2Set Goals for Market Research What are the goals / purpose of your market research process?What information are you trying to find out about your market?Include any “deal-breakers” for the organizationBe selective, rather than comprehensive
3Preliminary work Decide on information required What are the things one needs to know from the respondent in order to meet the survey’s objectives?Define the target respondentsDefine the population about which you wish to generalize from the sample data to be collectede.g. to survey only those in your target audience or also those outside your target audience
4Primary ResearchPrimary research difficult and time-consuming, yet often produces the most relevant information.Plan out any primary research in advance.It takes time to reach people on the phone or to coordinate in-person interviews or focus groups.Strategize who you will contact for your primary research.Target individuals who have either the expertise/experience to give credible information or who will be affected by organization (i.e. client, competitor, stakeholder, etc.).Be polite but persistent when conducting primary research.
5Method and Question Content Choosing the methodGenerally, the more sensitive of personal the information, the more personal the form of data collection should bePersonal InterviewsGroup or Focus InterviewsObservationOther (mailed questionnaires, telephone interviews)Question ContentAlways ask “Is this question really needed?”Types of questions:ClosedOpen-endedOpen response-option
6Question Flow Opening questions Question Flow Question Variety Easy to answer and unthreateningQuestion FlowPsychological order, so that one leads naturally to the nextQuestion VarietyRespondents may become bored so useful to change respondent’s task from time to timeExamples: open-ended questions, cards/picturesClosing QuestionsPotentially sensitive questions (to avoid cutting off early in the interview)Be aware that respondent may become increasingly careless in a long interview
7ObservationGenerally, there are three types of observational research:Covert observational research - The researchers do not identify themselves. Either they mix in with the subjects undetected, or they observe from a distance.Overt observational research - The researchers identify themselves as researchers and explain the purpose of their observations.Researcher Participation - The researcher participates in what they are observing so as to get a finer appreciation of the phenomena.
8Develop a Research Plan Research Questions – What questions do you want to answer through market research?Research Methodology – What primary and secondary sources will you research to to get answers to the research questions?Research Responsibility – Who will be responsible for each research assignment?Research Deadlines - What is the deadline for each research assignment?
9Individual Responsible Individual Responsible Individual Responsible Sample Work Plan : Micro-Credit ProgramGoal: To determine whether an organization should launch a for micro-credit programResearch Question 1: Is there a need for micro-credit services in XX area?Research AssignmentIndividual ResponsibleResearch Deadline1. Develop client survey and survey 100 microentrepreneurs.Raja10/2/072. Analyze survey data and write up conclusions.4/3/073. Conduct interviews with bank, moneylenders and NGOs providing micro-credit services.Ameeta20/3/07Research Question 2: How big is the micro-credit market?Research AssignmentIndividual ResponsibleResearch Deadline1. Conduct demographic research using local development publications/websites.Raja20/3/072. Interview local NGOs, money lenders, and Banks providing financial services .Ameeta30/3/07Here is a very rough, sample workplan.It defines the goal and the various questions that need to be answered for the organization to be comfortable with the level of research involved. It lays out how each question will be answered, who is responsible, and by when it should be completed.Research Question 3: Will the organization support a micro-credit program?Research AssignmentIndividual ResponsibleResearch Deadline1. Identify the organization’s key stakeholders.Raja30/3/072. Develop an interview guide for micro-credit program (include research results).Ameeta10/4/073. Conduct a focus group with key stakeholders discuss to micro-credit program.& Ameeta30/4/07
10Presenting Research Findings Think about your end goal – What message do you want to convey?Clearly outline your findings – Try to tell a story with your findings using the information you have gathered. Consider using a format like PowerPoint that is simple and easy to read.Analyze for consistency – Compare the results of different methods of your data collection. For example, are the market demographics provided to you from the local media outlet consistent with your survey results?Quantify your results - Look for common opinions that can be counted together.Rely on subjective information only as support for more general findings - Look for relevant data that focuses on your immediate market needs.Does your report answer all of the questions you set out to address?
11Process Recommendations Develop a work plan – identify research goals, isolate key research questions and best research techniques to answer questions.Assign research tasks to specific people - divide the research tasks among members of the Research Team to balance the workload and avoid duplication of research.Set deadlines for all research tasks – holding each member of the Research Team accountable for their assigned research tasks.Hold regular update meetings – to map work plan progress and provide an opportunity to discuss any questions or challenges.Cite all research/interviews conducted - Data without citations cannot be used in business plans.Know when to stop! Market research quickly can become an endless process. Always ask yourself: “How will I use this information? Is this information relevant?”
12Interview Recommendations Interviews are the most common primary research technique. Interviews can be conducted over the phone, in-person, or electronically.Develop an opening & closing script –ensures consistency across the interviews,.Develop a list of questions you want answered –ensures consistency and helps manage the interview focus.Decide which questions will be open-ended –open-ended questions take longer than closed (yes or no) questions. Use open questions where in-depth answers information is required.Respect the interviewee’s time and views – Remember the interviewee is doing you a favor. Be aware of any time constraints and do not judge any of their responses.Listen and record – A good interview is one where the interviewee does the majority of the talking with only minimal prompting or interruption from the interviewer.
13Focus Group Recommendations Focus groups allow an organization to gather primary information from multiple individuals during a one-period session. Focus groups are most appropriate for eliciting a reacting to a new service, or concept.Plan focus group in advance – you will need to identify, invite, confirm, and coordinate focus group participants; find a suitable location and coordinate other logistics (i.e. refreshments).Develop a list of questions and allocate time to each question – this technique will help you manage the focus group’s discussion and ensure all questions are answered.Find a good facilitator – The facilitator can significantly alter the outcome of a focus group. The individual will manage group dynamics, and direct the conversation and elicit comments from participants.Record the focus group session – Having a transcript of the session can be very useful when analyzing the information gathered from the focus group. Recording the session will allow the organization to concentrate on running the focus group and interacting with participants.
14Survey Recommendations Surveys allow an organization to reach a large number of primary source contacts with minimal effort.Plan surveys well in advance – Remember, you will need to develop, test, revise, and mail or the survey to individuals. Response times can range from 1-6 weeks and you will still need to analyze the results.Keep the survey simple and easy to complete – Limit the survey to one page, include instructions for answering all the questions on the survey, include a self-addressed envelope & stamp, and make the survey graphically pleasing and easy to read.Keep open-ended questions to a minimum – Respondents will be more unlikely to complete a survey with too many open-ended questions. Structure questions using a multiple choice format when possible.Pre-test the survey – Before distributing the survey, have a few stakeholders complete the survey. Ask them for feedback on the survey's style, simplicity and their perception of its purpose. Make changes to the survey, as needed.Identify a large enough pool of individuals to target – Typical survey responses range from 10-15%. However, partnering with an organization that has relationships with the target pool can significantly increase this rate.