian hazards Other vehicle hazards

106 Scanning Ahead Have a clean windshield and properly adjusted mirrors.
Develop the habit of scanning 360 degrees around the bus: front, sides, and rear. Don’t stare too long at a particular object, as you will be less aware of clues from your larger field of indirect vision. Focus farther ahead as your speed increases and slow down if your view becomes limited by hills or curves.

107 Habits for Improving Scanning and Perception
Know What to Look For Use Efficient Eye Habits Use Systematic Search Pattern Search for Conflict Situations

108 Projected Path of Travel

109 Eye Habits for Bus Control
Picture Path of Travel Look Down Middle Look Far Ahead

110 Search The Scene Ahead Search 12-15 seconds ahead
Make your drive safer by scanning the entire roadway, including the side of the road. Search seconds ahead Search from side to side

111 Search the Road Surface
To detect changes in direction To assess speed of other cars To check for pedestrians between parked cars

112 Detect and ANTICIPATE Changes
Highway conditions Other traffic Sight distance Roadway surface Type Slope Roughness Shoulders Oil, water, ice Highway conditions: Number of lanes, width of pavement, width of shoulders, guard rails Embankments, fencing, posts, trees, snow bank, rock slide, barricades, hills, curves, dips in road, embankments, signs, shrubs, farm crops, buildings, snow banks Other Traffic: Oncoming line of cars, cars waiting to turn left, parked delivery trucks, turning trucks, bikes, pedestrians, stalled cars, large trucks or buses ahead, cars or trucks standing, parking, turning or waiting to turn Sight distance: Present speed becomes unsafe for changes in sight distance or view to sides, required stopping distance becomes greater than actual Roadway surface: Less grip of tires on road surface, less ability to control car

113 Search Mirrors and Dash
Check inside and outside mirrors Check every 5-8 seconds Check dash regularly

114 Look for Clues Mailboxes, utility lines, houses, cloud of dust
These clues can indicate where the road goes and whether vehicles are approaching from a different direction Mailboxes, utility lines, houses, cloud of dust

115 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Crashes
Drivers were more likely to be noted for driving too fast for conditions in rain-fog and especially in snow-sleet conditions than in clear weather conditions Drivers were more likely to be noted as driving on the wrong side of the road under snow-sleet conditions, perhaps indicating loss of control of the vehicle on slick roads and/or difficulty in seeing the center line. So…SLOW DOWN…ADJUST YOUR DRIVING Quantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania. In fact, these collisions were three times more likely to occur under adverse environmental conditions than when no such conditions were present.

116 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Crashes
Although 75% of prime school bus crashes overall occurred in urban areas, snow-sleet crashes were more likely to occur in rural than urban areas, perhaps due to lower levels of winter services on rural routes. If your drivers operate buses in rural areas, be particularly careful in adverse weather conditions. Quantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania. Failure to stop was less likely to be noted under snow-sleet conditions than under clear or rain-fog conditions. This suggests that on slick roads drivers proceed cautiously enough to enable stopping when necessary. One point to make to drivers is while they appear to be approaching stopping cautiously, speeding remains a concern.

117 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Crashes
Snow-sleet crashes were likely to involve single-vehicle hit fixed object crashes. This suggests school bus operators are not adjusting their speeds based on weather conditions. Head-on collisions were twice as likely to occur on dry roads as on other road surface conditions. It appears that some drivers attempt risky maneuvers on dry roads that they perhaps avoid in less favorable conditions. Quantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania.

118 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Driving Recommendations
Start on time, but adjust to conditions Safety first, schedule second Use windshield wipers in inclement weather Use of headlights is mandatory Check brakes immediately after driving through deep puddles or standing water. If they fail to work properly, pump the brakes to help dry them while the vehicle is moving. For air brakes, cautiously apply steady pressure. Set a regular speed, and drive slower than posted speed limit Reinforce that school bus operators need to limit the loss of traction by driving smoothly. Sudden applications of power or brakes can make wheels break traction and skid. Turning quickly can make wheels slide sideways, causing understeer, or the bus not turning commensurate with the steering application. Sometimes during understeer, wheels sliding sideways will suddenly grip, causing oversteer, or a condition in which the bus turns too much for the given steering application. Oversteer can cause the rear end of the bus to swing around. Driving on slippery surfaces means not expecting the normal response from the bus commensurate with the normal applications of control. Operators will have to learn how to modulate accelerator and brake pedal pressures and apply steering control smoothly and gently. Refer to Unit H for additional information on this topic.

119 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Driving Recommendations
Start the bus in the lowest appropriate gear for better traction if ice or wet snow is on the driving surface To avoid getting stuck or spinning the wheels, try to keep the bus moving slowly and steadily forward in gear When approaching intersections and when stopping, pump the brakes once or twice so that the wheels won’t lock on the ice. With air brakes, use gentle but steady pressure. Make turns smoothly; avoid applying the brake Avoid skidding

120 Driving on Slippery Surfaces: Driving Recommendations
Plan ahead for expected hazardous areas of the route Bridges, Stretches of road that have been slippery in the past Uphill stops Intersections Maintain a greater than normal safe following distance from other vehicles When pulling onto the highway, allow for longer acceleration time required for school buses For buses with manual transmissions, do not disengage the clutch until the bus is almost completely stopped.

121 Reduced Visibility: Weather Conditions
Follow local pre-trip inspection guidelines Keep the windshield clear Stop the bus and remove snow or ice build-up Don’t hesitate to leave the roadway at a safe spot to sit out a heavy shower, snow squall, or thick fog Always remember to keep in contact with your supervisor

122 Reduced Visibility: Bright Sunlight
Carry sunglasses and use them when necessary Adjust visors to block out direct sun Avoid looking directly at the sun, bright reflections, or glare; they can affect your vision for several seconds Clean the windshield inside/outside

123 Reduced Visibility: Night Driving
~6% of crashes involving a school bus occurred at night Fatalities were more likely to occur in dark than daylight or dawn-dusk conditions Improper highway entrance/exit was least likely to be noted in daylight conditions and most likely to be noted in dark conditions This might suggest that drivers may have difficulty pulling onto roadways in dark conditions. When discussing this section, you may want to share some results of the quantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania as included on the slide.

124 Reduced Visibility: Night Driving
Failure to stop was less likely to be noted in dark conditions than in dawn-dusk or daylight conditions, perhaps because drivers are more cautious when visibility is poor. Improper turning was more likely to be noted in dark conditions than in daylight or dawn-dusk conditions. When discussing this section, you may want to share some results of the quantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania as included on the slide.

125 Reduced Visibility: Night Driving
SLOW DOWN Change other driving techniques Increase your following distance Exercise extra caution Don’t look directly at oncoming lights Don’t look off into the darkness Use pavement markings and delineators as guidance devices Note that your eyes need to adjust to night lighting and driving in dark conditions. SLOW DOWN. Just because the speed limit is 40 mph, it doesn’t mean you have to drive that fast. Remember, the speed limit is an indication of the maximum safe speed during optimal driving conditions. Change other driving techniques. For example, don’t overdrive your headlights. If you are driving at 55 mph, it will take you up to 300 feet to stop while the average headlights will illuminate only 250 feet ahead. Increase your following distance behind the vehicle in front of you because distance perception is more difficult to judge at night. Exercise caution. It takes time for the average eye to adjust to night vision. Drive with special caution during this critical adjustment period. Avoid highway hypnosis caused by prolonged and forced staring. Don’t look directly at oncoming lights. Visibility is affected considerably by oncoming headlights at distances of 3,000 feet or more. Staring at oncoming headlights will also distort your vision for up to seven seconds. That translates to a distortion lasting a distance of 565 feet when traveling at 55 mph. Don’t look off into the darkness, because your eyes will have trouble adjusting to the road lights again. You may be able to learn to steer by the side light cast by cars ahead of you. Use pavement markings and delineators as guidance devices. Often, they form a corridor of reflected light in which a stalled car or pedestrian will show up as a blank spot. Your eyes need to adjust to night lighting and driving in dark conditions. If you are exposed to bright sunlight during the day, it will take your eyes longer to adjust, and it can impair your night vision considerably. Therefore, wear your sunglasses if exposed to bright sunlight during the day.

126 Equipment Adjustments
Keep headlights and windshield clean Always use low beams on sharp curves and when traffic is approaching Keep headlights on low beam in cities or towns and in fog or haze Keep your instrument panel lights dim If oncoming drivers fail to dim their lights, don’t blind them with your high beams Don’t tailgate

127 Equipment Adjustments
If it is necessary to stop the bus on the shoulder of an open highway, choose a spot visible for at least 500 feet to oncoming and following traffic (see Figure above). Turn off the headlights, but leave parking lights and/or hazard warning lights on.

128 Headlights Dual purpose: see and be seen Required use by law:
Insufficient light or on overcast days Between sunset and sunrise Inclement weather Certain work zones

129 Headlights High beaming is not a punishment Low beams:
use during fog, snow, and rain; or within 500’ of oncoming traffic; or within 300’ of vehicle you are following High beaming is not a punishment If another driver coming toward you has their high beam on, do not punish them by keeping yours on. Flash your lights quickly a few times and look toward the right side of the road.

130 Heavy Wind Because of height of bus Can act like a sail
Know your routes Use extreme caution when passing other vehicles, especially large trucks

131 Highway Hazards Geometry Curves Hills Dips Lane width Shoulders

132 Intersections: Crashes
60% of crashes involving school buses occur at intersections Drivers who crashed at T or Y intersections had fewer total training hours than drivers who crashed at mid-block or 4-way intersection locations This suggests that navigating through intersections can be tricky and more experienced drivers have learned strategies to help Quantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania. In-bus training will help with intersection crashes.

133 Intersections: Crashes
Adverse environmental conditions were more likely to be noted at mid-block locations than intersections Intersection crashes were more likely to be in urban areas, perhaps due to greater exposure at high traffic locations A greater number of injuries were sustained in mid-block than intersection crashes perhaps because of the speeds involved A greater number of vehicles were involved in 4-way intersection than T or Y intersection or mid-block crashes Quantitative analyses conducted on 10 years of crashes involving school buses in Pennsylvania. In-bus training will help with intersection crashes.

134 Intersections: Crashes
Angle collisions Failure to stop More likely in darkness It appears that some bus drivers have a tendency to roll past stop signs when the way appears to be clear, fail to see an oncoming vehicle under low light conditions, and collide with the oncoming vehicle Rear end collisions also more common Tailgating More likely if you have a previous violation Be particularly vigilant Angle collisions are common at intersections. In the quantitative review of Pennsylvania school bus crash data, it was determined that several factors contributed to angle collisions. Failure to stop was by far the most impactful – drivers noted for this were 33 times more likely to be involved in an angle collision than drivers who were not. Angle collisions were 3 times as likely to occur in darkness as in other illumination conditions. Other contributing factors were: the absence of adverse environmental conditions (angle collisions were twice as likely to occur under no adverse conditions as when adverse conditions were present); and failure to stop violations on record (drivers with 1 or more fail to stop violations were slightly more likely to be involved in angle collisions than drivers with no such violations). It appears that these findings are consistent with a scenario whereby some drivers have a tendency to roll past stop signs when the way appears to be clear, fail to see an oncoming vehicle under low light conditions, and collide with the oncoming vehicle. Rear end collisions are also more common at intersections. Drivers noted as tailgating were 61 times more likely to be involved in a rear-end collision than drivers involved in collisions who were not noted as tailgating. Other contributing factors to rear-end collisions were gender (males were 1.5 times more likely than females) and improper driving violations on record (drivers with 1 or more improper driving violations were 1.5 times more likely to be involved in rear-end collisions than drivers with no improper driving violations). Drivers should be made aware that if they have a driving record with one or more fail to stop violations, they should be particularly vigilant when operating a school bus not to repeat this behavior.

135 Intersections: Right-of-Way
This concept legally establishes who has the right to use the conflicting part of the road and who has to wait until the other does so. Right-of-way laws are designed to prevent collisions by prescribing which vehicle must move last. Note that the law only names the vehicle that must yield right of way; it never states that any vehicle expressly has the right to proceed. Intersections: Controlled Uncontrolled

136 Yield Control Approach with caution
Reasonable speed for geometry and traffic conditions Yield, NOT merge!

137 Stop Control Stop at stop line Stop 4’ in advance of crosswalk
Stop at nearest point where driver has best view of approaching traffic Best line of sight Look in all directions at least twice Remember the acceleration capabilities of your bus Don’t take chances! Drivers’ responsibilities at stop-controlled intersections are stated in Section 3323(b) of Title 75, The Vehicle Code. This section states “Duties at stop signs.--Except when directed to proceed by a police officer or appropriately attired persons authorized to direct, control or regulate traffic, every driver of a vehicle approaching a stop sign shall stop at a clearly marked stop line or, if no stop line is present, before entering a crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if no crosswalk is present, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering. If, after stopping at a crosswalk or clearly marked stop line, a driver does not have a clear view of approaching traffic, the driver shall, after yielding the right-of-way to any pedestrian in the crosswalk, slowly pull forward from the stopped position to a point where the driver has a clear view of approaching traffic. The driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute a hazard during the time when the driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways, and enter the intersection when it is safe to do so.”

138 Signal Control Red signal: STOP
Use right turn on red with extreme caution Follow local procedures and policies Yellow signal: Prepare for stop…do not accelerate Green signal: Check before proceeding for pedestrians and other traffic Be careful when making the left turn; yield to oncoming traffic! Flashing yellow: Slowly proceed with caution Flashing red: Stop completely, check, proceed with caution. The qualitative portion of school bus crash analyses indicate that school bus drivers should take extra precautions at signalized intersections in wet weather; poor visibility affecting distance judgments may be a contributing factor in these crashes.

139 Roundabouts Counterclockwise rotation Yield before entering
Circulate until desired exit is reached Pedestrians are not allowed; they cross at approaches Roundabouts follow four key operational rules:. (1) In the U.S., traffic in the circular roadway flows in a counterclockwise direction. (2) Traffic entering the circular roadway must yield and wait for a gap in traffic before entering. Yielding before entering is a key feature of roundabouts that separate them from other circular intersections like rotaries. (3) Drivers yield, then enter the roundabout and circulate counterclockwise until the desired exit is reached. (4) Pedestrians are not allowed in the circular roadway. They cross at approaches.

140 Accessible Pedestrian Crossing
Bicycle Treatment Accessible Pedestrian Crossing Counterclockwise Circulation Center Island Circulatory Roadway Sidewalk This illustration is from the FHWA publication “Roundabouts: An Informational Guide.” One of the key geometric design features of a roundabout is the diameter of the central island. The inscribed diameter of the circular roadway (the diameter of the outside curb on the circular road way) of a typical roundabout is between 80 and 130 feet. This diameter is critical because it must be small enough to force vehicles to slow down to 15 mph to negotiate the turn, but must also be large enough to allow large trucks and buses to negotiate the roundabout. In some roundabouts where large trucks and buses are anticipated on a regular basis a truck apron is installed. This apron is a slightly raised concrete section with corrugations formed in it’s surface which will allow a truck’s rear wheels to track over it. The corrugations in the surface of the apron discourage smaller vehicles from cutting across the apron. Another key design feature of a roundabout is the pedestrian crossing, which is located away from the circular roadway. Pedestrians and bikes are not allowed in the circular roadway. Landscaping Buffer Splitter Island Yield Line Apron

141 Why Do They Work? Drivers don’t need to stop unnecessarily
Average speed is very low ( mph) Left turn volume does not greatly impact operation All traffic movement given equal priority Traffic queues move continuously From a traffic operations perspective roundabouts function very well. In general, every time a vehicle has to stop unnecessarily at an intersection, that translates directly to time delays, extra fuel use, and wear and tear on the vehicle. This is especially noticeable when traffic volumes are low and a driver pulls up to an all-way stop sign. Even if there are no other vehicles at the intersection the vehicle has to stop. The same is true for signal control. If the signal is red the driver must stop even if there are no other vehicles approaching. This is not true for roundabouts, which allow drivers to make decisions on when to stop and when it is safe to go. Roundabouts are an improvement over stop-controlled or signalized intersections because of this free-flow nature. The geometric design of roundabouts makes them inherently safer than cross intersections. In order to comfortably negotiate the circular roadway of a roundabout, vehicles must travel at slow speeds. This translates to safety, since it provides approaching drivers time to see and anticipate gaps in traffic and quickly accelerate to circulating speeds. High left-turn volumes at signalized intersections create a big operational problems, including congestion and low level of service. Roundabouts, on the other hand, are unaffected by high left turn volumes because its operation gives equal priority to all traffic movements. A psychological benefit of roundabouts is that if a queue of cars does develop, drivers are generally more accepting because the queue is constantly moving, unlike signals which tend to move in stop-and-go phases.

142 Large Vehicles (Buses) on Roundabouts
Truck Apron A common objection to roundabouts is their perceived inability to accommodate heavy truck or bus traffic. The circular roadway of a roundabout is specifically designed to slow traffic. This design, which is basically a narrow lane around a sharp left turn, does not accommodate truck or bus traffic very well. Truck aprons are the solution to this problem. A truck apron is a slightly raised section of pavement on the inner edge of the circular roadway, which provides additional room for the rear wheels of a larger vehicle, but discourages use by passenger vehicles.

143 Last Notes on Intersections
Uniformed Police Officer Always has authority over signs and signals Private roads When leaving a driveway, always yield right-of way Rule of thumb: School bus never have right of way – be conservative Whenever possible don’t back out of a driveway Crossing main (divided) highways Check and recheck Use extreme caution NEVER take a risk

144 Roadside Hazards Key is to stay on the road!
Be careful of surfaces that are: Loose Rough Slippery Slow down! Crash data indicates: Bus drivers may be too overconfident in good and bad weather, leading to a crash Driving too fast for conditions When a sample of individual run-off-the-road crashes involving school buses were qualitatively analyzed, all these crashes occurred because the school bus driver failed to properly control the vehicle, and it appears that these crashes could have been avoided if the drivers exercised greater caution, in particular driving at slower speeds in hazardous roadway conditions. This was supported by the qualitative data analyses. These analyses indicate that it appears that hit fixed object collisions occur when drivers, perhaps overconfident in their ability to handle the vehicle in good weather, fail to properly control the vehicle while driving too fast for conditions. Driving too fast for conditions was the most impactful factor contributing to hit fixed object crashes – drivers noted for this were 4 times more likely to be involved in a hit fixed object collision than drivers who were not. Also, hit fixed object collisions were 1.75 times more likely to occur on dry roads and 1.25 times more likely to occur in clear weather.

145 Pedestrian Hazards Greater number of fatalities associated with hit pedestrians (and head-on collisions) than any other crash Pay particular attention: During student loading and unloading (Unit C) School areas Kids getting out of cars Crossing between parked cars At intersections Right on red Peds failing to pay attention to traffic control devices In hours of darkness Greater numbers of fatalities were associated with hit pedestrian and head-on collisions with school buses than any other crash type. Pedestrians pose a particular hazard because their movements are difficult to predict – the school bus operator must be ready for anything – and a school bus does not stop or swerve quickly. In the qualitative portion of the analyses of Pennsylvania school bus crash data, some school bus crashes involved pedestrians, and most of these pedestrians sustained minor or moderate injuries though there were some fatalities. Some examples include: One crash occurred when a student exited the school bus and was standing near the front of the bus when the bus moved forward, struck and ran over the student – the crossing control arm was not deployed. One crash occurred as a school bus made a right turn through an intersection and a pedestrian at a crosswalk walked into the side of the bus, fell and was run over. Two crashes occurred as school buses traversed through intersections at green lights and struck pedestrians in crosswalks. One crash occurred as a pedestrian crossed a road mid-block without a crosswalk, wearing dark colored clothing at dawn, and was struck by an oncoming school bus. In the quantitative portion of the analyses, it was determined that hit pedestrian collisions were more likely to occur at dawn or dusk (visibility appears to be a key factor), and at intersection locations.

146 Pedestrian Hazards Urban and rural pedestrian hazards

147 Pedestrian Hazards

148 Pedestrian Hazards PEDESTRIAN BEHIND VEHICLE PEDESTRIAN AT LIGHT POLE

149 Hazards From Other Drivers
Drivers in a hurry Drivers losing control of their vehicles Lack of communication Vehicle slowing down… may be about to turn Parked car with a driver in the driver’s seat, engine running, or turned wheels… may be about to pull out from the curb Parked car with a driver in the driver’s seat… may be getting ready to exit his vehicle Pickup and delivery vehicles with backup lights on… may be about to back into another street or driveway

150 Hazards from Other Drivers
Inadequate adjustment by other driver to various roadway or environmental conditions Failure of other driver to observe Not responding to an upcoming intersection or to your signals Not looking at the road or what is in front of him/her Dirty windows, bright sunlight, or other objects obscuring or restricting the other driver’s view. Other driver’s vehicle being detectable to you only by reflection, headlight glow, or dust cloud. If you cannot see them, they can’t see you!

151 S - 17 A BUS IS STOPPED TO LOAD STUDENTS AT THE CURB
A CAR PULLS INTO INTERSECTION TO SEE AROUND BUS S - 17

152 Aggressive Drivers Get out of their way Do not challenge
Stay relaxed, avoid eye contact and ignore rude gestures Don’t block the passing lane if you are driving slower than most of the traffic Put your pride in the back seat and DO NOT RETALIATE Do not try to teach another driver a lesson Wear your seat belt.

153 Aggressive Drivers Report aggressive drivers to the appropriate authorities Vehicle description License plate Location Direction of travel. If you have a cell phone, and can do it safely, pull to the side of the road and call the police and/or your supervisor Do NOT unload any students if an aggressive driver pursues you. Call for help. 

154 Slow Moving Vehicles Amish buggies Farm equipment Heavy vehicles
Do not blow your horn Leave enough room when passing Farm equipment Heavy vehicles Vehicles going up steep grades Watch for reflective orange triangle bordered with red

155 Work Zones May be confusing Unexpected events Expectancy!
Higher crash rates Work zones are considered high risk areas because work zones are: Unexpected events Confusing to motorists In general, crash rates in work zones are higher than crash rates outside of work zones on similar segments or roadway.

156 Unique Traffic Control Devices
Electronic arrow panels Merge Right Merge Left Caution

157 Unique Traffic Control Devices
Automated Flagger Assistance Device. Treat these as you would a flagger or signal in a work zone.

158 Work Zone Components Advanced warning area Transition area
Activity area Termination area This diagram identifies the five (5) components. INSTRUCTOR SHOULD POINT OUT EACH COMPONENT TO THE CLASS: Advance Warning Area- The advance warning area is the area approaching the work space where advance warning signs are placed. Transition Area-the transition area is used to move or “transition” traffic around the work space. Buffer Zone-the buffer zone is a clear area between the end of the transition area and the work space Work Area- the work area is actual location of the work in progress. Termination Area- the termination area is the end of the work zone.

159 Scan for Hazards

160 Work Zone Areas for concern? Safe driver maneuvers?
This is a photo of an example single flagger operation. Note the sight distance to traffic approaching from both directions.

161 Work Zone Safe Driving Tips
Obey speed limits Follow flagger instructions Do not tailgate Be alert for lane shifts and closures Expect the unexpected

162 Motorcycles Look for motorcycles…then look again. Look twice at intersections, especially when turning left. Respect motorcyclists’ rights. Anticipate a motorcyclist’s maneuvers Allow plenty of following distance Check and re-check your blind spots.

163 Controlling Speed School bus crash data indicates:
Most severe injuries occur in crashes that involve speeding Speeding and tailgating are listed as factors in 18% of crashes where school buses were the prime vehicle Driver actions with highest injury rates, by far, were: Combination of speeding & distracted driving Combination of speeding & tailgating Among single driver action categories, the highest injury rate was for tailgating The message: SLOW DOWN! Safety first, schedule second The most severe injuries associated with school bus crashes involve speed along with other factors causing those crashes. Emphasize the importance of adjusting speed to maintain safe following distances. Based on a quantitative analysis of Pennsylvania school bus crash data, most school bus crashes do not cause injuries, but some school bus driver actions are more consequential than others with respect to crash outcomes. For example, the greatest number of injuries was in crashes attributed to other improper driving (typically coded by investigating officers when several factors are implicated in a crash), followed by failure to stop, tailgating, improper turn, speeding/too fast for conditions, and distracted driving. When looking at rates of injuries by driver actions for school bus crashes in which the bus was the prime unit, actions with high injury rates, by far, were the combinations of speeding & distracted driving, and speeding & tailgating. Among single driver action categories, the highest injury rate was for tailgating. For fatality rates, by far the highest fatality rate was for the driver actions of speeding & other improper driving, followed by driving on the wrong side of road. The message for school bus drivers is clear: SLOW DOWN!

164 Proper Following Distance
Speeding and tailgating are a deadly combination Keep space between your vehicle and other vehicles Know your bus! If another driver makes a mistake , you need time to react.

165 Four Second Rule Select a fixed object on the road or roadside ahead
When the vehicle ahead of you passes that mark, start counting until you reach the same spot If you reach the same mark before your count is complete, you are following to closely This is just a guide. Another variation is the 5 second rule.

166 Four Second Rule NOT a be-all / end-all!
You need to adjust this based on conditions Add a second to the 4 seconds if you are: traveling over 40 mph driving on a wet or loose surface or other poor roadway condition following motorcycles or large vehicles following another school bus driving at night driving in adverse weather conditions being tailgated In general, add a second for every hazard (large vehicle, traveling over 40 MPH, etc.) Some safe driving instructors teach that in heavy traffic, at night, or when weather conditions are not ideal (e.g.. light rain, light fog, light snow), double the four second rule to eight seconds, for added safety. Also, if weather conditions are very poor, e.g. heavy rain, heavy fog, or heavy snow, start by tripling the four second rule to twelve seconds to determine a safe following distance. Add a second for every hazard

167 If YOU are Being Tailgated:
Avoid quick changes Increase your following distance Don’t speed up Avoid tricks Avoid quick changes. If you have to slow down or turn, signal early and reduce speed very gradually. Increase your following distance. Opening up room in front of you will help you avoid having to make sudden speed or direction changes that could surprise the driver behind you. Leaving room ahead also makes it easier for the tailgater to get around you. Don’t speed up. It’s safer to be tailgated at a low speed than a high speed. Avoid tricks. Don’t turn on your tail lights or flash your brake lights. Follow the suggestions above.

168 Why is Perception Important? STOPPING
Stopping distance has three basic components: Perception Distance Reaction Distance Braking Distance Sometimes the first two are referred to as PIEV Distance A driver’s ability to see the roadway ahead is critical for safety reasons. The available stopping sight distance is the distance necessary for a vehicle to stop before it reaches an object in its path. Think of the sight distance as the space between when a driver identifies and processes information, decides on a course of action, and acts. The action can be as simple as deciding to change lanes and turning on the turn signal, or more complex such as rounding a curve and seeing a cow standing in the roadway. If the action requires the vehicle to stop, the sight distance will also include the vehicle braking distance. Variables are speed, grade, friction PIEV time PIEV is perception identification emotion and volition. Median value is .9 sec for unexpected events, individuals with slow reaction times, it may be up to 2.7 seconds. Design is 2.5 seconds Perception Reaction time is: The distance your vehicle travels from the time you spot a problem to the time you decide to do something about it and move your foot from the accelerator to the brake pedal. Braking distance is the distance your vehicle travels after the brakes have started to work, until your vehicle comes to a complete stop.

169 Stopping + Braking distance Stopping distance PIEV distance
A driver’s ability to see the roadway ahead is critical for safety reasons. The available stopping sight distance is the distance necessary for a vehicle to stop before it reaches an object in its path. Think of the sight distance as the space between when a driver identifies and processes information, decides on a course of action, and acts. The action can be as simple as deciding to change lanes and turning on the turn signal, or more complex such as rounding a curve and seeing a cow standing in the roadway. If the action requires the vehicle to stop, the sight distance will also include the vehicle braking distance. Variables are speed, grade, friction PIEV time PIEV is perception identification emotion and volition. Median value is .9 sec for unexpected events, individuals with slow reaction times, it may be up to 2.7 seconds. Design is 2.5 seconds Perception Reaction time is The distance your vehicle travels from the time you spot a problem to the time you decide to do something about it and move your foot from the accelerator to the brake pedal. Braking distance is the distance your vehicle travels after the brakes have started to work, until your vehicle comes to a complete stop.

170 What is Different in a Bus?
Brake lag distance The distance your vehicle travels after you have applied the brake pedal, but before the air brakes are activated Normally, this is discounted in stopping sight distance Air brakes add .5 seconds brake lag = at least 32 feet at 55 mph Due to the time required for the brakes to work after the brake pedal is pushed, air brakes delay stopping distance. With hydraulic brakes, used on cars and light/medium trucks, the brakes work instantly. However, with air brakes, it takes a little time (one half second or more) for the air to flow through the lines to the brakes. Thus, the total stopping distance for vehicles with air brake systems is made up of four different factors: perception distance, reaction distance, brake lag distance, and effective braking distance. The air brake lag distance at 55 mph on dry pavement adds about 32 feet. So at 55 mph for an average driver under good traction and brake conditions, the total stopping distance is over 300 feet. This is longer than a football field. One thing that balances the additional braking distance needed for trucks is that a truck driver tends to see substantially further beyond vertical sight obstructions because of the higher seat position. This is advantage is minimized on horizontal curves.

171 + Braking distance + Brake lag distance Stopping distance
Stopping a Bus PIEV distance + Braking distance + Brake lag distance Stopping distance A driver’s ability to see the roadway ahead is critical for safety reasons. The available stopping sight distance is the distance necessary for a vehicle to stop before it reaches an object in its path. Think of the sight distance as the space between when a driver identifies and processes information, decides on a course of action, and acts. The action can be as simple as deciding to change lanes and turning on the turn signal, or more complex such as rounding a curve and seeing a cow standing in the roadway. If the action requires the vehicle to stop, the sight distance will also include the vehicle braking distance. Variables are speed, grade, friction PIEV time PIEV is perception identification emotion and volition. Median value is .9 sec for unexpected events, individuals with slow reaction times, it may be up to 2.7 seconds. Design is 2.5 seconds Perception Reaction time is The distance your vehicle travels from the time you spot a problem to the time you decide to do something about it and move your foot from the accelerator to the brake pedal. Braking distance is the distance your vehicle travels after the brakes have started to work, until your vehicle comes to a complete stop.

172 + Braking distance (170 feet) + Brake lag distance (32 feet)
Stopping a Bus at 55 MPH PIEV distance (120 feet) + Braking distance (170 feet) + Brake lag distance (32 feet) Stopping distance (322 feet) About the length of a football field! A driver’s ability to see the roadway ahead is critical for safety reasons. The available stopping sight distance is the distance necessary for a vehicle to stop before it reaches an object in its path. Think of the sight distance as the space between when a driver identifies and processes information, decides on a course of action, and acts. The action can be as simple as deciding to change lanes and turning on the turn signal, or more complex such as rounding a curve and seeing a cow standing in the roadway. If the action requires the vehicle to stop, the sight distance will also include the vehicle braking distance. Variables are speed, grade, friction PIEV time PIEV is perception identification emotion and volition. Median value is .9 sec for unexpected events, individuals with slow reaction times, it may be up to 2.7 seconds. Design is 2.5 seconds Perception Reaction time is The distance your vehicle travels from the time you spot a problem to the time you decide to do something about it and move your foot from the accelerator to the brake pedal. Braking distance is the distance your vehicle travels after the brakes have started to work, until your vehicle comes to a complete stop.

173 Remaining ‘Stopping’ Points
Keep your brakes well maintained Keep adequate following distance Slowing down decreases stopping distance Adjust following distance and speed based on conditions Go with the flow of traffic as long as it is safe

174 Safe Driving Summary Prepare Attitude Scan/Perceive
Give yourself time to decide and act Act defensively Use your tools Know the rules

175 The Driving Task Difficult! Minimize distractions Concentrate
Think safety first Attitude

176 Attitude Learn to anticipate Expect the unexpected
Fault ultimately does NOT matter

177 Break the Bad Habits Fatigue Cell phones Grooming Reading
Eating and drinking Failure to obey laws Aggressive driving


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