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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc.,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240

3 Splash Screen

4 3 Contents CHAPTER FOCUS SECTION 1Catholic Influence SECTION 2Attempts to Reform SECTION 3Learning SECTION 4The Crusades CHAPTER SUMMARY & STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER ASSESSMENT Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section. Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.

5 4 Chapter Focus 1 Overview Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter 25 discusses the role of the Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages.  –Section 1 describes the influence of the Church in daily life in western Europe.  –Section 2 discusses Church reforms.  –Section 3 explains the spread of Christian teachings in western Europe.  –Section 4 describes reasons for the Crusades.

6 5 Chapter Focus 2 Objectives discuss how the Roman Catholic Church influenced life during the Middle Ages.  After studying this chapter, you will be able to: summarize attempts to reform the Church.  describe education during the Middle Ages.  explain why the Crusades took place.  list effects of the Crusades. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

7 6 Chapter Focus 2 Read to Discover Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 381 of your textbook. How the Roman Catholic Church influenced life during the Middle Ages  What attempts were made to reform the Church during the Middle Ages  What learning was like during the Middle Ages  Why the Crusades took place during the Middle Ages  What the effects of the Crusades were

8 7 Places to Locate Palestine  Outremer  Venice  Acre Saladin  Richard the Lionheart  People to Know tithes  cathedrals  unions  chancellor  crusades  emirs  Terms to Learn Chapter Focus 3 mass  Urban II  Cluny  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the Speaker On button to listen to the words. Francis of Assisi  Thomas Aquinas  People to Know Gregory VII 

9 8 Leaders in the Roman Catholic Church wanted to develop a civilization in western Europe that was based on Christian ideals. By 1000, missionary monks had brought the Church’s teachings to most of Europe. They converted people and built new churches and monasteries. The Roman Catholic Church united western Europeans and took the lead in government, law, art, and learning for hundreds of years. The Church helped pass on the heritage of the Roman Empire. Latin became the official language of the Church. Chapter Focus 4 Why It’s Important Click the Speaker On button to replay the audio.

10 End of Chapter Focus

11 10 Section 1-1 Catholic Influence The Roman Catholic Church had great influence during the Middle Ages.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1 begins on page 380 of your textbook. It was the center of every village and town, and played an important part in the political life of the period.

12 11 Section 1-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Daily life revolved around the Church.  On Sundays, people went to mass, or a worship service, held by the parish priest.  Church leaders ran schools and hospitals. Daily Life

13 12 Section 1-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Church played an important role in the political life of the Middle Ages.  Together with kings and nobles, Church officials helped govern western Europe.  The Church told people to obey the king’s laws unless they went against canon laws, or laws set up by the Church. Political Life

14 13 Section 1-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Despite its power, the Church faced the problem of heresy.  In 1129, a council of bishops set up the Inquisition, or Church court, to end heresy by force.  People suspected of heresy had one month to confess and if they did not appear they were seized and brought to trial.  The trial’s purpose was to get a confession. The Inquisition

15 14 Section 1-Assessment 1 Section Assessment What part did parish priests play in government? They were expected to tell the people to respect the kings, the nobles, and other government officials. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

16 15 Section 1-Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) Making Inferences How do you think a king might have felt about being excommunicated from the Church? Answers will vary. It would not be desirable for a king to excommunicated because then the king would lose his political rights. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

17 16 Section 1-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Recreate the diagram on page 383 of your textbook and use it to show examples of Church powers during the Middle Ages. Answers will vary.

18 End of Section 1

19 18 Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2 begins on page 384 of your textbook. Attempts at Reform The Church became rich during the Middle Ages as church members gave tithes, or offerings equal to 10 percent of their income, and rich nobles donated money to build large churches and gave land to monasteries.  When a bishop died, his office and lands were taken over by the local noble who often chose a close relative as the new bishop or sold the office.  During the late 900s and early 1000s, some western Europeans worked to return the Church to Christian ideals.

20 19 Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. To fight corruption in the Church, devout, or deeply religious, nobles founded new monasteries that strictly followed the Benedictine Rule.  Cluny was an important monastery in eastern France where monks led simple prayerful lives, recognized only the authority of the Pope, and said that the Church, not kings or nobles, should choose all Church leaders. The Monks of Cluny

21 20 Section 2-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Pope Gregory VII continued the reforms begun by the monks of Cluny.  Gregory had two goals as Pope: to rid the Church of control by kings and nobles, and to increase the Pope’s power over Church officials.  Gregory made many changes in the Church to achieve his goals. Pope Gregory VII

22 21 Section 2-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. During the early 1200s, preachers called friars, or monks who worked directly with people and did not isolate themselves, carried out Church reforms.  Two well-known orders, or groups of friars, were the Franciscans and Dominicans.  Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscan order in A Spanish monk named Dominic started the Dominican order in Friars

23 22 Section 2-Assessment 1 Section Assessment What reforms did Gregory VII introduce? He continued reforms started by the monks of Cluny, removed Church leaders who bought or sold Church offices, forbade bishops or priests to marry, and increased the power of the Pope. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

24 23 Section 2-Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) How did the Franciscans and Dominicans try to bring Christianity directly to the people. They lived in towns among the people and learned many languages so that they could preach everywhere. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

25 24 Section 2-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Drawing Conclusions Why do you think the monks of Cluny gained the people’s respect? They gained people’s respect because they led simple lives, spending much of their time in prayer. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

26 25 Section 2-Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Recreate the diagram on page 386 of your textbook, and use it to show the causes and effects of the rise of Church reforms in the 900s and 1000s. Causes: Some monks neglected their religious duties. Church offices were bought and sold. Some officials did not keep Church rules or bother with the needs of the poor. Effects: New monasteries and religious orders emerged. The power of kings to appoint Church officials decreased, while the power of the Pope increased. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

27 End of Section 2

28 27 Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3 begins on page 386 of your textbook. Learning During the late Middle Ages, the rise of governments brought more security, the economy grew stronger, and there was more time for learning.  Learning was in the hands of the Church.

29 28 Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The parish clergy set up schools in cathedrals, or churches headed by bishops.  The cathedral schools taught grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. Cathedral Schools

30 29 Section 3-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After a while, students complained that teachers held few classes and did not cover enough subjects, and teachers complained that untrained people were teaching. So they initiated changes by forming unions.  These unions became universities, or groups of teachers and students devoted to learning.  By the 1200s, universities, headed by church officials called chancellors, had spread all through Europe. Universities

31 30 Section 3-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Thomas Aquinas was a noted scholar of the Middle Ages who believed that both faith and reason were gifts of God.  Aquinas wrote a book called Summa Theologica, or A Summary of Religious Thought.  Aquinas’s teachings were later accepted and promoted by the Church. Thomas Aquinas

32 31 Section 3- Assessment 1 Why were cathedral schools started? They were started to prepare the sons of nobles for service in the Church. Section Assessment Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

33 32 Section 3- Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) In what ways were universities alike? A chancellor headed each, all had well-organized courses of study, all students had to past special tests, and lecturers had to be 21 years old and have studied 6 years. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

34 33 Section 3- Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment Why do you think that only specific subjects were taught at cathedral schools? Answers will vary. It is possible that these subjects were considered ones that would provide people with a balanced and well-rounded education. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

35 34 Section 3- Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Recreate the diagram on page 388 of your textbook, and use it to compare universities in the Middle Ages with universities today. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

36 End of Section 3

37 36 Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4 begins on page 388 of your textbook. The Crusades For hundreds of years, western European Christians visited shrines in Jerusalem.  When, in 1071, a people called Seljuq Turks conquered Jerusalem, taking control of the Christian shrines, traveling in Palestine became difficult for the Christians.  The Christians were shocked and angered by what was happening in the Holy Land.  The result was a series of holy wars called crusades, which lasted about 200 years.

38 37 Section 4-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Even after taking Palestine, Turkish armies continued to threaten the Byzantine Empire.  In 1095, Pope Urban II spoke before a large crowd in the town of Clermont in eastern France calling for action against the Turks.  His call to action promised crusaders would be free of debts and taxes and that God would forgive the sins of those who died in battle. A Call to War

39 38 Section 4-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. When Urban II called for a crusade, the Europeans responded eagerly and adopted the war cry “Deus vult,” which means, “It is the will of God.”  Urban II wanted the nobles to plan and lead the crusade. The peasants, however, grew impatient and formed their own armies.  In the spring of 1096, about 12,000 French peasants began the long journey to Palestine, and two other groups set out from Germany. The Peasants’ Crusade

40 39 Section 4-4 The Byzantine emperor, who wanted to rid his capital of the peasants, gave them supplies and sent them to fight the Turks in Asia Minor where they were almost completely wiped out by Turkish bowmen. The Peasants’ Crusade (cont.)

41 40 Section 4-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1097, the nobles set out on an expensive crusade.  About 30,000 crusaders arrived in Asia Minor, defeated the Turks, and moved south through the desert to Syria.  In 1099, the 12,000 surviving crusaders captured the Holy City of Jerusalem, killed Turks, Jews, and Christians alike, and looted. The Nobles’ Crusade

42 41 Section 4-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Many crusaders, who had lost much of their religious enthusiasm, returned home to western Europe, and some set up four feudal kingdoms called Outremer, or “the kingdom beyond the sea,” in the areas they won.  The crusaders took over the estates of rich Turkish and Arab Muslims and divided them among themselves and their best knights.  When the crusaders were not fighting Turks, they ran their estates, went hunting, and attended the local court. The Kingdom Beyond the Sea

43 42 Section 4-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1174, when Saladin, a Muslim military leader, became the ruler of Egypt, he united the Muslims throughout the Near East and started a war against western Crusaders in Palestine.  Saladin’s armies were well organized, devoted to Islam, and headed by honest and just leaders called emirs.  In 1187, Saladin’s armies took Jerusalem and refused to massacre the city’s Christians. Saladin and the Crusade of Kings

44 43 Section 4-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After Saladin’s victory, the Church urged another crusade, and western armies were led by three powerful rulers: King Richard I of England, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, and King Philip II Augustus of France.  Called the Crusade of Kings, it was a failure. Saladin and the Crusade of Kings (cont.)

45 44 Section 4-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1202, Pope Innocent III called for yet another crusade, and knights went by ship from the Italian port of Venice.  Rich merchants wanted Venice to replace Constantinople as the eastern Mediterranean trading center.  When the soldiers found they could not pay all they owed, they agreed to conquer the city of Zara for the Venetians and capture Constantinople, which was burned and looted. The Loss of an Ideal

46 45 Section 4-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The crusaders stayed in Constantinople and divided the city with the Venetians.  Several other crusades were fought during the 1200s, but the Europeans did not win any of them.  The saddest was the Children’s Crusade in which French children, led by a peasant boy named Stephen of Cloyes, set sail from France, never reached Palestine, and were sold into slavery. The Loss of an Ideal (cont.)

47 46 Section 4-11 In 1291, the Muslims won the Crusades by taking the city of Acre, the last Christian stronghold, and gained back all the land in Palestine that the crusaders had taken earlier. The Loss of an Ideal (cont.)

48 47 Section 4-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Crusades affected both the Near East and western Europe.  The Crusades helped to break down feudalism in western Europe as the desire for wealth, power, and land clouded the religious ideals of many western Europeans.  Contact with the cultured Byzantines and Muslims led western Europeans to again become interested in learning and to demand such luxuries as spices, sugar, lemons, rugs, tapestries, and richly woven cloth. Effects of the Crusades

49 48 Section 4- Assessment 1 Why were western Europeans of all classes of society eager to go on a crusade? They felt it was their duty as Christians to win back the Holy Land; nobles hoped to acquire more land and gain glory; and peasants wanted to escape hard work. Section Assessment Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

50 49 Section 4- Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) What effect did the Crusades have on trade? They led to the opening up of new trade routes and an increase in trade. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

51 50 Section 4- Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Understanding Cause and Effect What do you think was the most important effect of the Crusades on the entire civilized world (not just on western Europe)? Explain. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

52 51 Section 4- Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Recreate the diagram on page 396, and use it to support a generalization about the effect of the Crusades on feudalism. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

53 End of Section 4

54 53 Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary & Study Guide The Roman Catholic Church was the center of life in Europe during the Middle Ages.  Increased wealth led many members of the clergy to grow careless about their religious duties, sparking a spirit of reform.  During the Middle Ages, monks and friars worked to win the respect of the people.  In 1075, Pope Gregory VII issued a document placing the power of the Pope above all kings and feudal lords. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

55 54 Chapter Summary 2 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. By the 1200s, students and teachers at cathedral schools had helped form universities, which soon spread throughout Europe.  Scholars such as Thomas Aquinas tried to bring faith and reason together.  In 1071, the Seljuq Turks conquered the Holy Land and took control of the Christian shrines there.

56 55 Chapter Summary 3 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1095, Pope Urban II agreed to help the Byzantines against the Turks and called on the people of western Europe to join in a crusade.  The Nobles’ Crusade of 1097 succeeded in capturing Jerusalem, but the Christians could not hold on to the city.  Richard the Lionheart, who set out on a crusade with two other kings, could not defeat Saladin and signed a truce with him.

57 56 Chapter Summary 3 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1202, crusaders, with the help of the Venetians, burned and looted Constantinople. This event badly damaged the crusading ideal.  Even though the Muslims regained all of Palestine in 1291, the Crusades brought lasting changes to Europe, including the end of feudalism.

58 End of Chapter Summary

59 58 Chapter Assessment 1 Understanding the Main Idea What role did Church officials play in the political life of the Middle Ages? They served as advisers and kept records for illiterate kings. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

60 59 Chapter Assessment 2 Why did many monks grow careless about carrying out their religious duties? Many monks became careless because they became wealthy. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

61 60 Chapter Assessment 3 Why were universities started? Universities were started because students complained that teachers were poor and held few classes, and untrained people were teaching. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

62 61 Chapter Assessment 4 Why did Urban II encourage people to go on a crusade? He encouraged people to crusade to free Jerusalem from the Seljuq Turks, and to win a chance to regain control of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

63 62 Chapter Assessment 5 What effect did the climate in Palestine have on the crusaders? They were not accustomed to the heat and lack of water. Many died of thirst. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

64 63 Chapter Assessment 6 Understanding the Main Idea What happened during the Children’s Crusade? Many of the children were sold into enslavement, starved to death, or died from disease. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

65 64 Chapter Assessment 7 Why did the split in the Roman Catholic Church become permanent? It became permanent because the Byzantines were so angry at the actions of western Europeans in burning and looting Constantinople. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

66 65 Chapter Assessment 8 How did the Crusades affect the power of western Europe’s kings? They increased the kings’ authority. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

67 66 Chapter Assessment 9 What were the advantages and disadvantages of having Church leaders run the government during the Middle Ages? Answers will vary, but one advantage was that the Church was a unifying force. The disadvantage was that Church officials became wealthy and corrupt. Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

68 67 Chapter Assessment 10 What would have been enjoyable about being a student in a medieval university? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

69 68 Chapter Assessment 11 How would you have responded to Urban II’s call for a crusade? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

70 69 Chapter Assessment 12 How do you think crusaders felt about settling in Palestine? Explain your answer. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

71 70 Chapter Assessment 13 Movement Soldiers in the Fourth Crusade sailed from Venice to Constantinople. About how many miles long was their voyage? Was their voyage longer or shorter than it would have been if they had sailed to Jerusalem as planned? Their voyage was about 1,400 miles shorter. Geography in History Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

72 71 Chapter Assessment 14 You are a Monk of Cluny faced by an angry bishop who resents your activities. Explain your beliefs and convince the bishop to worship with you. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

73 End of Chapter Assessment

74 73 History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Human Heritage: A World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to

75 74 Global Chronology Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information A.D. Start of the Crusades 1071 A.D. Seljuq Turks conquer Jerusalem 1212 A.D. Children’s Crusade 1129 A.D. Inquisition begins 1291 A.D. Muslims win the Crusades

76 75 People in History 4.1 At age 15, Eleanor inherited Aquitaine, a region in southern France. As one of the largest land owners in Europe, she married a French king, Louis VII, and accompanied him on a crusade. She later married King Henry II of England and had nine children. One of them included Richard the Lionheart. While Richard headed off on a crusade, Eleanor ruled England in his absence. When Richard died, she helped put her son John on the throne. Few doubted Eleanor’s power when she died at age 82. Eleanor of Aquitaine c French Queen

77 76 Fun Facts 3.1 In Medieval Latin, the word universitas meant “corporation.” The earliest universities were given charters to do business by popes or emperors. Because teachers depended on their students’ fees, they had to attract enough students to earn a living. Universities

78 77 Women responded to the call to recapture Jerusalem. A Greek historian wrote of “women dressed as men, mounted on horses and armed with lance and battle-axe.” The Pope banned women from fighting in the Third Crusade ( ), a decision that the kings of Europe approved. Women continued to join the crusades, however, both as soldiers and as nurses. Fun Facts 4.1 Women in the Crusades

79 78 Map Skills 1.1 Determining Exact Location Most maps have grids, or patterns of horizontal and vertical lines that cross each other.  Generally, the horizontal lines are lines of latitude, and the vertical ones are lines of longitude.  Grids make it easier to determine the exact location of a place on Earth. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

80 79 Map Skills 1.2 To find a place exactly, it is necessary to find what lines of latitude and longitude cross at that place.  The point at which they cross is the exact location.  Exact location may be shown by a set of numbers that list latitude first and then longitude (30° N, 60° E).  Such sets are called coordinates. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide. Determining Exact Location

81 80 Locate the city of Marseilles on the southern coast of France.  The line of latitude that passes through the city is 43° N.  The line of longitude that passes through it is 5° E.  This means that the exact location of Marseilles is 43° N, 5° E. Map Skills 1.3 Look at the map of “The Crusades” on page 394 of your textbook.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide. Determining Exact Location

82 81 Map Skills 1.4 Continued on next slide. Study the map on page 394 of your textbook showing the Crusades. Then answer the questions that follow. Determining Exact Location

83 82 Map Skills 1.5 What city is located at 32° N, 35° E? Jerusalem Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continued on next slide. Determining Exact Location

84 83 Map Skills 1.6 What are the coordinates of Venice’s location? 45° N, 12° E Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Determining Exact Location

85 84 Technology Skills 1.1 Using the Internet Are you one of the many people worldwide who have learned–or plan to learn–how to surf the Net?  Using the Internet can help you to locate information on many subjects from many different sources. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

86 85 Technology Skills 1.2 Using the Internet The Internet is a global computer network that offers many features, including electronic mail ( ), magazine articles, and online shopping.  Before you can connect to the Internet, however, you must have three things: a computer, a modem (a device that lets your computer send and receive data over telephone lines), and a service provider. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

87 86 Technology Skills 1.3 Using the Internet A service provider is a company that, for a fee, gives you entry to the Internet.  Once you are connected, the easiest and fastest way to access sites and information is to use a “Web browser,” a program that lets you view and explore information on the World Wide Web. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

88 87 Technology Skills 1.4 Using the Internet The Web consists of many documents called “Web Pages,” each of which has its own address, or Uniform Resource Locator (URL). Many URLs start with the keystrokes  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide. This chapter talks about the series of Crusades that took place in the late Middle Ages. Surf the Internet to learn about these religious wars from the point of view of both the Christians and the Muslims.

89 88 Technology Skills 1.5 Using the Internet Continued on next slide. Follow the steps listed below to apply concepts for using the Internet for research.  1. Log on to the Internet and access one of the “search engines” provided by your web browser, such as Yahoo!, Lycos, or WebCrawler. (For information designed by or written for students you own age, check out this site:

90 89 3. Scroll down the list of Web pages that appears when the search is complete. Select a page to bring up, and read or print the page. Repeat the process until you have enough information to write an account of the Crusades as they might have been described by either a Christian or a Muslim. Technology Skills 1.6 Using the Internet 2. Type in your search words, such as Crusades, Children’s Crusade, Peasant’s Crusade, and so on. 

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