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Nail Diseases & Disorders Module 24 – 08’ Module 10 – 12’

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Presentation on theme: "Nail Diseases & Disorders Module 24 – 08’ Module 10 – 12’"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nail Diseases & Disorders Module 24 – 08’ Module 10 – 12’

2 Introduction  Nails are small mirrors of the general health of the entire body  You must be able to recognize conditions you may encounter while servicing clients  Infectious conditions should not be treated by salon professionals

3  Normal healthy nail –Firm –Flexible –Shiny –slightly pink in color –Some races have more yellow tones

4  Surface should be –Smooth –Unspotted –Without pits –No splits

5 The Nail  Onyx – composed of (protein) Keratin  Nail Bed – portion of the skin on which the nail plate rests  Nail root – Matrix – where the nail is formed  Lunula – half moon – light color is caused by the reflection of light where the matrix and connective tissue of the nail bed join  Nail Body – Plate – rests on and is attached to the nail bed

6 Nail Malformation  Matrix – if disease, injury or infection occurs, the shape or thickness of the nail plate could change  A nail can be replaced as long as the nail matrix is in good condition  Nail replacement - 4 – 6 months

7 Nail Disorders  A condition caused by injury to the nail or some disease or imbalance in the body  May have to refer client to a physician  Cosmetically improve certain nail plate conditions if the problem/disorder is cosmetic and not a medical disorder

8 Refer to physician  It is your professional responsibility and a requirement of your license to know which option to chose  Infected  Inflamed  Broken  Swollen  Did you know? PP 207

9 Bruised Nails  Blood clot formed under the nail plate (body) forming a dark purplish spot  Cause: injury to nail bed  Treatment: gently and avoid pressure  Prognosis: grow out

10 Blue Nails  Discolored nails  Cause: –poor blood circulation –Heart disorder –Oral medications  Treatment: regular manicures with polish, tips or wraps  Prognosis: until cause is corrected

11 Ridges  Running vertically down length of natural nail plate  Caused: –uneven growth of nails –Usually result of age

12  Treatment: carefully buff nail plate to minimize appearance of ridges –Ridge filler is less damaging - used with colored polish  Prognosis: regular manicures to keep ridges to a minimum

13 Corrugations (Seleronychia)  Wavy ridges  Cause: uneven growth usually from injury or illness  Treatment: Carefully buff  Prognosis: until it grows out and illness or injury is healed with no damage to the matrix

14 Eggshell Nail  Noticeably thin, white nail plate (body)  More flexible than normal  Normally weaker & curve over free edge  Nail plate (body) separates from the nail bed and curves at the free edge  Cause: improper diet –Hereditary factors –I nternal disease – Medication –Nervous disorder

15  Treatment: use fine side of file do not use pressure –Fragile and can break easily –Do not use heavy pressure pusher at the base of the nail plate –Nail is thinnest here and most likely to be punctured  Prognosis: grow out after cause has been corrected

16 Furrows (Depressions)  Lengthwise or across the nail  Cause: injury near or at the nail matrix –pregnancy –Stress –Lengthwise  psoriasis  Poor circulation  frostbite

17  Treatment: Avoid use of metal implements  Prognosis: grow out if cause can be removed

18 Beau’s Lines  Visible depressions running across the width of the natural nail plate  Cause: –Major illness or injury that has traumatized the body –Pneumonia –Adverse drug reaction –Surgery

19 –Heart failure –Massive injury –High fever –Matrix slows down producing nail cells for an extended period of time (week –month)  Treatment: –Avoid use of metal implements –Carefully buff

20  Prognosis: nail plate thickness usually returns to normal after the illness or condition is resolved


22 Hangnail (Agnail)  Cuticle split around nail – leaves a piece (fringe) of skin  Cause: dryness –cutting too much cuticle –Carelessly removing cuticle tissue

23  Treatment: hot oil manicures – NEVER cut the living skin around the natural nail plate –IT IS AGAINST STATE REGULATORY AGENCY REGULATIONS –Can lead to serious infections for which you and the salon may be legally liable

24  Prognosis: heals when treated (if not infection may set it)  Symptoms of infection –Redness –Pain –Swelling –Pus  Refer to a physician


26 Leukonychia  White spots  Cause: injury to base of nail –Minor damage to Matrix  Myths: –Vitamin or mineral deficiency –Calcium or zinc deficiency  Treatment: polish  Prognosis: disappear as nail grows out

27 Melanonychia  Darkening of nail plate (body)  Black band under or within nail plate – extending from the base to the free edge  Cause: localized area of increased pigment cells –Fairly common occurrence –Considered normal in African Americans –Could be indicative of a disease or condition in Caucasians

28  Treatment: polish  Prognosis: grows out


30 Onychatrophia  Atrophy or wasting away of the nail  Cause: injury or disease  Treatment: –file smooth with fine file –DO NOT USE METAL PUSHER!  Prognosis: depends on how badly injured or if disease is curable

31 Onychauxis  Hypertophy – overgrowth of the nail in thickness  Cause: –local infection –Internal imbalance –hereditary  Treatment: –if infected - DO NOT TREAT! –If no infection - file smooth and buff  Prognosis: depends on cause, and how long it has been left untreated

32 Discolored Nails  Nails that turn a variety of colors –Surface staining –Systemic disorder –Poor blood circulation

33  Cause: –Surface stains from nail polish –Foods –Dyes –smoking –Internal discoloration due to  Biological  Medical  pharmaceuticals

34  Treatment: –Colored polish  Prognosis: depends on cause

35 Onychophagy  Bitten nails  Cause: –Chew the nail or hardened damaged skin surrounding the nail plate –habit –stress –nervous

36  Treatment: –Enhancements –Frequent manicures –Care of hardened eponychium –Improving health and appearance of hands  Prognosis: good if habit stops


38 Onychorrhexis  Abnormal brittleness or splits with striation (lengthwise lines) of the nail plate – appearing rough  Cause: –Injury to Matrix –excessive use of cuticle solvents/polish removers –Aggressive/careless filing –vitamin deficiencies –illness –frequent exposure to strong soaps, harsh cleaners –Hereditary causes

39  Treatment: –Can only be treated if nail is not split and exposing the nail bed –oil manicures  Prognosis: good over time with treatment


41 Plicatured Nail  Folded nail – 90 degrees or more down into tissue  Highly curved nail plate  Cause: –Injury that deforms the matrix –May be inherited –Leads to ingrown nails

42  Treatment: careful filing or physician  Prognosis: possibly need to see a Podiatrist


44 Nail Pterygium  Abnormal condition that occurs when skin is stretched by the nail plate  Forward growth of the Eponychium  Cause: –Improper cuticle care –Serious injury – burns –Adverse skin reaction to chemical products

45  Treatment: –DO NOT USE METAL IMPLEMENTS! –Gentle massage of cuticle creams/oils –Hot oil manicures may be helpful  Prognosis: usually not reversible

46  ** If irritated, painful or shows signs of infection – refer to a physician  Note: - Pterygium is not normal – denotes damage to the eponychium or hyponychium


48 Splinter Hemorrhages  Appearance of a small splinter under the nail plate –Positioned lengthwise in the direction of growth  Cause: physical trauma or injury to the nail bed that damages capillaries and allows blood flow  Treatment: colored polish  Prognosis: grows out as nail grows

49 Increased Curvature Nails  The greater the curvature of the Matrix – the greater the curvature of the free edge  Range –Mild –Severe pinching of the soft tissue at the free edge

50 Tile – Shaped Nails  Increased crosswise curvature throughout the nail plate  Cause: increased curvature of the matrix  Treatment: none  Prognosis: irreversible

51 Trumpet or Pincer Nail  Edges of the nail plate curl around to form the shape of a trumpet or cone at the free edge  Cause: Nail bed becomes constricted and may be painful  Treatment: carefully trim the margins of the nail plate and file –Extreme or unusual cases - refer to physician/podiatrist  Prognosis: none


53 Nevus  Black or brown stain  Cause: birthmark/heredity  Treatment : polish  Prognosis: none

54 Nail Fungus  Fungi – parasites –May cause infections of the feet and hands  Severe case: cheesy, sticky residue progresses to a dry and crusty texture  Contagious  Transmitted: –Unsanitary implements –Work conditions

55  Fungi infections grow: –Skin is warm –Moist –Dark –(feet/shoes)  Possible to transmit fungal infections form one client to another!!!!!!!!!

56  Proper sanitation and disinfection practices – transmission can be avoided  Clients with suspected fungi infections should be referred to a physician

57 Pseudomonas Aeruginosa  Discolorations between nail plate and artificial enhancements  Naturally occurring skin bacteria can grow out of control & cause an infections if conditions are correct for growth  Cause: –Contaminated implements (with large numbers of bacteria) –Large numbers of bacteria or fungal organisms on a surface

58 –NOT result of moisture trapped between natural nail plate and enhancement –Water does NOT cause  Treatment: –Remove enhancements; physician –Proper cleaning of nail plate –Proper sanitation –Proper disinfection of implements –Refer to a physician  Prognosis: nail could fall off

59  Bacterial infection –Early stage: yellow-green spot –Advanced stage: darker to brown/black –Soften and smell bad –Plate becomes sensitive to touch –(goes from yellow – green – brown – black) –Caution box page 649/210 –Table 24-1 page 648/Table 10 – page 211


61 Nail Diseases  Person’s occupation can cause a variety of nail infections  Natural oils are removed by frequent exposure to: –Soaps –Solvents –Many other substances

62  Products should always be used according to mfg. directions  If the mfg. recommends to wear gloves – DO SO TO PROTECT YOUR SKIN!!!!!!!

63 Onychosis  Any deformity or disease of the natural nail

64 Onychia  Inflammation of the nail matrix followed by shedding of the nail plate  Cause: improperly cleaned and disinfected implements  Treatment : avoid pressure  Prognosis: grows out as infection is removed

65 Onychocryptosis  Ingrown nail  Cause: –poor fitting shoes –Improper filing/cutting nails

66  Treatment : –In no infection present – carefully trim corner of nail in a curved shape to relieve pressure –If infection is present – refer to a physician/podiatrist  Prognosis: grows out when cause is corrected


68 Onycholysis  Lifting of the nail plate from the bed without shedding  Cause: –Physical injury –Trauma –Allergic reaction of the nail bed –Health disorder –Aggressive filing – natural nail –Improper removal of enhancements

69 –Improperly fitted shoes  Treatment : –No infection or open sores – basic manicure or pedicure –Cut free edge short –Infection present – refer to physician/podiatrist  Prognosis: grows out as trauma is removed


71 Onychomadesis  Separation and falling off of nail plate  Cause: –localized infection –Injuries to matrix –Severe systemic illness

72  Treatment : –Do not apply nail enhancements –No infection or open sores – basic manicures/pedicures  Prognosis: once problem is solved – nail grows out


74 Nail Psoriasis  Non infectious condition that affects the surface of the nail plate causing tiny pits or severe roughness on the surface –May develop yellowish to reddish spots under nail plate – salmon patches  Cause: birthmark/heredity

75  Treatment : polish if no infection present  Prognosis: refer to a physician


77 Paronychia  Bacterial inflammation of the tissues surrounding the nail  Redness, pus, selling around nail plate  Cause: –Hands in water all the time –Dry chapped hands from exposure to water, detergents, harsh soaps –Toenails – warm moist, environments

78  Treatment : refer to physician –client can do at home  moisturizing hand lotions  Keep feet clean and dry  Prognosis:



81 Pyogenic Granuloma  Severe inflammation of the nail with a lump red tissue grows from the nail bed to the nail plate  Cause:  Treatment : refer to physician  Prognosis: none


83 Tinea Pedis  Fungal infection of the feet (athletes feet) – ring worm of the feet –Red itchy rash in spaces between the toes –Small degree of scaling of skin  Cause:

84  Treatment : refer to physician –Client – keep feet dry and clean daily –Wear cotton socks –Change shoes daily –Over-the-counter antifungal powders  Prognosis: grows out when infection is gone


86 Onychomychosis  Fungal infection of the natural nail plate – ringworm of the nails –Whitish patches –Long whitish or pale yellowish streaks within the nail plate –Free edge of the nail to crumble  Cause:

87  Treatment : none  Prognosis: refer to physician


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