Presentation on theme: "Do you understand the power of your unconscious?."— Presentation transcript:
Do you understand the power of your unconscious?
Basic Assumptions 1.Psychic Determinism - all behavior has a cause and the cause is in the mind. 2.Biological Origins of Motivation - there is an assumed continuity in normal and abnormal behavior. 3.The Unconscious Mind - much of what we know is out of our conscious awareness.
A Freudian Timeline 1873 Freud enters medical school - Vienna 1885 begins studying with Charcot - hypnosis - Charcot refers to the “second mind” 1886 Freud opens his first office but does not have great success with hysteria using Charcot’s techniques. 1886 Freud begins working with Breuer and hears about “Anna O” for the first time. Breuer uses “talk therapy” which later becomes a model for Psychoanalysis.
How did Freud explore the mind? What are some of the key elements?
Psychosexual Stages of Development. Freud developed 5 stages of psychosexual growth.
1. Oral Stage (Age 0 - 1.5) Erogenous Zone in Focus: Mouth Gratifying Activities: Nursing - eating, as well as mouth movement, including sucking, gumming, biting and swallowing. Interaction with the Environment: To the infant, the mother's breast not only is the source of food and drink, but also represents her love. Because the child's personality is controlled by the id and therefore demands immediate gratification, responsive nurturing is key. Both insufficient and forceful feeding can result in fixation in this stage. Symptoms of Oral Fixation:SmokingConstant chewing on gum, pens, pencils, etc.Nail bitingOvereatingDrinkingSarcasm ("the biting personality") and verbal hostility
2. Anal Stage (Age 1.5 - 3) Erogenous Zone in Focus: Anus Gratifying Activities: Bowel movement and the withholding of such movement Interaction with the Environment: The major event at this stage is toilet training, a process through which children are taught when, where, and how excretion is deemed appropriate by society. Children at this stage start to notice the pleasure and displeasure associated with bowel movements. Through toilet training, they also discover their own ability to control such movements. Along with it comes the realization that this ability gives them power over their parents. That is, by exercising control over the retention and expulsion of feces, a child can choose to either grant or resist parents' wishes. Anal Fixation Anal-Expulsive Personality: excessively sloppy, disorganized, reckless, careless and defiant. Anal-Retentive Personality: very careful, obsessively clean and orderly, obstinate, meticulous, conforming and passive-aggressive.
3. Phallic Stage (Age 4 - 5) Erogenous Zone in Focus: Genital Gratifying Activities: Masturbation and genital fondling Interaction with the Environment: This is probably the most challenging stage in a person's psychosexual development. The key event at this stage is the child's feeling of attraction toward the parent of the opposite sex along with envy and fear of the same- sex parent. Freud called this the "Oedipal Complex". In girls, it is called the "Electra Complex". (however this was not used by Freud) Boys, in the midst of their Oedipal Complex, often experience intense "castration anxiety", Girls' Electra Complex involves "penis envy". (Freud had his own questions about this). Success or failure in the Oedipus conflict is at the core of either normal psychological development or psychological disorder. If a child is able to successfully resolve the conflict, they will have learned to control their envy and hostility and begin to identify with and model after the parent of their own sex. Involves the defense mechanism of Identification.
4. Latency (Age 5 - puberty) Erogenous Zone in Focus: None Interactions with the Environment: This is a period during which sexual feelings are suppressed to allow children to focus their energy on other aspects of life. This is a time of learning, adjusting to the social environment outside of home, absorbing the culture, forming beliefs and values, developing same-sex friendships, engaging in sports, etc. This period of sexual latency lasts five to six years, until puberty, upon which children become capable of reproduction, and their sexuality is re-awakened. Phallic Fixation: For men: Anxiety and guilty feelings about sex, fear of castration, and narcissistic personality. For women: It is implied that women never progress past this stage fully and will always maintain a sense of envy and inferiority. Freud admitted uncertainty on the females' situation when he constructed the "penis envy" theory in the first place.
5. Genital Stage (From puberty on) Erogenous Zone in Focus: Genital Gratifying Activities: Masturbation and heterosexual relationships Interaction with the Environment: This stage is marked by a renewed sexual interest and desire, and the pursuit of relationships. Fixations: This stage does not cause any fixation. According to Freud, if people experience difficulties at this stage, and many people do, the damage was done in earlier oral, anal, and phallic stages. These people come into this last stage of development with fixations from earlier stages. For example, attractions to the opposite sex can be a source of anxiety at this stage if the person has not successfully resolved the Oedipal (or Electra) conflict at the phallic stage.
Fixation and Regression Fixation - the incomplete release of drive energy associated with a particular stage of development. Regression - a defense mechanism in which the individual revert to behaviors characteristic of an earlier mode of gratification.
Could this apply to a culture? If it can be applied to culture at what stage is the U.S. fixated? Food For Thought
Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms Anxiety - a negative emotional state associated with a threat to the self. It arises when the ego is faced with an influx of stimuli with which it cannot cope. Defense mechanism - a technique used by the ego to protect itself from anxiety and the threats which five rise to it.
According to Freud what is the source of anxiety? According to Freud, what is the purpose of anxiety? The source of anxiety is physiological in nature and is intended as an adaptive mechanism. Anxiety serves as a warning device to allow the ego to prepare for an overwhelming situation.
Where does the term “defense mechanism” come from? Anna Freud
According to Freud, what are the limitations of the ego? It has limited options: it cannot totally deny the id’s desire for gratification nor can it ignore external reality. For example it may be wrong to lie however if your neighbor is a Jew in Berlin in 1939 you may wish to hide him.
What are defense mechanisms? They are techniques used by the ego to protect itself from ‘anxiety and threats’* Basic points to keep in mind about defense mechanisms 1. They operate at an unconscious level 2. Most defense mechanisms operate by allowing gratification in some indirect way. (repression being the exception) 3. To the extent that defense mechanisms succeed they do so by distorting reality.
Some Defenses Reaction FormationSublimation RationalizationRegression IdentificationDisplacement