Presentation on theme: "Global Transport Knowledge Partnership Models for Fleet Safety Interventions Adrian Walsh Dr Will Murray."— Presentation transcript:
global Transport Knowledge Partnership Models for Fleet Safety Interventions Adrian Walsh Dr Will Murray
Commercial vehicles are estimated to account for 14% of all motor vehicles in use globally and in low- and middle-income countries upwards of 32% Available data and estimates suggest that in high-income countries: % of road toll involves a driver who is at work; 50% if commuting is included % of at-work fatalities involve vehicles Why we are targeting driving for work?
The Road Safety Argument excessive or inappropriate speed contribute to 850 road fatalities annually 570 people were killed in 2006 on motorbikes 550 people are killed annually in drink-drive accidents careless or dangerous driving contribute to at least 400 road fatalities annually an estimated 350 road fatalities annually are for want of wearing a seatbelt about 300 road fatalities result from drivers falling asleep at the wheel Approximately 250 fatalities are due to accidents notified annually under the Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) Between 850 and 1100 people are killed annually in work-related road traffic accidents excessive or inappropriate speed contribute to 850 road fatalities annually 570 people were killed in 2006 on motorbikes 550 people are killed annually in drink-drive accidents careless or dangerous driving contribute to at least 400 road fatalities annually an estimated 350 road fatalities annually are for want of wearing a seatbelt about 300 road fatalities result from drivers falling asleep at the wheel Approximately 250 fatalities are due to accidents notified annually under the Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) Between 850 and 1100 people are killed annually in work-related road traffic accidents
Safety models & theory
Theory Theoretical understanding underpins good practice Provides: –Framework –Structure –Starting point –Something to contribute to, prove or disprove and evaluate against Many existing theories for road safety, and increasingly for occupational road safety Very limited published outcomes evaluation data Following discussion reviews emerging theories
Models of safety Heinrich’s Domino Haddon Matrix Surveillance Surrey’s Systems approach Wilde’s risk homeostasis Risk analysis Organisational culture Prevention Source: Laflamme et al (1999) Safety promotion research Reviewed by Murray et al (2003) and summarised into WIPE model
Heinrich’s Domino 5 dominos –environment -> human-> hazard -> collision -> injury Show causation as a linear flow of time ordered stages and options for prevention –Depot layout improves Environment –Driver training effects Human –Speed reduces Hazards and collisions –Seatbelts reduce injury Good because it focuses on underlying causes and the importance of investigation
Haddon matrix VehicleBehaviour of Driver Environment Pre- crash At scene Post crash
Surveillance model Focuses on crash reporting and recording Problem – imbalance between post (injury, insurance, $s) and pre-event data (who, what, where, when, why) Records data on linear crash sequence –Trigger event ->intermediate event -> contact event Process based recording and coding of data to allow understanding of causation and preventative actions Broken windows theory and Bird’s accident triangle are applicable in this context
Surrey’s systems Systems approach – based on road, vehicle and behaviour * Scientific process to better understand pre-crash, at-scene and post crash process Developments from applying Surrey’s work: –Important to emphasis more than human/driver error –showed importance of ‘change/deviation’ for causation –showed importance of organisational & societal factors –extended dimensions of Haddon Matrix
A Safe Road System Road Vehicle Behaviour
A Safe Road System Addresses all elements of the road transport system in an integrated way The road user as the weakest link in the transport chain, unpredictable and capable of error, education and information efforts notwithstanding In the event of a crash, the impact energies remain below the threshold likely to produce either death or serious injury Shared overall responsibilities and accountability between system designers and road users OECD Report Towards Zero: Ambitious Road Safety Targets and the Safe System Approach 2008
Wilde’s risk homeostasis Focuses on the acceptance of risk People accept certain levels of risk: –give people better brakes and they drive faster/closer! Need to influence their risk acceptance To create change we have to work with people’s perceptions and attitudes to risk Stages of change model is applicable framework in this context
Risk analysis Analyse technical, organisational, environmental and people-based circumstances leading to hazards Focus on system design, rather than looking at a single individual’s safety performance under given conditions Building safety into land use planning, design and implementations
Organisational culture Organisational aspects of collision causation Focus on: –Organisational climate –Working climate –Individual skills Organisational and management factors constitute latent failures in work systems Must be considered in crash investigations Links safety to quality and standards Focus on influencing group norms Theory of Planned Behaviour often applied in this context
Prevention Primary, secondary and tertiary –Primary = take action in advance –Secondary = spot problems early & manage –Tertiary = manage consequences and rehabilitation Our focus is on primary: –Proactive: deter or limit exposure –Reactive: adapt to exposure –Macro = policy, micro = specific countermeasures –Active (involves people eg seatbelt) to passive continuum (involves environment eg airbag) Particularly useful for classifying vehicle safety features
Prevention model ActivePassive ProactiveBan mobile phone use DRL policy Alcohol policy Confiscate mobile phones Wired-in DRL Alcohol ignition interlock ReactiveSeatbelts policy Seatbelt interlock
WIPE model & extended Haddon Matrix
WIPE approach Why Initial and on-going status review Pilot and implement changes Evaluate
Haddon Matrix Framework Management Culture (30%) Journey (10%) Road/ Site Environment (10%) People - Drivers and Managers (20%) Vehicle (10%)External/ Societal/ Community/ Brand (20%) Pre- Crash or Pre- Drive Leadership Business case* Legal compliance Safety audit* Benchmarking* Pilot studies Goals & policies Safety culture* Committee Pledge Communications Contractors Travel policy Mode choice Journey planning Routing Risk assessment Emergency preparation Shifts/ working time Risk assess Observation Guidelines Site layouts Work permits C&D rules Road design Black-spot mapping Engage local road agencies Recruit Contract Induct Check qualified Handbook Risk assess Train Equip Communicate Engage Monitor Correct Risk assess Select Specification Safety features Service Maintain Check Use policy Mobile comms ITS/telematics Wear & tear Grey fleet Regulator/policy engagement CSR Benchmarking Communications Family members Community Road safety weeks/ days Awards At Scene Emergency support to driver Engage local investigators Manage scene Process to manage scene Crashworthy ‘ITS’ data capture Escalation process Post- Crash Report, record & investigate Change process Data linkages, evaluation & KPIs* Debrief & review journeys Investigate and improve Review site/road elements of collision data Reporting and investigation Driver debrief Counselling, trauma support Reassess/train Strong openable doors Investigate ‘ITS’ data Inspection & repair Manage reputation and community learning process Copyright: Interactive Driving Systems, All Rights Reserved.
Other models and theories Safety E’s * Insurance/driver risk-based models * Surveillance-based models: –Bird’s accident triangle –Broken windows theory Behaviour-based models: –Stages of change –Theory of planned behaviour –Multiple intervention level and behaviour change taxonomy –Group decision theory Business based models: –PESTEL –SWOT –GAP –Pareto model/6 Sigma
Insurance & driver-risk based models Zurich modelData warehouse model
Models identified in white paper ERSO framework Euro OSH Factsheet 18 models Stuckey & Mooren models Global standards – oil industry, pharmas, logistics sector UN, Fleet Forum and GRSP partnership-based approach * * Risk assessment-led approaches in response to UK Government guidance Standards-based eg ANSI Z15.1 or ISO39001 PC/TC241 NETS model process Driving for Better Business B to B approach * Audit and benchmarking-based: Fleet Safety Benchmarking –www.fleetsafetybenchmarking.netwww.fleetsafetybenchmarking.net
Supporting the Fleet Safety Project Group - Action Plan PSRSC linkage GRSP linkage Benchmarking platforms Tools & case studies Seek greater involvement by low income country representatives Share information Build knowledge and communication Collect and assess information on FS practices Consult scientific community Amass good practice tools and case studies Analysis of the problem and dimensions of the task Pilot test resources Develop and test “Green-cover” Manual Capacity building ISO standard ?
Fleet Safety Forum: Fleet Safety Management Model Management systems 1.A senior manager must assume specific responsibility 2.Implement driving for work policy 3.Record and act on the findings of risk assessments 4.Ensure all incident involving any vehicle is recorded & that collective information is regularly analysed Driver safety 5.Driver’s handbook 6.Ensure all employees driving for work are initially vetted, inducted and regularly assessed Vehicle safety 7.Ensure that vehicles are fit for purpose and fitted with all appropriate safety and security features 8.All vehicles are regularly inspected and maintained Journey management 9.Check whether a road journey is really necessary – and encourage alternative modes of communication and transport 10.Ensure journeys are scheduled to realistic timetable, planned to take into account adequate rest periods and use the safest available routes
The Private Sector Taking a business message to business Making the Business Case Promoting case studies sector by sector
Summary Theory and models provide framework for safety projects Growing body of existing approaches Good practice uses theory to guide program development, and evaluate outcomes Systems-based approach has potential, but further peer-reviewed outcomes evaluations required to legitimate..... Your feedback and experiences welcome!